The Gold Rush Discussion Question

Anonymous
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Question Description

Hi, I am going to attach 3 files and give you two links. The three attachments are: The lecture notes, lecture slides, and the checklist to go through in order to properly do this assignment. Then I will provide you with two links. The first link is a song by bob Marley around 4 minutes and the second link is an article. Please make sure you read all three attachments as well as the link and listen to the song before doing this assignment. I understand it would literally be an hour of work to complete but that is why I am paying you for an hour of work. So please take this assignment seriously and do not turn in any botched up writing or poorly written work. This is for a university where they take english writing skills very seriously. So please make sure you can properly write an essay and article your argument before you turn in the assignment. When answering the questions please make sure you answer each and everyone of the questions very carefully. I do not want a lot of writing that doesn't properly answer the questions. If you write a lot but do not answer the questions properly or you did not read all of the required readings so you cannot answer the question properly then I will request a refund. Also if you turn in the assignment and it is poorly written (your sentences don't flow properly or you have bad grammar) then I will issue a refund. So please take this seriously. Thank you.


The Prompt is


For this week's discussion blog, based on this week's lesson, please answer the following questions:

1) In your own words, provide an overview of what was occurring in the U.S. during the Gold Rush, Civil War, and after the Civil War.

2) How does this particular era connect to this week's key term "Manifest Destiny"?

3) Next, please discuss/analyze the significance of Sand Creek Massacre according to the Smithsonian article.

4) What was the US military's reason for killing the plains buffalo, and what seems to be the connection to Bob Marley's song? This is open to your own interpretation, so please be thorough but feel free to get creative!

5) It is also important to note that this time period was also marked be much resistance to Manifest Destiny and westward expansion. So lastly, please independently research one of the following Indigenous resisters/leaders from this era: Cochise, Black Kettle, Geronimo, Crazy Horse, or Sitting Bull (or if you come across any others from this time period, you are welcome to research him/her instead!) Please explain who you chose to research, how s/he connects to this week's material, and why s/he is important to learn about. Don't forget to include a link to the article/video you used to find information about this person and his/her resistance.

Don't forget to reach the full 300word minimum requirement!



The link for the article is:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/horrific-sa...



