ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A PRACTICAL, PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH
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Organizational behavior : a practical, problem-solving approach / Angelo Kinicki,
Arizona State University, Mel Fugate, Southern Methodist University. — First edition.
ISBN 978-1-259-18841-1 (alk. paper)—ISBN 1-259-18841-8 (alk. paper)
1. Organizational behavior. I. Fugate, Mel. II. Title.
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MAJOR TOPICS I’LL LEARN AND QUESTIONS I
SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER
14.1 THE FOUNDATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE: UNDERSTANDING ITS
DRIVERS AND FUNCTIONS
MAJOR QUESTION: What is culture and why is it
important to understand its layers and functions?
14.2 THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE TYPES ON OUTCOMES
MAJOR QUESTION: To what extent are the diff erent
types of organizational culture related to important
14.3 THE PROCESS OF CULTURE CHANGE
MAJOR QUESTION: What are the mechanisms I can
use to implement culture change?
14.4 THE ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION
MAJOR QUESTION: How can the practical lessons of
socialization research be integrated within the three
phases of socialization?
14.5 EMBEDDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
MAJOR QUESTION: What are the four developmental
networks and how can I use them to advance my
How Can I Use These
Concepts for Competitive
INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR
UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING OB
This chapter focuses on organizational culture and
the socialization and mentoring that allow new
members to become part of the culture of the
organization. The Integrative Framework shows how
culture functions as both an environmental input and
an organizational process.
Culture (national and
Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors.
© 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved.
Next, do the same for the company
or department at hand by doing
research about the company on the
Internet or talking with current
employees. This information will now
enable you to prepare a set of
diagnostic questions to ask during
the interview process. These
questions need to focus on
determining your level of fit. For
example, if you value recognition for
hard work, then ask a recruiter how
the company rewards performance.
If the answer does not support a
strong link between performance
and rewards, you probably will have
a low PE fit and will not be happy
working at this company.
We have created a Take-Away
Application later in this chapter to
help you practice the process of
assessing person–organization fit.
HOW WOULD I ASSESS PERSON–ENVIRONMENT FIT (PE)
WHEN APPLYING FOR JOBS?
“Employment site Glassdoor
provides information on salaries,
organizational cultures, and
interview questions by using
anonymous posts from employees
and people seeking employment.
In 2012 the company obtained
285,000 questions used by hiring
managers. Here are the four most
frequently asked interview
questions: What’s your favorite
movie? What’s your favorite
website? What’s the last book you
read for fun? What makes you
“WHY ARE COMPANIES
“Although these questions have
nothing to do with performance,
recruiters ask them because they
are trying to assess whether or not
an applicant will “fit in” with the company’s culture. A
recent study of people hiring undergraduate and graduate
students revealed that more than 50 percent of the
evaluators considered “fit” to be the most important
criterion during the interview process.2
“WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “FIT”?
Person–environment fit (PE) reflects “the
compatibility between an individual and a work
environment that occurs when their characteristics are
well matched.”3 Although there are many types of fit, we
are interested in what is called person–organization fit
(PO), which reflects the extent to which your
personality and values match the climate and culture in
an organization. PO fit is important because it is
associated with more positive work attitudes and task
performance and lower intentions to quit and stress. 4
“HOW CAN YOU ASSESS “FIT”?
“It will take some effort on your part. First conduct an
evaluation of your strengths, weaknesses, and values.
FOR YOU WHAT’S AHEAD IN THIS CHAPTER
This chapter begins your exploration of what is called
“macro” organizational behavior. Macro OB is
concerned with studying OB from the perspective of the
organization as a whole. We use the graphical image of
the Integrative Framework of OB on the previous page
to illustrate how organizational culture is a key input
that influences a host of processes and outcomes. We
begin by exploring the foundation of organizational
culture so that you can understand its drivers and
functions. Next we review the four key types of
organizational culture and consider their relationships
with various outcomes. This is followed by a discussion
of how managers can change organizational culture.
Finally, we discuss how socialization and mentoring are
used to embed organizational culture, and focus on how
you can use knowledge of these processes to enhance
your career success and happiness.
480 PART 3 Organizational Processes
The quote “culture eats strategy for breakfast” was attributed to management expert
Peter Drucker. But it really caught everyone’s attention when Mark Fields, CEO at
Ford Motor Company, used it in 2006. The slogan currently hangs in the company’s
“war room.” Ford’s former CEO Alan Mulally created the war room, which contains
charts, graphs, and lists of products, as a meetingplace for executives to discuss the
execution of Ford’s corporate strategies. The culture slogan serves as a reminder of
the importance of organizational culture to Ford’s success.5
What is the point of this slogan? It’s quite simple. A company can have the best
vision and strategy in the world, but it won’t be able to execute them unless the culture
is aligned with the strategy. This is a lesson that successful companies like Lincoln
Electric, Southwest Airlines, and SAS Institute have applied for years. Lincoln
Electric has the largest share of the global welding market, Southwest is the largest
airline in the United States, and SAS is the world’s largest privately held software
firm.6 All of these firms exert significant effort at creating and reinforcing the type of
culture that helps them achieve their strategic goals.
One of our primary goals in this chapter is to help you understand how managers
can use organizational culture as a competitive advantage. Let us start by considering
the foundation of organizational culture.
Defining Culture and Exploring Its Impact
Organizational culture is defined as “the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit
assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about,
and reacts to its various environments.”7 This definition highlights four important
characteristics of organizational culture:
• Shared concept. Organizational culture consists of beliefs and values that are
shared among a group of people.
• Learned over time. It is passed on to new employees through the process of
socialization and mentoring, topics discussed later in this chapter.
• Influences our behavior at work. This is why “culture eats strategy for breakfast.”
• Impacts outcomes at multiple levels. Culture affects outcomes at the individual,
group/team, and organizational levels.
