Disaster Management Research Interview Guide

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snubql19

Business Finance

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The assignment:

1. Explore your interpretations of the various forms of interview, and the possible application to the field of DMM, here. Collectively, conclude the best application for our purposes.

2. Display your Interview Guide (your crafted questions relating to your research question or hypothesis), Make sure to 'annotate' in your guide what specific information or data you are seeking! (in your threads)


Introduction:

Where to begin? Disasters are a social phenomenon , affecting society and its individuals. Investigating the needs and responses of the people to these stressors, as they perceive them, is a complex problem. Behavior analysis and observation can see the results of the affected persons's thought process, but can it necessarily explain those thoughts and motivations?

One method of 'getting inside someone's head' is to get them to reflect and attempt to explain their perceptions and logic, based on their beliefs. This is an incredibly important task. We do this through interviewing strategies.

This week, we will explore the many facets of interviewing, and begin to craft such a tool (interview guide) on our movement towards a trial study. The assignment requires you to think hard about who you would get data, and asks you to design your interview guide. A Pilot Interview should be the culmination of your preparation work this week.


Recommended Readings:

  1. Merriam & Tisdell Ch 5
  2. Tracy, S. J. (2012). Qualitative research methods: collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact. Ch 7 & 8

3. Brinkman (2014) Unstructured and Semi Structured Interviewing, Chapter 14: pg 280 (column 2 paragraph 4...) and pp 285-297. in Leavy, P. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Examples from other students are attached. You can use them as a guide to the assignment. And critique (positive and possible misunderstandings) them in separated files.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1. Each patient encounter in the acute care setting requires questions as part of the assessment process. Each phase of this assessment is comparable to the types of structures an interview can have. In the primary assessment, we are looking to establish we have an intact airway, breathing is not compromised, and there is no massive bleeding. This has similarities to the highly structured interview. The team leader needs a yes or no answer to the ABC’s. These yes or no answers will beget the next string of yes or no questions with little deviation with every patient encounter. The conclusion we need to reach rapidly is that there is no life threat. In the secondary assessment, we can shift our focus to the detailed exam questions. There is a litany of mnemonics to guide questions in order to ensure we don’t miss the needed data. The semistructured interview offers the same qualities as the order doesn’t matter so much and there is wiggle room for extraneous data. Anecdotally, if the person you are questioning feels like you are merely ticking off boxes, they become noticeably less present in the interview. The flexibility is needed to acknowledge to the person that they were heard. Among the healthcare providers I have found to be amazing people, they always end of the assessment by asking the patient what their thoughts are. In my opinion, this unstructured, informal format can be powerful as it shifts power to the patient, giving them the control to ask their own questions or thoughts about their health. It does have the occasional drawback of allowing too much emotional content which obscures the task at hand. 2. Research Topic: Managing waste in the post-disaster setting can use up to 25% of a disaster budget along with creating a setting that is opportune for public health hazards. In the waste management profession, there is the option of municipal composting which can be used to reduce overall volume, possibly mitigate heavy metal contaminants and result in a usable end product. Research Question: The application of composting techniques can reduce the financial and public health impacts of post-disaster waste materials. Research Philopshy Approach: Neo-positivist. I believe this is an endeavor to create good questions to reach a viable waste management solution. The neutral stance should strip away any good or bad connotations related to climate change solutions in order to avoid “green” bias from clouding decisions. Who Are We Asking?: The literature review has some repeat actors: Environmental Engineers, Waste Managers, Ecologists, Emergency Managers, and Agricultural Scientists. Some other more specific roles I would explore are microbiologists, materials engineers. The transport of these materials is the largest financial cost, to both day-to-day municipalities and post-disaster management. Knowing this, I would love the insight of waste collectors and anyone else with their hands in the muck. Interview Structure: Semi Structure interview as I know I want my end goal to involve a new approach to the efficient use of composting. This would give me the structure of the definite goal to work for. Conversely, I want the flexibility to pursue content I am currently unaware of. I will begin with the first draft of questions in hopes of finding the main parry of my questions. 1. What are issues, if any, that impact day to day waste management?1 2. How do we estimate the capacity of a system?2 3. How do we estimate the volume of waste we need to manage?2 4. Do “disasters” present to waste management differently? e.g. storms impact operations minimally where earthquakes stop operations altogether. 5. Can we mix human waste with other solid waste for composting?3,4 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. What are the main benefits of composting waste materials? What are the major obstacles to composting waste materials? If you were posed with the same research, who would you ask questions? What examples of successful large scale municipal composting are there? Are there negative impacts from composting we have to address? e.g. runoff contaminating nearby water How many people and organizations are involved in “normal” waste management operations?1 What legislation/regulations are there surrounding waste management? Who is the end authority on determining if an item is “waste”? Does the legislation/regulation change in a disaster declaration? Where do I get enough worms?5 Can I break the stream into an initial collection/first compost site and sort it out at a later date?6 (Probably for microbiologist) Have we found bacteria that digest oils and plastic? Can they be used in the compost pile setting? (Probably for entomologist/Oligochaeteologist) We have seen worms and black soldier flies used in composting, are there other insects that are ideal for our purpose?5 Are there public health concerns with composting done poorly or wrong? 