Week 5/Module 5: Student Checklist * Remember, you'll have from Monday, February 18 through Monday, February 25 at 11:59 pm to complete everything on the checklist for Module 5. 1. Welcome back, everyone! I hope your week is off to a great start! For this week’s Module 5, let's begin by reading/listening to the Week 5 PowerPoint Lecture. Remember that lecture notes are also provided. The lecture will be building off of the history we’ve been learning in Modules 3 and 4 in particular. Our Week 5 PowerPoint starts out a new important key term, "Manifest Destiny," which we'll need to keep in mind throughout the lecture and this week's Module materials. As you read/listen, please be sure to take careful notes and be thinking about how Manifest Destiny connects to the events unfolding in the US from the mid to late 1800s, from the Gold Rush and Westward Expansion, to the Civil War, and and post-Civil War "Indian Wars." 2. Next, please read the required Smithsonian article with more information about the Sand Creek Massacre. This article provides more details about what was happening during after the Gold Rush during the Civil War era, particularly with the genocidal Indian Wars in the name of Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny. While you're reading, again, be sure to take note of your thoughts/reactions, and be thinking about connections to this week's PowerPoint lecture. 3. After, please listen to/read the lyrics of Bob Marley's song, "Buffalo Soldier." This song is one of my favorites because I love Bob Marley and his feel-good musical style, but if you pay close attention to his lyrics, the message is much deeper and even painful. Of course, enjoy the song, but also be thinking about interpreting the connection to this week's discussion of "Buffalo Soldiers" and through the lens of post-Civil War genocidal armies in the West. 4. Lastly, be sure to complete Blog #3 in Module 5. You can either access our Discussion Blog #3 by clicking on the link provided within the Module 5 Folder, OR by clicking on the "Discussion" link on the left-hand side of the screen on our Blackboard page. The prompt and thorough directions are posted underneath the Blog #3 link within our Module 5 Folder. Please remember to post one 300 word minimum response (total, not for each question in the prompt), and then post another 150 word minimum response to one peer. As always, if you have any questions, please feel free to email me at any time! Have a wonderful week!
AMIND 141: Week 5 Lecture Notes Slide 1: Welcome back! This week we’ll be building off of last week’s lesson on boarding schools, forced assimilation, and removal by discussing “Indian Country” which will focus on the key term “Manifest Destiny” and the effects of US Expansion in the mid-1800s. Slide 2: First, let’s discuss this week’s key term manifest destiny, which is the 19th century belief that American settlers were destined, with the God-given right, to expand settlements from coast-to-coast of North America in order for the United States to reach its full potential. This concept is often connected with American Exceptionalism, the idea that Americans were doing what was right for the greater good of the country. As we continue on in this week’s lecture, be thinking about how this term connects to the events unfolding in the expansion of the United States. Slide 3: To begin thinking about Manifest Destiny and connect to last week’s lesson, we will go back in time a few years to discuss the California Gold Rush and how California achieved statehood. The Gold Rush lasted from about 1848-1855 and was sparked by gold nuggets found in Sacramento Valley at Sutter’s Mill in early 1848, just days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed ending the Mexican-American War. News of gold spread all over the world and led thousands of gold-hungry settlers to California travelling overland or by sea (through Panama or around Cape Horn.) Here we have two pictures of advertisements from the time period encouraging settlers to come to California for gold. Slide 4: The population of settlers in California grew exponentially – from 800 in 1848 to around 100,000 a year later in 1849. This tremendous growth sped up the process of California achieving statehood by 1850. As you can imagine, this drastic increase in settler population and competition for resources had devastating effects on California Natives. The US occupation and settlement ultimately exterminated more than 100,000 California Native people over gold by 1870. Slide 5: Five years after the ending of the Gold Rush in the West, the Civil War occurred in the East. The Civil War happened from 1860-1865, and President Lincoln was inaugurated in 1861 (only 2 months after the South ceded from the Union.) Many argue that the South’s secession and Civil War was based on “states’ rights, not slavery.” However, every settler in the southern states aspired to own land and slaves or more land and slaves because wealth and status depended on property ownership. Most nonslave-owning settlers actually supported and fought for confederacy. Slide 6: Lincoln’s campaign