14.1 THE FOUNDATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:
UNDERSTANDING ITS DRIVERS AND FUNCTIONS
What is culture and why is it important to understand its layers
THE BIGGER PICTURE
Although you may have a small impact on your employer’s organizational culture, you undoubtedly
are affected by it. Culture affects outcomes at the individual, group, and organizational
level. You are going to learn what creates organizational culture and how culture in turn
affects other organizational processes. You also will understand the three levels that constitute
culture and the functions it serves for organizations.
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 481
Figure 14.1 provides a conceptual framework for understanding the drivers and
effects of organizational culture. Five elements drive organizational culture:
• The founder’s values
• The industry and business environment
• The national culture
• The organization’s vision and strategies
• The behavior of leaders
In turn, organizational culture influences the type of organizational structure
adopted by a company and a host of internal processes (including human resource
practices, policies, and procedures) implemented in pursuit of organizational goals.
These organizational characteristics then affect a variety of group and social processes.8
This sequence ultimately affects employees’ work attitudes and behaviors and a variety
of organizational outcomes. All told, Figure 14.1 tells us that organizational culture
has a wide span of influence, ultimately impacting a host of individual, group, and
organizational outcomes.9 Once again, this is why culture eats strategy for breakfast.
The Three Levels of Organizational Culture
Organizational culture operates on three levels:
1. Observable artifacts
2. Espoused values
3. Basic underlying assumptions
Each level varies in terms of outward visibility and resistance to change, and each
level influences another level.
Level 1: Observable Artifacts At the more visible level, culture represents observable
artifacts. Artifacts consist of the physical manifestation of an organization’s
culture. Organizational examples include:
• Manner of dress
• Myths and stories told about the organization
• Published lists of values
• Observable rituals and ceremonies
• Special parking spaces
SOURCE: Adapted from C. Ostroff, A. J. Kinicki, and R. S. Muhammad, “Organizational Culture and Climate,” in I. B. Weiner, N. W. Schmitt, and S. Highhouse, eds.,
Psychology, vol. 12, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2012), 643–676. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
FIGURE 14.1 DRIVERS AND FLOW OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
drivers & flow
and Behaviors Outcomes
• The founder’s
• The industry and
• The national
• The organization’s
• The behavior
482 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Annabelle the Elephant is an
artifact of the corporate
culture at Kayak.com,
provided as a catalyst to
make sure employees do not
ignore an important but
difficult topic, the so-called
elephant in the room. Can
you think of other artifacts
that might prime people to
give honest feedback?
At Facebook, for example, the word “hack” is pasted all
around offices. The term “hack” is symbolic of “the
hacker way” of pursuing continuous improvement
and challenging the status quo.10 Kayak.com, an
online travel company, uses a two-foot-tall stuffed
elephant named Annabelle as an artifact. Annabelle
sits in a specially designed conference
room that is used to have sensitive meetings or
discussions. Paul English, cofounder and chief
technology officer, created the room and
brought in Annabelle because Kayak’s open
floor plan does not lend itself to discussing
touchy matters. The company feels that this artifact
has led to more honest and constructive communications
among employees.11 It’s important to
remember that artifacts are easier to change than
the less visible aspects of organizational culture.
Level 2: Espoused Values Values were defined in Chapter 2
as abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situations.
In the context of organizational culture, it is important to distinguish
between values that are espoused versus those that are enacted.
• Espoused values represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are
preferred by an organization. They are generally established by the founder of
a new or small company and by the top management team in a larger organization.
Most companies have a short of list of espoused values. For example,
Procter and Gamble’s list of values includes integrity, leadership, ownership,
passion for winning, and trust.12 In contrast, Google and Zappos have
10 espoused values.
Because espoused values represent aspirations that are explicitly communicated
to employees, managers hope that those values will directly influence employee behavior.
Unfortunately, aspirations do not automatically produce the desired behaviors
because people do not always “walk the talk.”
EXAMPLE Energy company BP, for instance, has long claimed that it values
safety, yet the company had a refinery fire in Texas City, Texas, that killed 15 people
in 2005. In 2006, a pipeline leak in Alaska lost over 200,000 gallons of crude, and
the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf lost more than 200 million gallons
according to the US government.13
• Enacted values represent the values and norms that actually are exhibited
or converted into employee behavior. They represent the values that employees
ascribe to an organization based on their observations of what occurs on a
daily basis. It is important for managers to reduce gaps between espoused and
enacted values because they can significantly influence employee attitudes and
Consider that a survey from the Ethics Resource Center showed that employees
were more likely to behave ethically when management behavior set a good ethical
example and kept its promises and commitments.14 This finding was underscored by
another study of 129 mergers. Employees were more productive and post-merger
performance was higher when employees believed that the post-merger behavior
within the newly formed firm was consistent with the espoused values.15 It pays to
walk the talk when it comes to integrating companies after a merger.
EXAMPLE Juniper Networks spent considerable effort to align its espoused
values of trust, delivering excellence, pursuing bold aspirations, and making a
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 483
meaningful difference with employee behavior. The company started by selecting
200 employees from around the world to come up with a list of behaviors that
exemplified each of the values. These behaviors were then infused into the human
resource practices of hiring, training, evaluating, and promoting people. The
company completely revamped its process of performance appraisal.
• Old. Employees felt the old system violated the company’s values. Previously the
company evaluated all employees and then forced a distribution curve across the
• New. The new system builds on a “conversation day.” On such days, “employees
and managers discuss areas for improvement and areas for growth, set stretch
goals, and align the goals with employees’ career aspirations. There is no rating
given or a specific measure of improvement.” An employee survey revealed that
66 percent of Juniper’s employees felt that the new system was helpful or
Level 3: Basic Underlying Assumptions Basic underlying assumptions constitute
organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that
they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior. They represent deepseated
beliefs that employees have about their company and thus constitute the core
of organizational culture. As you might expect, basic underlying assumptions are
highly resistant to change. Consider how Unilever CEO Paul Polman reinforces a
core belief in sustainability (see Example box).
