Autry Harrison in Gang Leader for a Day essay

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800 words long

Read the instructions carefully and also use some of the information from the files "important1" and "important2" which were classroom exercises for this paper!

Some of the key topics of the paper are below, but make sure to read the INSTRUCTIONS file for more details.

1.Write about the social/sociological location of your assigned person in Gang Leader for a Day (GL) and use the book’s index to find them in GL

2.Explain your person sociologically. Write for someone who knows nothing about Sociology.

3.Include some of the following key lecture terms that have sociological meanings or explanations:• Socialization, agents of socialization, adult socialization, Goffman’s re-socialization. • Reference group, primary group, secondary group, organization • Status, ascribed status, achieved status, status inconsistency • Role, role conflict, role strain, gender role, role set • Master status, status symbols, status set • Theories of deviance; including strain theory, subcultural theory, conflict theory, labeling theory

Social Structure Core Concepts 1 Social Structure • patterned relationships among statuses • a set of relatively stable roles • a particular constellation (pattern) of statuses and roles. • where a person is in the social structure (a person’s social location) influences his/her behavior and is a socialization mechanism 2 Social location • The social characteristics (statuses and roles) that situate a person in a particular place in a social structure such as society or within a given social institution (e.g., family, education system, economy, military, religion). • Examples: age, race, ethnicity, gender, education type and level, occupation, wealth, income, sexual orientation, disability status, religion, geographic location, nationality, citizenship, and others that are context-specific. 3 Status (a.k.a. social status): Position a person occupies in a social structure. A position in society that comes with a set of expectations. That set of expectations is called role.  Ascribed: status one cannot escape, often born with it  Achieved: people have to do things that make the status happen…not always intended and not always positive 4 Status, cont. • Status inconsistency: a person achieves a status that’s inconsistent with their ascribed status—nontraditional • Master status: what defines a person’s status according to their group or society • Status Symbols: Clues to a person’s status • Status set: All statuses a person has simultaneously 5 Roles • Role: the expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status • Role strain: when the demands of role(s) attached to a single status are too much for the person • Role conflict: conflicting demands and expectations of multiple roles attached to multiple statuses • Role set: the set of multiple roles one has in their various statuses. Similar to status set… • Role theory (Merton) says that roles shape our behavior because most people try to live up to the expectations of their roles 6 Gender Roles • set of behavioral norms associated primarily with males or females in a given social group or system • Gender theorists argue that gender roles can be more powerful and influential than other roles that people fill. Why? 7 Groups and Social Aggregates • Group: individuals who share some sense of identity or common goals, and who interact within a specific social structure—membership is involved • Primary groups: where people learn rules of social life and cooperation (Cooley) • Secondary groups: status is more important than personal characteristics. What status you are is more important than who you are inside (Cooley) • Social aggregate: people who happen to be in the same place at the same time 8 Nuclear Family Structure • At its most-basic, consists of husband (dad), wife (mom), and kid(s). • Each pair has relatively stronger or weaker ties Based on YMAY Figure 5.2 Group size=4 10 Group Size and Complexity As group size increases, the number of possible relationships increase — in a group of three, three possible relationships exist, in a group of four, six possible relationships exist, and in a group of six, 15 possible relationships exist. Triad Dyad YMAY Figure 5.2: Relationship Between Group Size and Complexity For you math folks, the formula is ½(n)(n-1) OR (n2-n)/2 These both calculate the same thing… This is a non-linear, recursive, J-curve type of growth. It’s a form of exponential growth—also quadratic. 