for presidency appealed to vote of land-poor settlers who wanted the government to “open” up Indigenous lands west of the Mississippi for settlement, or in other words, take over Indigenous lands. These “free-soilers” wanted cheap land that was free of slavery. During this time period, new gold rushes across the country brought waves of settlers to squat/attempt to take over more and more Indigenous lands. Because of this, some Indigenous people preferred a Confederate victory in the Civil War, in hopes of dividing or weakening the United States. Slide 7: Lincoln’s free-soiling resulted in Minnesota becoming a non-slavery state for “free-soilers” in 1859, which led to the Dakota Sioux reaching verge of starvation by 1862 due to competition for resources. When the Dakota Sioux mounted an uprising to drive out settlers, the Union Army troops crushed the revolt, slaughtered Dakota civilians, and rounded up several hundred men. Three hundred prisoners were sentenced to death, but under Lincoln’s orders to reduce the numbers, 38 were selected at random to die in the largest mass hanging in US history. The revered Dakota leader, Little Crow, was not among those hanged, but he was assassinated the following summer along with his son by a settler- farmer who collected a $500 bounty for him. This instance is an example of heightening “settler-lawand-order” and anti-Indian hysteria. Slide 8: As mentioned in last week’s lesson, forced removal during Jackson’s administration had relocated the “5 Civilized Tribes” to Oklahoma. After their forced removal and the Trail of Tears, Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, and Chickasaws had rebuilt their towns, farms, ranches, institutions, newspapers, schools, and orphanages. They were resilient and flourishing. A tiny group of elite in each nation actually owned slaves and held private estates, but most continued collective agrarian practices. However, all 5 Civilized Tribes signed treaties with the Confederacy. Slide 9: Soon a conflict emerged between “mixed bloods” and “full bloods.” The wealthy, assimilated, slave-owning minority who dominated politics favored Confederacy, and the non-slave owning poor and traditional majority wanted to stay out of the Anglo-American war. John Ross, the Cherokee chief at the time, first called for neutrality, but later agreed to negotiate a treaty with the Confederacy. Nearly 7,000 men of the 5 nations went to battle for the Confederacy. During the war, however, many Indigenous soldiers went to the Union forces with African Americans who fled to freedom. Slide 10: There were also cases of resistance against the Confederacy. A few months after the war broke out, 10,000 men in Indian Territory (volunteers, African Americans who freed themselves, and some Anglo-Americans) engaged in guerilla warfare against the Confederate army. They fought from Oklahoma to Kansas, where many joined unofficial Union units. This multiethnic battle force and selfliberation by African Americans (happening all over the South) led to Lincoln’s eventual 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, which allowed freed Africans to serve in combat. Slide 11: Genocidal armies emerged in the West as Lincoln called for volunteer fighters in the West to help fight the Confederate army and the settlers responded. With very few Confederates to fight in the west, the volunteers fought Indigenous people instead. Here are two pictures of different advertisements for volunteer fighters. This generated and perpetuated anti-Indian hysteria and violence. Land speculators west of the Mississippi sought statehood for occupied former-Mexican territories, and there was an eagerness to undertake ethnic cleansing of Indigenous residents to achieve necessary population balance in order to attain statehood. The Lincoln administration did little to prevent genocidal actions by territorial authorities because of preoccupation with the Civil War in the East. Yet the emerging “settler-law-and-order” during the Civil War began to set a pattern for postwar genocide. Slide 12: While preoccupied with the Civil War, Lincoln didn’t forget his free-soilers. In 1862, several Acts were passed to encourage Westward Expansion through major land grabs from Indigenous residents. The US government broke multiple treaties with land grabs in order to achieve statehood that had been delayed in Colorado, North and South Dakotas, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico , and Arizona. The colonization plan for Westward expansion was carried out over the next 30 years. Slide 13: After the Civil War and the Land Grabs of 1862 came a period of rapid industrialization. Instead of land granted to single-family homesteaders, much of the land was passed to large operators or land speculators. Because of this, industrialization quickened. Between 1863-1864, federal banking acts led to national currency being established. Land became even more of a commodity, and “real estate” remained the basis of the US economy. Rapid industrialization and the post-Civil War call for unity within the union also propelled rapid “Americanization,” which