Sustainability represents “a company’s ability to make a profit without sacrificing
the resources of its people, the community, and the planet.” 17 Sustainability
also is referred to as “being green,” and Pulitzer Prize–winning political commentator
Thomas Friedman believes that “outgreening” other nations can renew America
and even defeat al-Qaeda.18
EXAMPLE Unilever Strives to
When Paul Polman took over as
CEO of Unilever in 2009, he
told Wall Street analysts that the
company would no longer provide
earnings guidance and
quarterly profit statements. This
is unheard of! Analysts revolted
and the stock price immediately
Promote a Sustainability Culture
WHAT WAS POLMAN
TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH?
Polman wanted to instill a deepseated
belief regarding sustainability
within all employees at
Unilever. He started this effort
by creating a “Sustainable Living
Plan.” The plan contained
goals to “double its sales even
as it cuts its environmental footprint in half and sources all its agricultural products in ways that don’t degrade the
by 2020.” The company also set a goal to improve the well-being of 1 billion people by influencing them to wash
hands and brush their teeth and by selling foods with less salt and fat.
Polman told investors that “if you don’t buy into this, I respect you as a human being, but don’t put your money in
our company.” He believes that shareholder return should not override nobler goals. He also said, “Our purpose is
have a sustainable business model that is put at the service of the greater good. It’s as simple as that.”
Paul Polman, CEO at Unilever.
484 PART 3 Organizational Processes
The Four Functions of Organizational Culture
An organization’s culture fulfills four important functions (see Figure 14.2):
1. Organizational identity
2. Collective commitment
3. Social system stability
4. Sense-making device
To help bring these four functions to life, let’s consider how each of them has
taken shape at Southwest Airlines. Southwest is a particularly instructive example
WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF UNILEVER’S PUSH FOR A SUSTAINABILITY CULTURE? Polman believes that
employees are more engaged and the company is a more desirable place to work. As evidence, Unilever “is one of
five most-searched-for employers, behind Google, Apple, Microsoft, and Facebook.” In 2012, sales grew in every
Unilever operates in around the globe, and the company cut costs through its Sustainable Living plan.
Employees at Unilever “say that doing good is in the company’s DNA.” This is what we call a basic underlying
1. What do you think was the driving force behind Polman’s desire to create a culture of sustainability?
2. Do you agree with Polman about the tangible business benefits of Unilever’s cultural values?
3. Whether you agree with Polman or not, was he wise to tell investors not to put money in the Unilever if they
did not also buy into the Sustainable Living plan?
SOURCE: Adapted from discussion in L. Smircich, “Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis,” Administrative Science
Quarterly, September 1983, 339–358. Copyright © 1983. Reprinted with permission of Sage Publications, Inc.
FIGURE 14.2 FOUR FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 485
because it has grown to become the largest carrier in the United States serving more
customers domestically than any other airline and has achieved 40 consecutive years
of profitability. Fortune named Southwest the seventh Most Admired Company in
the World, and it was recognized in 2012 by Chief Executive Magazine as one of the
40 Best Companies for Leaders based on outstanding company culture and internal
Function 1: Culture Provides Employees with an Organizational Identity
Southwest Airlines is known as a fun place to work that values employee satisfaction
and customer loyalty over corporate profits. Gary Kelly, Southwest’s CEO, highlighted
this theme by noting that “our people are our single greatest strength and our
most enduring long-term competitive advantage.”21
The company has a catastrophe fund based on voluntary contributions for distribution
to employees who are experiencing serious personal difficulties. Southwest’s
people-focused identity is reinforced by the fact that it is an employer of choice.
Southwest contributed $228 million into its employee-based profit-sharing program
in 2013. The company also was rated as providing outstanding opportunities for
women and Hispanics by Professional Women magazine and Hispanic magazine,
respectively, and National Conference on Citizenship ranked Southwest as one of The
Civic 50 for use of time, talent, and resources in civic engagement.
Function 2: Culture Facilitates Collective Commitment The mission of Southwest
Airlines “is dedicated to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with
a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit.”22 Southwest’s
This photo demonstrates Southwest’s culture. You see employees having fun in an airport terminal, which can be a frustrating
experience for passengers. Do you think these employees can lighten the spirit of the travelers in the background?
486 PART 3 Organizational Processes
nearly 46,000 employees are committed to this mission. As evidence, Southwest was
rated number one in Customer Service by the 2013 Airline Quality Ratings and JD
Power named them 2012 Customer Service Champion for performance in People,
Presentation, Price, Process, and Product.
Function 3: Culture Promotes Social System Stability Social system stability
reflects the extent to which the work environment is perceived as positive and reinforcing,
and the extent to which conflict and change are effectively managed. Southwest
is noted for its philosophy of having fun, having parties, and celebrating. For
example, each city in which the firm operates is given a budget for parties. Southwest
also uses a variety of performance-based awards and service awards to reinforce employees.
The company’s positive and enriching environment is supported by the lowest
turnover rates in the airline industry and the employment of 1,355 married
couples. In 2013 Southwest was recognized with the Employee Choice Awards Best
Place to Work, by Glassdoor.com.
Function 4: Culture Shapes Behaviors by Helping Members Make Sense of
Their Surroundings This function of culture helps employees understand why
the organization does what it does and how it intends to accomplish its long-term
goals. Keeping in mind that Southwest’s leadership originally viewed ground transportation
as their main competitor in 1971, employees come to understand why
the airline’s primary vision is to be the best primarily short-haul, low-fare, highfrequency,
point-to-point carrier in the United States. Employees understand they
must achieve exceptional performance, such as turning a plane around in 20 minutes,
because they must keep costs down in order to compete against Greyhound and the
use of automobiles. In turn, the company reinforces the importance of outstanding
customer service and high-performance expectations by using performancebased
awards and profit sharing. Employees own about 13 percent of the company
TAKE-AWAY APPLICATION—TAAP Assessing the Levels of Culture at My
Answer the following questions by considering your current or a past employer. (If you
do not have experience yet as an employee, substitute your current school/university or
a company you are researching as an employer of choice.)