1-Wilson, D. C., Rodic-Wiersma, L., Scheinberg, A., Velis, C. A., & Alabaster, G. (2012). Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities. Waste Management and Research, 30(3), 237-254. doi:10.1177/0734242X12437569 2- Cheng, C., Zhang, L. & Thompson, R.G.(2018) Disaster Waste Clean Up System Performance Subject To Time-Dependent Disaster Waste Accumulation Nat Hazards 91: 717. https://doiorg.ezproxy.philau.edu/10.1007/s11069-017-3151-5 3-Yvette M Piceno, Gabrielle Pecora-Black, Sasha Kramer, Monika Roy, Francine C Reid, Eric A Dubinsky, & Gary L Andersen. (2017). Bacterial community structure transformed after thermophilically composting human waste in haiti. PLoS One, 12(6), e0177626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0177626 4- Xu, W., Reuter, T., Inglis, G. D., Larney, F. J., Alexander, T. W., Guan, J., . . . McAllister, T. A. (2009). A biosecure composting system for disposal of cattle carcasses and manure following infectious disease outbreak. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38(2), 437-450. doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0168 5- He, X., Zhang, Y., Shen, M., Zeng, G., Zhou, M., & Li, M. (2016). Effect of vermicomposting on concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge with additive materials. Bioresource Technology, 218, 867-873. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.07.045 6- Hemidat, S., Jaar, M., Nassour, A., & Nelles, M. (2018). Monitoring of composting process parameters: A case study in jordan.Waste and Biomass Valorization, 9(12), 2257-2274. doi:10.1007/s12649-018-0197-x A research interview is defined as a “process in which a researcher and participant engage in a conversation focused on questions related to a research study” (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015, p. 108). The two most common forms of interviews are by a person-to-person encounter or by a group or collective formats (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015, p.108). There are different types of interviews: By structure: • Highly structured/Standardized • Semi-structured • Unstructured/Informal By Philosophical and Disciplinary Orientation: • Census taking • Surveying • Opinion Polling Focus Group Interviews (between 6-10 participants): • Interview of a topic with a group of people who have knowledge of the topic. Online Interviews: • Email, blogs, online discussion groups, skype, tweets, texts, and social media. • These could be synchronously or asynchronously. The type of interview to be used in DMM, as a social science, will depend on the research that will be conducted. It is important to remember that an interview is a conversation with a purpose (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015, p.108). For my research proposal this is what I have brainstorm until now: Research Question: • Are survival knowledge and local environment, factors that may influence distribution routes and drone payloads? Methods for collecting data: • Interviews with experienced individuals in UAVs technology and disaster management. • Survey to residents (still not decided if only to residents in rural areas) to obtain information on survival skills and local environment. First Draft Questions: 1. Which area in a disaster is more prone to limited access to water, rural or urban areas? 2. How much time can an individual survive without water? 3. Which are the natural resources that provide water? 4. What are the existing methods to purify water? 5. How much water do people tend to store prior to a disaster? 6. Which are the most common water contaminants when a disaster occurs? 7. What are the external factors to consider when consuming water from streams or other natural resources? 8. How do the government and other agencies distribute water to communities with no access in a disaster? 9. What are the limitations of water distribution? 10. What are the differences in uses of a helicopter and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for water distribution in a disaster for remote areas with no ground access? 11. When is appropriate to use drones for disaster relief supplies distribution? 12. Is it feasible to use a UAV for water distribution? 13. What types of payloads can a UAV uphold that could provide water relief in a disaster? 14. Should local authorities direct the logistics of UAVs usage in emergency supplies distribution? On the references, I include a document about interview strategies that I consider very helpful. Any comment will be greatly appreciated. References: Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Strategies for Qualitative Interviews. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sociology.fas.harvard.edu/files/sociology/files/interview_strategies.pdf
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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Running head: A CRITIQUE OF DAVID’S INTERVIEW STRUCTURE

A Critique of David’s Interview Structure
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course
Date

1

A CRITIQUE OF DAVID’S INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
Upon reading David’s focus of study, I like how he has organized his interview structure,
and he has also described his objective well thus making one understand the direction of his
research. The structured interview questions are also well put, and I like the fact that most of
them are open-ended since this will enable my colleague to gather as much information as
possible from the participants. However, what I do not understand is the research question since
it looks like a statement (Tracy, 2012). Possibly if the statement were phrased as a question, it
would be easy to understand. Additionally, I do not understand why my colleague has included
references for the interview questions.

2

A CRITIQUE OF DAVID’S INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
Reference

Tracy, S. J. (2012). Qualitative research methods: Collecting evidence, crafting analysis,
communicating impact. Ch 7 & 8

3


Running head: A CRITIQUE OF NELLY’S INTERVIEW STRUCTURE

A Critique of Nelly’s Interview Structure
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course
Date

1

A CRITIQUE OF NELLY’S INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
A Critique of Nelly’s Interview Structure
I have read Nelly's interview structure, and so far, I li...


Anonymous
Really useful study material!

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