connects to last week’s discussion on boarding schools and assimilation. More Indigenous territories were carved out as federal land grants to railroad barons were not limited to the width of the railroad tracks – the land grants formed a checkerboard of square-mile sections stretching for miles on both sides. By 1871, the Indian Appropriation Act declared the “no Indian nation or tribe” would be “recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the US may contract by treaty.” Slide 14: The wars that were happening in the West during the Civil War did not end when the Civil War ended. In fact, they got worse as more killing technology , weapons, and seasoned soldiers were added, and these wars carried on to the end of the century. Many demobilized officers and soldiers without jobs after the Civil War ended up joining the “army of the West.” Prominent Civil War generals led the “army of the West,” including Generals Philip Sheridan (the man whom was quoted in last week’s lecture on Boarding schools as saying “the only good Indian is a dead Indian), and George Armstrong Custer. Slide 15: One of the most infamous incidences involving militias was the Sand Creek Massacre, which occurred at dawn in November 1864, on Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado territory. Over 700 1st and 3rd Calvary and other troops slaughtered over 150 displaced and captive Cheyenne and Arapaho men, women, and children who were under the leadership of the great peace keeper, Black Kettle. They had been camping under a truce flag and had federal permission to hunt buffalo in order to feed themselves. In early 1865, the Colorado territorial governor informed them that they could no longer leave their reservation to hunt. Despite their compliance with this order, John Chivington led 700 Colorado Volunteers to attack Cheyenne and Arapaho people without warning. Slide 16: A couple years prior to the Sand Creek Massacre, US Army colonel James Carleton formed the Volunteer Army of the Pacific in 1861, based in California. In Nevada and Utah, colonel Patrick Connor commanded a militia of about 1,000 California volunteers who had spend the Civil War years massacring hundreds of unarmed Shoshone, Bannock, and Ute people. Carleton led another contingent of militias in Arizona to suppress the Apaches who were resisting colonization under their great leader, Cochise. Slide 17: Following his campaign against the Apaches, Carleton was promoted to brigadier general and place in command of the Department of New Mexico. He brought in seasoned Colorado volunteers to attack Navajos and declared total war. Carleton also brought in the infamous Indian killer Kit Carson and enlisted him as principal commander. Carleton’s genocidal army had unlimited authority in the West, and the government’s preoccupation with the Civil War allowed Carleton to engage in a series of searchand-destroy missions against Navajos. Slide 18: Carleton’s war against Navajos culminated in 1864 in a 300 mile forced march of 8,000 Navajo civilians to a military concentration camp at Bosque Redondo in the southeastern New Mexico desert. This forced removal is recalled in Navajo oral history as the “Long Walk,” and one quarter of the incarcerated died of starvation. Navajos weren’t released and allowed to return home until 4 years later, in 1868, and their permission to return home was not based on the deadly conditions in which they had been living. Instead, it was because Congress had determined the camp to be too expensive to maintain. By 1865, Carleton was appointed as major general in the US army for his “noble deeds” with the Navajo. Because of this promotion, Carleton now led the Fourth Cavalry against Plains Indians. Slide 19: Genocidal campaigns against Indigenous civilians continued through President Grant administration 1869-1877. After Civil War, many freed black troops were sent out West, the government’s way of getting rid of “Black and Indian problem.” To gain control of Plains Indians’ lands, US policy direct the army to destroy their basic economic base, the buffalo. During this time period, buffalos were killed nearly to extinction – only a few hundred were left by the 1880s. The army in charge of killing buffalo were often referred to as “Buffalo Soldiers,” as mentioned in Bob Marley’s song, which we’ll be listening to and analyzing this week. This concludes this week’s lecture, and we’ll continue building off of this material next week.