1. What artifacts can you see at work? What do these artifacts tell you about your
2. What are the company’s espoused values? Do you think management’s enacted
behaviors are consistent with the espoused values?
3. Identify three key beliefs you have about your employer: You may want to ask a
colleague the same question. Are these beliefs consistent with the meaning of the
artifacts you described in question 1?
4. How does your employer’s culture compare to that of Southwest?
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 487
To address the above Major Question, we need to provide a taxonomy of culture
types. You can imagine that it is hard to get agreement on a common set of organizational
culture types given culture’s complexity. While consultants tend to invent their
own proprietary assessments, academics have proposed and scientifically tested three
different frameworks. This section discusses the competing values framework because
it is the most widely used approach for classifying organizational culture. It also was
named as one of the 40 most important frameworks in the study of organizations
and has been shown to be a valid approach for classifying organizational culture.24
We then discuss relationships among culture types and outcomes.
Identifying Culture Types with the Competing
The competing values framework (CVF) provides a practical way for managers to
understand, measure, and change organizational culture. It identifies four fundamental
types of organizational culture as shown in Figure 14.3.25
The CVF was originally developed by a team of researchers who were trying to
classify different ways to assess organizational effectiveness. This research showed
that measures of organizational effectiveness varied along two fundamental dimensions
or axes. One axis pertained to whether an organization focuses its attention and
efforts on internal dynamics and employees or outward toward its external environment
and its customers and shareholders. The second was concerned with an organization’s
preference for flexibility and discretion or control and stability. Combining
these two axes creates four types of organizational culture that are based on different
core values and different sets of criteria for assessing organizational effectiveness.
Figure 14.3 shows the strategic thrust associated with each cultural type along
with the means used to accomplish this thrust and the resulting ends or goals pursued
by each cultural type. Before beginning our exploration of the CVF, it is important
to note that organizations can possess characteristics associated with each
culture type. That said, however, organizations tend to have one type of culture that
is more dominant than the others. Let us begin our discussion of culture types by
starting in the upper-left-hand quadrant of the CVF.
To what extent are the different types of organizational culture
related to important outcomes?
THE BIGGER PICTURE
Do you think that companies rated on Fortune’s List of 100 Best Places to Work have unique
cultures? How do we know what type of culture exists at these companies or your current employer?
You will learn about the four types of culture that are defined by the competing values
framework. You also will discover the extent to which these four culture types are related to
14.2 THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TYPES
488 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Clan Culture Companies with a clan culture have an internal focus and
value flexibility rather than stability and control. These resemble a family-type organization
in which effectiveness is achieved by encouraging collaboration, trust,
and support among employees. This type of culture is very “employee-focused”
and strives to instill cohesion through consensus and job satisfaction and commitment
through employee involvement. Clan organizations devote considerable resources
to hiring and developing their employees, and they view customers as
partners. Collaborating is the strategic thrust of this culture.
EXAMPLE Google is the number 1 company to work for in 2014.26 Larry Page,
Google’s co-founder and CEO, describes the culture as a “family” environment. He
said, “my job in the company is to make sure everybody in the company has great
opportunities, and that they feel they’re having a meaningful impact and are
contributing to the good of society. . . . It’s important that the company be a family,
that people feel that they’re part of the company, and that the company is like a
family to them. When you treat people that way, you get better productivity.” 27
Google also holds weekly all-hands (“TGIF”) meetings so that employees can ask
Larry, Sergey Brin—a Google co-founder—and other executives questions about
anything involving the company. This practice enhances employee communication
and morale, two aspects of a clan culture.
EXAMPLE Edward Jones, the privately held financial services firm, was ranked as
the 4th best company to work for in 2014. Edward Jones has over 11,000 small offices
and 7 million clients worldwide. The company maintains a close-knit culture by using
a variety of celebratory events. Its 8% turnover rate is one of the lowest in the industry
and more than 33% of its financial advisors are more than 50 years old. 28
Adhocracy Culture Companies with an adhocracy culture have an external
focus and value flexibility. Creation of new products and services is the strategic
thrust of this culture, which is accomplished by being adaptable, creative, and fast to
respond to changes in the marketplace. Adhocracy cultures do not rely on the type
SOURCE: Adapted from K. S. Cameron, R. E. Quinn, J. Degraff, and A. V. Thakor, Competing Values Leadership (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2006), 32.
FIGURE 14.3 THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK
Culture varies along two continua of competing values: fl exibility and discretion vs. stability and control, and
internal focus and integration vs. external focus and diff erentiation. This leads to four categories of organizations,
each with its own unique thrust.
Means: Capable processes,
consistency, process control,
Ends: Efficiency, timeliness,
Means: Cohesion, participation,
Ends: Morale, people,
Ends: Innovation, growth,
Means: Customer focus,
Ends: Market share,
Flexibility and Discretion
Stability and Control
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 489
of centralized power and authority relationships that are part of market and hierarchical
cultures. They empower and encourage employees to take risks, think outside
the box, and experiment with new ways of getting things done.
A recent article in The Wall Street Journal noted that adhocracy-type cultures
are decreasing in the United States as many companies are becoming risk averse. The
downside of this trend is that “reasonable” risk taking is needed to create new businesses,
products, and ultimately jobs. On the positive side, however, pockets of risk
taking are taking place in different industries such as technology and energy and
different regions like the coastal cities of San Francisco and Boston and college
towns like Boulder, Colorado, and Austin, Texas.29
EXAMPLE Biopharmaceutical firm AstraZeneca “is experimenting with new ways
to organize research to improve productivity. Scientists now are responsible for
candidate drugs until they begin the final human trials, ending a culture of handing
off early-stage products to other researchers as if on an assembly line.”30
EXAMPLE The Tata group, a multinational conglomerate headquartered in
Mumbai, India, has 100 operating companies in more than 80 countries. Tata takes
innovation so seriously that it developed an “Innometer.” The conglomerate
measures creative goals and accomplishments vs. domestic or global benchmarks
while instilling a sense of urgency among employees. 31
Market Culture Companies with a market culture have a strong external focus
and value stability and control. Competition is the strategic thrust of these organizations.