11 Social and Human Capital Social capital refers to access to people who can help us get resources (e.g., jobs, favors, information) Human capital refers to resources of humans, both individually and in the aggregate individual level: things like cultural competency, education level, occupation in the aggregate: things like literacy rates, technology, types of occupations and industries 12 Network Structure & Weak Ties • Notice that there are numerous sets of dyads… • Also illustrates “degrees of separation” concept • Ironically, weak ties often offer the most opportunity…why? YMAY Figure 5.4 The Strength of Weak Ties 13 Network Analysis: HS Sex YMAY Figure 5.5 Analyses of High-School Sexual Relationships Again, notice the sets of dyads…although Lisa Wade didn’t do a network analysis in AH, she easily could have… Another Type of Group • Formal organization—type of secondary group that has charters, rules, a constitution, etc… Bureaucracy is a type of formal organization • Bureaucracy, and “iron cage” (Weber): people become so trapped in following the procedures of the bureaucracy that they forget why they are working so hard. • Goal displacement: the process becomes more important than the outcome, and is often seen in bureaucratic structures. 15
SOCIALIZATION & CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE 1 WHAT IS SOCIALIZATION?   Process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society. Process by which people acquire cultural competency and through which society perpetuates existing social structures. 2 LIMITS OF SOCIALIZATION  However, socialization cannot explain everything about a person’s development and personality.  Biology is also a very important component.  It is a combination of biology and social interactions that makes us who we are. 3 SOCIAL CREATURES  all mammals are social creatures. Meerkat young learn by watching and mimicking adult behavior. Adult meerkats also actively teach their pups… 4 SOCIAL CREATURES  So do humans… 5 SOCIALIZATION  Social self: The general way that people live their lives - values, beliefs, ideas, decision strategies. Looks a lot like culture, doesn’t it? (While the self is the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person, the social self is in the social context, and is greatly influenced by external factors.) What happens if we don’t develop a social self? NEW 1/20/18 FULL LENGTH http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3i5x05  So, how do we develop the social self?  Sociological theories about how the social self is formed. 6 CHARLES HORTON COOLEY  1. 2. 3. “looking-glass self” has 3 steps or phases: We imagine how we look to the other The other’s reaction to us is imagined by us We have a feeling about that reaction (pride, shame, etc.) and we most-often act in a way that gets positive reaction that makes us feel good. So essentially, we are seeing ourselves reflected through others’ eyes—somewhat like a mirror… 7 GEORGE HERBERT MEAD     I and Me: another sociological theory about how the first part of the social self is formed. The “I” is your personal reactions (impulses) in a given situation (what you’d like to do). The “me” puts yourself in someone else’s shoes and looks at yourself (what you “should” do) from another’s POV. This is similar to Cooley’s conceptualization. 8 GEORGE HERBERT MEAD  Play and games is simple, imitative behavior in which children begin to appreciate the perspectives of others and see themselves as the object of others’ attention and judgments.  Play BABIES: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=_JmA2ClUvUY BABY 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=zALqMWimBbM 3-yr old boy Linda, Linda http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=zeCZy_ChHFc  Games have rules about roles and the behavior associated with the roles. Playing dress-up commercial https://youtu.be/-SvHScHyp5o Little League https://youtu.be/DSKyGzQBhm0 9 SOCIALIZATION, CONT.  Role taking Seeing how things look from another’s POV when in that role  More developed role-taking leads to the idea of the generalized other   Reference group  A group of significant others that forms a “frame of reference” for behavior—can be a group to which the person belongs or aspires. What if your reference group is a sub-culture or counter-culture? 10 GEORGE HERBERT MEAD  Generalized  the other whole community—how would “they” see it? What would “they” think of my behavior? “They” is the generalized other. Someone with a well-developed sense of the generalized other will probably self-regulate according to norms of the group, community, or society. 11 GEORGE HERBERT MEAD  Mead’s four stages of social development …toward a fully-developed social self (strong sense of generalized other) Figure 4.1 in YMAY 12 SOCIALIZATION, CONT.  Agents of socialization are mechanisms or people that deliver socialization (they teach us)   Family, schools, peers, workplace, mass media, church, social clubs, and total institutions are some of them Anticipatory socialization  Learning about or “playing at” a future role—especially a work role 13 SOCIALIZATION: RITES OF PASSAGE  Rites of passage  Milestone markers. They mark important passages from status to status during the life course  We learn new aspects of culture (such as symbols, norms, etc.) with each new status 14 RE-SOCIALIZATION (ERVING GOFFMAN) A change in values, beliefs, or norms through an intense social process (learning new norms in a new setting is not necessarily re-socialization in Goffman’s concept).  