AMIND 141: Week 5 Key Term: Manifest Destiny  “Manifest Destiny”is the 19th century belief that American settlers were destined, with the God-given right, to expand settlements from coast-to-coast of North America – connected to American Exceptionalism Gold Rush  1848-1855  Sparked by gold nuggets found in Sacramento Valley at Sutter’s Mill in early 1848, just days after Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed ending MexicanAmerican War  News of gold discovery spread, leading to thousands of wouldbe gold miners travelling overland across mountains or by sea (through Panama or around Cape Horn) Gold Hungry Settlers  Settler population went from 800 in 1848 to estimated     100,000 in 1849 Sped up process of CA achieving statehood Gold seekers from all over the world Devastating effects on California Native people: torture, rape, starvation, and disease in sought-after goldfields while wiping out food sources and natural resources US occupation and settlement exterminated more than 100,000 California Native people by 1870 Civil War and Lincoln’s Presidency  Civil War 1860-1865  Military roots to American institutional     development runs deep President Lincoln inaugurated 1861 – 2 months after South ceded from Union Many argue that South’s secession and Civil War based on “states’ rights” not slavery – but every settler in southern states aspired to own land+slaves or more land+slaves Wealth and status depended on property owned Most non-slave-owning settlers supported and fought for confederacy Lincoln’s Free-Soilers  Lincoln’s campaign for presidency appealed to vote of land-poor settlers who wanted government to “open” Indigenous lands west of Mississippi for settlement  “Free-soilers” wanted cheap land free of slavery  New gold rushes brought waves of settlers to squat on more Indigenous lands  Some Indigenous people preferred Confederate victory (in hopes of dividing/weakening U.S.) Results of Lincoln’s Free-Soiling  Minnesota became a non-slavery state for “free     soilers” in 1859 Led to Dakota Sioux on verge of starvation by 1862 When Dakota Sioux mounted an uprising to drive out settlers, Union Army troops crushed revolt, slaughtered Dakota civilians, and rounded up several hundred men 300 prisoners were sentenced to death, but under Lincoln’s orders to reduce numbers, 38 were selected at random to die in the largest mass hanging in US history The revered Dakota leader, Little Crow, was not among those hanged, but was assassinated the following summer with his son by a settler-farmer who collected a $500 bounty Heightening “settler law and order” and antiIndian hysteria Civil War and Indian Territory  5 Civilized Tribes relocated to Oklahoma during Jackson administration: Cherokees, Muskogee/Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws  After forced removal and Trail of Tears, rebuilt their towns, farms, ranches, institutions, newspapers, schools, and orphanages  Tiny group of elite in each nation owned slaves and private estates, but most continued collective agrarian practices  All 5 Civilized Tribes signed treaties with Confederacy Civil War & Indian Territory Continued  Conflict between “mixed bloods” and “full bloods” emerged: Wealthy, assimilated, slave-owning minority who dominated politics favored Confederacy and Non-slaveowning poor and traditional majority wanted to stay out of Anglo-American war  John Ross, Cherokee chief, first called for neutrality, but later agreed to negotiate treaty with Confederacy  Nearly 7000 men of the 5 nations went to battle for the Confederacy  During war, however, many Indigenous soldiers went over to the Union forces with enslaved African Americans who fled to freedom Resistance Against Confederacy  A few months after war broke out, 10,000 men in Indian Territory (volunteers, African Americans who freed themselves, and some Anglo-Americans) engaged in guerilla warfare against Confederate army  Fought from Oklahoma to Kansas, where many joined unofficial Union units  Multiethnic battle force and self-liberation by African Americans (happening all over the South) led to Lincoln’s eventual 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, which allowed freed Africans to serve in combat Emerging Genocidal Armies in the West  To get professional soldiers in the east to help fight       Confederate army, Lincoln called for volunteer fighters in the West – settlers responded With few Confederates to fight, the volunteers fought Indigenous people instead Land speculators in trans-Mississippi West sought statehood for occupied former Mexican territories Generated strong anti-Indian hysteria and violence Eagerness to undertake ethnic cleansing of Indigenous residents to achieve necessary population balance in order to attain statehood Lincoln administration did little to prevent genocidal actions by territorial authorities because of preoccupation with Civil War in East Settler “law and order” set pattern for postwar genocide Colonial Policies and Land Grabs of 1862  Throughout Civil War, Lincoln didn’t forget his “free-soilers”  Homestead Act of 1862 – encouraged western migration by providing settlers with 160 acres of “public” land; in exchange, settlers paid small filing fee and agreed to live on land for at least 5 years to establish ownership  Morrill Act 1862 – transferred large tracts of Indigenous lands to states to establish land grant universities specializing in agriculture and mechanic arts  The Pacific Railroad Act 1862 – provided private companies with nearly 200 million acres of Indigenous lands  Homestead Act 1862 – 1.5 million homesteads were granted to settlers west of the Mississippi, nearly 300 million acres taken from Indigenous collective estates and privatized for market  US government broke multiple treaties with