They have a strong desire to deliver results and accomplish goals. Because this
type of culture is focused on the external environment, customers and profits take
precedence over employee development and satisfaction. The major goal of managers
is to drive toward productivity, profits, and customer satisfaction.
EXAMPLE Grupo Bimbo is the world’s largest bakery company. Bimbo managers
operate in a low-margin business and thus focus heavily on execution. “Profits
Edward Jones launched a program that provides tablet PCs to its financial advisors. As shown,
advisors take tablets on the road as they make personal visits to existing and potential clients.
The goal is to reduce the amount of time advisors spend on administrative tasks, leaving them
more time to build strong relationships with clients.
490 PART 3 Organizational Processes
depend heavily on getting the right amount
of highly perishable products to stores at
the right moment and at a reasonable
cost. . . . For instance, it uses tricycle delivery
bikes in urban areas of China where streets
are too narrow for trucks, a practice it first
implemented in Latin America.”32 The company
operates 171 plants and delivers over 10,000
products across 22 countries.
EXAMPLE Canada’s Bombardier is the
largest train manufacturer in the world.
Bombardier’s culture focuses on the
importance of setting and achieving goals.
CEO Pierre Beaudoin said, “Connecting
goals to each person’s day-to-day work is
important. . . . What I like most, though, is
that we now have an organization that
wants to get better. And that’s the key. We
always talk about why we’re not there yet;
we’re on a journey—how close are we to
those world-class metrics. We used to make
excuses for why our performance was good enough. Today we say, ‘what will it
take to get to world class?’” Can you see the cultural focus on productivity, goal
achievement, and competitiveness?33
Hierarchy Culture Control is the strategic thrust within a hierarchy culture. The
hierarchy culture has an internal focus, which produces a more formalized and
structured work environment, and values stability and control over flexibility. This
orientation leads to the development of reliable internal processes, extensive measurement,
and the implementation of a variety of control mechanisms. Effectiveness
in a company with this type of culture is likely to be assessed with measures of efficiency,
timeliness, quality, safety, and reliability of producing and delivering products
and services.34 Hierarchical cultures have been found to have both negative and
EXAMPLE Consider the positive example of Mumbai’s dabbawalas,
individuals who deliver prepared meals to customers’ homes or offices and then
return empty dabbas—metal lunch boxes—later in the day. To do their jobs
effectively, dabbawalas rely on a hierarchical culture (see the Problem-Solving
EXAMPLE Consider the negative impact at General Motors. Mary Barra,
GM’s former product officer and current CEO, has been “attacking GM’s
bureaucracy, slashing the number of required HR reports by 90 percent and
shrinking the company’s employee policy manual by 80 percent. But loosening
the dress code drew a flood of calls and e-mails from employees asking if they
could, in fact, wear jeans.” The answer was yes. “Barra saw the dress code,
along with other changes, as an opportunity to have a conversation about
responsibility. ‘There was a culture in the past where the rule was the rule and
when you weren’t empowered to make the decision you could all just complain
about the rule. Well, now we were really empowering virtually every single
person,’ Barra says.” One of her major goals is to reduce the complexity
associated with producing cars.35 This means that she wants more flexibility,
which is a component of either a clan or adhocracy culture. Bara was promoted
to the CEO position at GM in January 2014.
Imagine having to deliver over 10,000 products across 22 countries. Do you
think this takes a lot of planning and detailed execution? Bimbo’s market-based
culture contributes to this effort.
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 491
The Dabbawalas Rely on a Hierarchical Culture to Effectively
Over 5,000 dabbawalas in Mumbai
deliver more than 130,000 lunchboxes
every day. The need for this
service grew from the strong cultural
reliance by the working population
on a hot meal for lunch. The
dabbawalas pick up the prepared
lunchboxes in late morning and
return the empty containers after
lunch. Vendors also use the delivery
service for getting their commercial
hot lunches to customers.
Workers are willing to pay for the
service and the illiterate dabbawalas
are so skilled in execution that
the service remains affordable for
Each dabbawala belongs to a
group, and the groups manage
themselves “with respect to hiring,
logistics, customer acquisition and
retention, and conflict resolution.”
Within each group individuals have
a very clear hierarchical role to play.
Despite a high degree of selfmanagement,
groups must collaborate and coordinate
to deliver lunch within the fourthlargest
city in the world. Mistakes are
rare even though these employees
complete over 260,000 transactions
during a day, and they do it six days a
week, 52 weeks a year.
How Does a Hierarchical Culture
Help? First off, the dabbawalas
don’t use any IT system or cell
phones. These workers have integrated
process, and culture to achieve
their goals. It all begins with using
the Mumbai Suburban Railway. A
workday starts with a worker picking
up a dabba from a customer—
customers prepare their own lunch
and dabbawalas pick them up and
transport them. The dabba is then
taken to “the nearest train station,
where it is sorted and put onto a
wooden crate according to its destination.
It is then taken by train to
the station closest to its destination.
There it is sorted again and
assigned to another worker, who
delivers it to the right office before
lunchtime.” The process reverses
in the afternoon when the dabbas
are picked up and returned to the
The railway system’s schedule
effectively sets the timing of what
needs to be done. For example,
“workers have 40 seconds to load
the crates of dabbas onto a train at
major stations and just 20 seconds
at interim stops.” This requires the
workers to determine the most
efficient way to get these key
Workers also build some slack
into the system. Each group has
2 or 3 extra workers who help out
wherever they are needed. This
works because employees are
cross-trained in the major tasks of
collecting, sorting, transporting,
and customer relations.