Socialization is a life-long process, but Goffman’s re-socialization has a specific and limited meaning.  It does NOT happen in all rites of passage. 15 RE-SOCIALIZATION: TOTAL INSTITUTIONS  Institution (can be an organization, not necessarily an entire social institution) in which socialization and roles serve solely the needs of the organization FtBenning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8MHAQRvEXs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUc62jD-G0o&feature=youtu.be 16 RE-SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES Completely replace old self w/new self in keeping with the needs of the total institution. This is done through:  Degradation ceremonies: part of resocialization meant to take away the individual’s self before replacing with a new one FMJ CLIP https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUc62jD-G0o&feature=youtu.be  Depersonalization: individualism taken away in preparation for re-socialization. People no longer have individual names, possessions, etc. It’s part of degradation. 17 THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY  Social construction  People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions.  It’s an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions. 18 THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY   Symbolic interactionism is a micro-level theory based on the idea that people act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions. Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical theory views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets. He said that we practice “impression management” in social settings and we are aware of our performance. 19 THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY  Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order. Ethnomethodology is used in Gang Leader for a Day, and No Apparent Distress; and is also employed in American Hookup although AH is not participant observation. 20 THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY  Harold Garfinkel developed a method for studying social interactions, called breaching experiments, which involved having collaborators exhibit “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors in social interactions in order to see U.S. how people would react. India Elevator norm-breaching 21
L;//L,,//9 TopicA� \>irvcuc:v1 Twenty Statement Exercise (TSE) socio 120 Date There are twenty numbered blanks in Column 1 below. Please write twenty answers to the simple question "Who are they?" in these blanks. Just give twenty different answers to this question; listing characteristics of the person based on what you know about them from the reading. Write your answers in the order that they occur to you. Don't worry about logic or "importance." Instructions for Columns 2 and 3 will b� given in class. This exercise is meant to help you frame their so�ial/socjological location.. , Social structure concept/ � goes with � 0 t;{ I N5cu V ,, �4I +fl\l _ (_ {[, X) r f\.{) lu i,'\, Cc L- \ ) C-DL'?--. ,e Vl-1£. Notes Type +{'!.,l/} · l�. �--- 11. --tCll\ 12. \__", v. 13. Names in group: 1. 3. -Ji:uS 1S CL r&/ � ',t; 7J?rf- Adapted from Eleen A. Baumann, Rictia d G. Mitchell, Jr., and Caroline Hodges Persell. 1989. Encountering Society: Student Resource Manual to accompany Persell, Understanding Society, Third Edition. New York: Harper & Row. Exercise 5, "Twenty Statement Test," p. 305.
DVC Introduction to Sociology, SOCIO 120, Section 8588 (Spring 2019) Homework Assignment #2, Due 2/26/2019 Closes at 6:30:00 pm Canvas HW-2 inbox Instructor: ANNE DANENBERG 500 word minimum of your own words (50 points) Don’t forget your word-count !! Email: adanenberg@dvc.edu Or use Canvas message feature Homework Assignment 2 Write about the social/sociological location of your assigned person in Gang Leader for a Day (GL) and use the book’s index to find them in GL: Use concepts from our Unit 2 lectures and Modules 4, 5, and 6; and the answers from classroom exercises in Unit 2 handouts on Canvas, along with a sociological approach to help you think about how to answer the following questions in a few paragraphs. Who would a sociologist say your assigned GL character is? What is their sociological “place” in the world? Almost everyone is in some sort of social structure. Where is that person located in a social structure? Tell me a story about their “social location” using sociological concepts. What social factors have impacted their life? How might they be different from the social factors impacting their parents or grandparents? Or other types of people? How would factors be different if that person had grown up in another country or another time period? Like HW-1, this assignment