land grabs in order to achieve statehood that had been delayed in Colorado, N. and S. Dakotas, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona; colonization plan for Westward expansion carried out over next 30 years Results of Post-Civil War: Rapid Industrialization  Instead of land granted to single-family homesteaders, much of the land was passed to large operators or land speculators  Industrialization quickened = land as commodity “real estate” remained basis of US economy  1863-1864 federal banking acts and national currency established  Civil War set template for rapid “Americanization” – connection to last week’s discussion on boarding schools  Federal land grants to railroad barons were not limited to the width of the railroad tracks – formed a checkerboard of square-mile sections stretching for miles on both sides, carving more out of Indigenous territories  1871 Indian Appropriation Act – declared that “no Indian nation or tribe” would be “recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the US may contract by treaty” Indian Wars After Civil War  Military campaigns against Indigenous nations constituted     foreign wars during the Civil War, but the end of Civil War did not mark end of wars against Indigenous peoples Carried on to the end of the century Added more killing technology and seasoned soldiers Demobilized officers and soldiers without jobs after Civil War ended joined “army of the West” Prominent Civil War generals led army of the West, including: Generals Philip Sheridan (“The only good Indian is a Dead Indian” from last week’s Boarding Schools lecture) and George Armstrong Custer Sand Creek Massacre  Most infamous incident involving militias: Sand Creek       Massacre Occurred at dawn, November 1864, on Sand Creek in southeastern Colorado territory Over 700 1st and 3rd Calvary and other troops slaughtered over 150 displaced and captive Cheyenne and Arapaho men, women, and children Leadership under great peace keeper Black Kettle Camped under truce flag and had federal permission to hunt buffalo to feed themselves In early 1864, Colorado territorial governor informed them that they could no longer leave reservation to hunt Despite compliance with order, John Chivington led 700 Colorado Volunteers to attack Cheyenne and Arapaho people without warning Carleton’s Genocidal Army  US army colonel James Carleton formed Volunteer Army of the Pacific 1861, based in CA  In Nevada and Utah, colonel Patrick Connor, commanded a militia of a thousand CA volunteers who spent Civil War years massacring hundreds of unarmed Shoshone, Bannock, and Ute people  Carleton led another contingent of militias to Arizona to suppress the Apaches, who were resisting colonization under their great leader Cochise Carleton’s Genocidal Army Continued  Following campaign against Apaches, Carleton was promoted to brigadier general and placed in command of the Department of New Mexico  Brought in seasoned Colorado Volunteers to attack Navajos--declared total war  Enlisted infamous Indian killer Kit Carson as principal commander  Unlimited authority and the government’s preoccupation with Civil War allowed Carleton to engage in a series of search-and-destroy missions against Navajos Carleton’s War Against Navajos  Culminated in 1864--300 mi. forced march of 8,000       Navajo civilians to military concentration camp at Bosque Redondo in southeastern New Mexico desert Recalled in Navajo oral history as the “Long Walk” ¼ of incarcerated died of starvation Navajos weren’t released and allowed to return home until 1868 Permission not based on deadly conditions – rather because Congress determined the camp too expensive to maintain Carleton appointed as major general in US army in 1865 for these “noble deeds” Carleton now led Fourth Cavalry against Plains Indians Genocidal Campaigns Continue  Genocidal campaigns against Indigenous      civilians during President Grant administration 1869-1877 Black troops out west – government’s way of getting rid of “Black and Indian problem” US policy directed army to destroy basic economic base of Plains Indians – the buffalo Buffalos killed to near extinction – only a few hundred left by 1880s Commercial hunters only wanted skins; bones shipped to the East for various uses Often referred to as “Buffalo Soldiers” – mentioned in Bob Marley’s song

Tutor Answer

Melodyh
School: UCLA

Hi, please find the attached document for the work. I hope it will be helpful. Thank you

Running head: DISCUSSION BLOG

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Discussion Blog
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DISCUSSION BLOG

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Question 1
The Gold Rush, which was marked by the discovery of gold, led to the reinvigoration of
the economy, improved living standards, interruption of the environment, and a massive
migration of American people to California. It occurred when land was in demand. Politics were
unstable. It is the gold rush that earned California stateh...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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