How Do the Independent Workers
Communicate? The dabbawalas
use a very basic system of symbols
to communicate. Three key markings
are included on the lid of a
dabba. The first indicates where
the dabba must be delivered. The
second is a series of characters: a
number is used to indicate which
employee is making the delivery,
“an alphabetical code (two or three
letters) for the office building, and a
number indicating the floor. The
third—a combination of color and
shape, and in some instances, a
motif—indicates the station of origin.”
Customers also provide their own
unique small bags for carrying dabbas,
which helps workers remember
who gets which dabba.
Does It Work? Yes. Not only does
this work system result in the
reliable distribution of lunches,
but the dabbawalas tend to stay
in the same work group their
entire working lives. Employees
genuinely care about each
Stop 1: What is the major problem dabbawalas want to avoid?
Stop 2: What OB concepts help explain why the dabbawalas are effective?
Stop 3: Would you recommend a similar system for a comparable firm in the United States? Explain.
492 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Cultural Types Represent Competing Values It is important to note that certain
cultural types reflect opposing core values. These contradicting cultures are found along
the two diagonals in Figure 14.3. For example, the clan culture—upper-left quadrant—
is represented by values that emphasize an internal focus and flexibility, whereas the
market culture—bottom-right quadrant—has an external focus and concern for stability
and control. You can see the same conflict between an adhocracy culture that values
flexibility and an external focus and a hierarchy culture that endorses stability and control
along with an internal focus. Why are these contradictions important?
They are important because an organization’s success may depend on its ability
to possess core values that are associated with competing cultural types. While this is
difficult to pull off, it can be done. 3M is a good example.
EXAMPLE 3M is a global innovation company that is structured around five
business groups. 3M tried to merge competing cultural characteristics from an
adhocracy with those from a hierarchy. Reflecting an adhocracy culture, 3M
released 1,000 new products in 2009, and it awards annual Genesis Grants, “worth
as much as $100,000, to company scientists for research. The money is allocated
by their peers and is spent on projects for which ‘no sensible, conventional person
in the company would give money,’” says Chris Holmes, a 3M division vice
president. The company has a goal to generate 30 percent of its revenue from
products developed in the last five years. In contrast, 3M pursued a hierarchical
culture by implementing quality management techniques to reduce waste and
defects and increase efficiency. Although 3M achieved better efficiency and
earnings in the short run, new product revenue decreased and scientists
complained that the quality initiatives were choking off innovation. One engineer
quipped that “it’s really tough to schedule invention.” 3M’s CEO, George Buckley,
was made aware of these cultural conflicts and decided to reduce the conflict within
company labs by decreasing hierarchical policies/procedures while simultaneously
increasing those related to adhocracy. The company continues to emphasize
quality and reliability in its factories. To date, results indicate a successful transition
as the company achieved both its efficiency and new product revenue goals in 2010.37
Are you curious about the type of culture that exists in a current or past employer?
Do you wonder if you possess person–organization fit? The following SelfAssessment allows you to consider these questions.
SELF-ASSESSMENT 14.1 What Is the Organizational Culture at My Current
Go to connect.mheducation.com and complete Self-Assessment 14.1. Then answer the
1. How would you describe the organizational culture?
2. Do you think that this type of culture is best suited to help the company achieve its
strategic goals? Explain.
Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture
Both managers and academic researchers believe that organizational culture can
drive employee attitudes, performance, and organizational effectiveness, thereby
leading to competitive advantage. To test this possibility, various measures of organizational
culture have been correlated with a variety of individual and organizational
outcomes. So what have we learned? A meta-analysis involving over 1,100
companies uncovered the results shown in Figure 14.4.38
Figure 14.4 illustrates the strength of relationships among eight different organizational
outcomes and the culture types of clan, adhocracy, and market: Hierarchy
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 493
was not included due to a lack of research on this type. Results reveal that the eight
types of organizational outcomes had significant and positive relationships with
clan, adhocracy, and market cultures. The majority of these relationships were of
moderate strength, indicating that they are important to today’s managers. Closer
examination of Figure 14.4 leads to the following five conclusions:
1. Organizational culture is related to measures of organizational effectiveness. This
means that an organization’s culture can be a source of competitive advantage.
2. Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations with clan cultures.
These results suggest that employees prefer to work in organizations that value
flexibility over stability and control and those that are more concerned with
satisfying employees’ needs than customer or shareholder desires.
3. Innovation and quality can be increased by building characteristics associated with
clan, adhocracy, and market cultures into the organization. Managers may want
to use a combination of all three types of culture to produce these outcomes.
4. An organization’s financial performance (growth in profit and growth in revenue)
is not strongly related to organizational culture. Managers should not expect to
increase financial performance immediately by trying to change their organization’s
culture. (This is not an argument against all cultural change. Some
changes in culture can improve competitive advantage, which then results in
financial benefits, as we will see.)
5. Companies with market cultures tend to have more positive organizational
outcomes. Managers are encouraged to consider how they might make their
cultures more market oriented.
SOURCE: Data supplied from C. A. Hartnell, A. Y. Ou, and A. J. Kinicki, “Organzational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the
Values Framework’s Theoretical Suppositions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, July 2011, 677–694.
FIGURE 14.4 CORRELATES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Note: The category of organizational commitment was associated with only clan and market structures, and not
adhocracy, and therefore shows only two bars.
correlates of organizational culture
Quality of products
Weak Moderate Strong
Clan Adhocracy Market
Strength of relationship
494 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Edgar Schein, the most prolific academic writer about organizational culture, believes
that the creation and management of culture is the most important role of a leader.39
We agree with Schein because culture can be a source of competitive advantage. Consider
companies like Apple, Google, and Facebook. As suggested by Figure 14.1, the
cultures at these companies initially were affected by the founders—Steve Jobs at
Apple, Larry Page and Sergey Brin at Google, and Mark Zuckerberg at Facebook.