is not so much about the person as a topic as it is about what Sociology would say about their life and the impact of sociological factors on their life and choices (behavior)… Use lecture material and one of the textbooks as sociological sources and GL for supporting examples—and cite them. Make sure you address the questions in this paragraph. Do not simply describe the character and their experiences in GL (that is not the assignment). Explain your person sociologically. Write for someone who knows nothing about Sociology. Demonstrate “fluency” in the language of sociology. Focus on concepts related to our units on socialization, social structure, and deviance. Make links between our course concepts and your selected character’s life. Use terms from the course in your explanation, and demonstrate that you are using them correctly by defining or explaining them. Don’t assume the reader knows what the terms mean (I do, but I need to know that you do, too…). Your explanation should show an understanding of “who and where they are” according to Sociology and should use sociological terms correctly. These are keys to successful completion of this assignment. You can also look at the exemplars posted on Canvas to see some good and excellent responses to similar assignments. For other assignment basics, see General Instructions for Writing Assignments on the last page of the course syllabus and posted on Canvas. Use lecture, GL, and the textbooks. NO EXTERNAL SOURCES. Include some of the following key lecture terms that have sociological meanings or explanations: • Socialization, agents of socialization, adult socialization, Goffman’s re-socialization. • Reference group, primary group, secondary group, organization • Status, ascribed status, achieved status, status inconsistency • Role, role conflict, role strain, gender role, role set • Master status, status symbols, status set • Theories of deviance; including strain theory, subcultural theory, conflict theory, labeling theory Your assignment needs to be saved as a Windows or plain text format (you can use pretty much any word processing program but .doc or .docx preferred). NO file, gdoc, Mac pages file, or picture. Submit it in the HW 2 assignment in Canvas. It’s due before 6:30:00 pm on Tuesday 2/26/2019, when the assignment closes. If late, use the HW-2 late assignment for reduced points (5-point penalty) before 6:30:00pm on 2/28/2019. NO EXTENSION past the late deadline. DVC SOCIO-120-8588, Homework Assignment 2, S19 DVC Introduction to Sociology, SOCIO 120, Section 8588 (Spring 2019) Homework Assignment #2, Due 2/26/2019 Closes at 6:30:00 pm Canvas HW-2 inbox Instructor: ANNE DANENBERG 500 word minimum of your own words (50 points) Don’t forget your word-count !! Email: adanenberg@dvc.edu Or use Canvas message feature HW-2 Focus Questions The following additional prompts for HW-2 are designed to help you focus your response to the HW-2 assignment. You do not have to use them, and if you choose to use them, you do not have to respond to every prompt. There are multiple, valid ways to approach HW-2, but if your HW-1 score was low, you should use these questions to help you think about a person’s social/sociological location. However, you must answer the questions posed in the assignment whether you use these prompts or not… 1. Identify and describe the statuses for this person, including the type of status (ascribed, achieved, status inconsistency, master status, etc). Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 2. Identify and describe the role(s) accompanying each status for this person, including the specific expectations for behavior. Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 3. Identify and describe any role conflict this person might have, including the specific expectations for behavior that conflict with each other. Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 4. Identify and describe any role strain this person might have, including specific expectations for behavior that would cause the person to be overwhelmed. Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 5. Identify and describe the type(s) of group(s) to which this person belongs. Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 6. Identify and describe a social structure this person is part of, including where the person is in the structure (i.e., at or near the top, in the middle, at or near the bottom, at the same level as others). What sociological factors place that person where they are? Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. 7. Identify and describe sociologically any deviant behavior this person may practice. What sociological theory could be applied to explain the person’s behavior. Define your sociological concepts/terms. Explain why you think your answers are appropriate or correct for this person. DVC SOCIO-120-8588, Homework Assignment 2, S19

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