Over time, these founders embedded or reinforced their desired cultures by adopting
specific types of organizational structure
and implementing a host of human resource
practices, policies, and procedures. Although
it is not an easy task to change an
organization’s culture, this section provides
an overview of how to create cultural
Before describing the specific ways in
which managers can change organizational
culture, let’s review four truths about culture
1. Leaders are the architects and developers
of organizational culture. This suggests
that culture is not determined by fate. It
is formed and shaped by the ongoing
behavior of everyone who works at a
company. Herb Kelleher, former CEO
of Southwest Airlines, noted that culture
change is not formulaic. “It’s not a
job that you do for six months and then
you just say, ‘Well that’s behind us.’ It’s
something you do every day.”40
2. Changing culture starts with targeting
one of the three levels of organizational
culture—observable artifacts, espoused
values, and basic underlying assumptions.
What are the mechanisms I can use to implement culture
THE BIGGER PICTURE
Some people suggest that culture change takes years. Do you agree? Others contend that the
culture evolves and that managers should not attempt to manage it. Do you agree? We believe
that culture can and should be nurtured and developed so that it is aligned with a company’s
vision and strategic plan. You will learn about 12 mechanisms you can use to implement culture
change. Our discussion is in the context of the managerial role, but knowledge of these
techniques helps you at any level in the organization.
14.3 THE PROCESS OF CULTURE CHANGE
Sergey Brin (on the left) and Larry Page started Google in 1998. They met as
Ph.D. students at Stanford. Today, Sergey directs special projects and Larry is
the CEO. The company runs more than 1 million servers and processes over
1 billion searches per day.
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 495
The fastest way to start a culture change project is through the use of observable
artifacts. For example, if you wanted to foster a market culture, you could
post graphs of performance metrics around the office. These charts would reinforce
the importance of high performance. That said, culture will not change in
a significant way unless managers are able to change basic underlying assumptions.
41 It takes time to change this deep-seated aspect of culture.
3. Consider how closely the current culture aligns with the organization’s vision and
strategic plan. Remember the quote “culture eats strategy for breakfast” whenever
you pursue culture change. It is essential that an organization’s culture is
consistent with its vision and strategic goals. A vision represents a long-term
goal that describes “what” an organization wants to become. A strategic plan
outlines an organization’s long-term goals and the actions necessary to
achieve those goals.
EXAMPLE Walt Disney’s original vision for Disneyland included the following
components: Disneyland will be something of a fair, an exhibition, a playground, a
community center, a museum of living facts, and a showplace of beauty and magic.
It will be filled with the accomplishments, the joys and hopes of the world we live in.
And it will remind and show us how to make those wonders part of our lives. 42
Failing to align vision, strategic goals, and organizational goals will likely result
in “culture eating strategy for breakfast.”
4. Use a structured approach when implementing culture change. Chapter 16 can
help you in this regard as it presents several models that provide specific steps
to follow when implementing any type of organizational change. Our experience
as consultants tells us that culture change is frequently met with resistance.
This happens because people become accustomed to the culture and they prefer
to leave things as they are. Chapter 16 outlines several techniques you can use
to overcome such resistance.
Let’s now consider the specific methods or techniques that managers can use to
change an organization’s culture.
Twelve Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change
Schein notes that changing organizational culture involves a teaching process. That
is, organizational members teach each other about the organization’s preferred values,
beliefs, norms, expectations, and behaviors. He further articulates specific mechanisms
for changing organizational culture, and from his writing we identify 12 of
the most potent, summarized in Table 14.1.43
1. Formal Statements This method for embedding culture relies on using formal
statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used
for recruiting, selection, and socialization: They represent observable artifacts.
EXAMPLE Sam Walton, the founder of Walmart, established three basic beliefs
or values that represent the core of the organization’s culture. They are (a) respect
for the individual, (b) service to our customer, and (c) striving for excellence.
EXAMPLE Nucor Corporation attempts to emphasize the value it places on its
people by including every employee’s name on the cover of the annual report. This
practice also reinforces the clan type of culture the company wants to encourage.44
2. The Design of Physical Space, Work Environments, and Buildings Physical
spacing among people and buildings and the location of office furniture are different
ways to send messages about culture. For example, an open office environment
is more appropriate for an organization that wants to foster collaboration.
496 PART 3 Organizational Processes
EXAMPLE Novartis AG in Basel, Switzerland, did it by using “common
workspaces, sofas, soft lighting and cappuccino machines to encourage people to
talk, share ideas and build relationships.” They also invested in laptops for
employees so that they would not be tied down to cubicles. 45
3. Slogans, Language, Acronyms, and Sayings These elements of corporate
culture often have a profound effect on the organization over time because they are
easy to remember and repeat.
EXAMPLE Aetna was losing money and customers in the 2000s, and culture was
partly the cause. The company had a dysfunctional reverence for its 150-year history.
“Once openly known among workers as ‘Mother Aetna,’ the culture encouraged
employees to be steadfast to the point that they’d become risk-averse, tolerant of
mediocrity, and suspicious of outsiders. The prevailing executive mind-set was ‘We
take care of our people for life, as long as they show up every day and don’t cause
trouble.’”46 Obviously, the “Mother Aetna” tag was not good for the company.
4. Deliberate Role Modeling, Training Programs, Teaching, and Coaching by
Others Many companies structure training to provide an in-depth introduction
about their organizational values’ basic underlying assumptions.
EXAMPLE EMC Corporation, a global information technology company with
over 60,000 employees, devotes much effort and resources to embed cultural
characteristics associated with clan, market, and hierarchy cultures. All new
employees begin by completing an online program called “FastStart” that informs
them about the company’s history, vision, values, and expectations. In turn,
1. Formal statements X X
2. Design of physical space, work environments, and buildings X X
3. Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings X X
4. Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching,
and coaching by others X X X
5. Explicit rewards, status symbols, and promotion criteria X X X
6. Stories, legends, or myths about key people and events X X X
7. Organizational activities, processes, or outcomes X X
8. Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational
9. Rites and rituals X X X
_10. The workflow and organizational structure X X
11. Organizational systems and procedures X X X
_12. Organizational goals and criteria throughout employee
cycle (hire to retire) X X X
TABLE 14.1 TWELVE MECHANISMS FOR CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
creating culture change
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 497
specific hiring departments use job-specific orientations. For example, “sales
education conducts a five-day, intensive case study–driven program culminating in
sales presentations, and our Global Services organization delivers a two-week
orientation to introduce organizational goals, measurements, contributions, and roles.” 47
5. Explicit Rewards, Status Symbols, and Promotion Criteria This mechanism
has a strong impact on employees due to its highly visible and meaningful nature. Reward
systems are one of the strongest ways to embed organizational culture. It is important
to remember what you learned about motivation in Chapter 5 when attempting
to change culture via rewards. It is essential to consider the various forms of justice.
EXAMPLE At Triage Consulting Group, employees at the same level of their
career earn the same pay, but employees are eligible for merit bonuses, reinforcing
a culture of achievement—market culture. The merit bonuses are partly based on
coworkers’ votes for who contributed most to the company’s success—clan culture.
The employees who receive the most votes are recognized each year at the
company’s “State of Triage” meeting—market culture.48
6. Stories, Legends, or Myths About Key People and Events Storytelling is a
powerful way to send messages to others about the values and behaviors that are
desired by the organization.
EXAMPLE Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s CEO, told an interviewer from the Harvard Business
Review that “there are stories we tell ourselves internally about persistence and
patience, long-term thinking, staying focused on the customer.”49 This would
reinforce a market culture.
Stories of heroism frequently follow plane crashes. While these individuals are not pulling people from a burning plane, they
heroes in the sense of determining the cause of the crash. Such information helps airlines and the aviation industry to design
planes, which benefits all of us.
498 PART 3 Organizational Processes
EXAMPLE At the Olive Garden, “leaders share with staff members letters from
customers describing how they chose to celebrate meaningful events at the
company’s restaurants.” The company believes that sharing these stories “is a
powerful reminder of the value of continued quality improvements and innovation,”
which promotes beliefs and behaviors associated with hierarchy and adhocracy
EXAMPLE Allianz Life Insurance encourages employees to share stories about
their work experiences with coworkers. “Favorite” stories are then considered for a
reward of up to $500.51 Such stories might be used to support any of the four
7. Organizational Activities, Processes, or Outcomes Leaders pay special attention
to those activities, processes, and outcomes that they can measure and control.
This in turn sends strong messages to employees about acceptable norms and
EXAMPLE When Ron Sargent took over as chief executive of Staples, he
wanted to increase the focus on customer service. He started by investigating
what values the office supply retailer’s employees already held, and they told him
they cared about helping others. Sargent used that value as the basis for
developing their skill in serving customers. Staples began teaching employees
more about the products they sell and now offers bonuses for team performance.
Sargent also pays frequent visits to stores so he can talk directly to employees
about what customers like and dislike.52 Sargent’s actions would clearly promote
an adhocracy and market-based culture.
8. Leader Reactions to Critical Incidents and Organizational Crises Neuroscience
research shows that people learn and pay attention to the emotions exhibited by
leaders. Positive emotions spread, but negative emotions travel faster and farther.53
EXAMPLE BP’s new CEO after the Gulf oil spill—Bob Dudley—responded
quickly to criticism that the company valued profit and efficiency more than
safety—a focus on a market rather than hierarchy culture. In order to foster more
of a hierarchical culture, he sent a memo to all employees indicating “that safety
would be the sole criterion for rewarding employee performance in its operating
business for the fourth quarter.”54 These types of rewards will need to be offered
long term if the company truly wants to change employees’ basic underlying
assumptions regarding safety.
9. Rites and Rituals The power of this dimension of organizational culture is seen
again and again. Rites and rituals represent the planned and unplanned activities
and ceremonies that are used to celebrate important events or achievements.
EXAMPLE Employees at Boston advertising agency Arnold Worldwide
like to meet at a beer vending machine in the office, nicknamed Arnie, after
completing the day’s meetings with clients. “As they sip bottles of home-brewed
beer, employees exchange ideas and chitchat, often sticking around the office
instead of heading to a nearby bar.” While this ritual can surely facilitate clan,
adhocracy, and market cultures, organizations need to be careful about
encouraging drinking at work. Employment lawyers caution that drinking at work
“can lead to driving intoxicated, assault, sexual harassment or rape. Plus, it may
make some employees uncomfortable while excluding others, such as those who
don’t drink for health or religious reasons.”55
Financial and human resources staffing firm Salo LLC, located in Minneapolis,
uses a “safer” set of rites and rituals to reinforce a clan and market-based culture (see
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 499
10. The Workflow and Organizational Structure Hierarchical structures are
more likely to embed an orientation toward control and authority than a flatter organization.
This partly explains why leaders from many organizations are increasingly
reducing the number of organizational layers in an attempt to empower
employees and increase employee involvement.
EXAMPLE Novartis AG changed its organizational structure to foster the
creativity and productivity associated with adhocracy and market cultures. “Leaders
are seeing results from cross-functional product development teams. Job rotation
and cross-training are also successful. Creating informal networking opportunities
sounds trivial, but the evidence is strong that relationships heavily impact
productivity and creativity.”57
In contrast, both pharmaceutical maker Pfizer Inc. and water technology system
provider Xylem Inc. added organizational layers—more hierarchy—in order to comply
with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and to keep accurate records. The law prohibits
US-based companies from bribing foreign officials in exchange for business.58
EXAMPLE Pfizer consolidated its compliance systems by combining “separate
departments around the world into one office, based in New York, which reports to
the company’s chief executive.”
EXAMPLE Xylem created a global anticorruption program. “It placed ‘oversight
committees’ in each of the company’s three divisions to help implement the
program. The groups report to a broader oversight committee at the company’s
headquarters in White Plains, N.Y.”59
11. Organizational Systems and Procedures Companies are increasingly using
electronic networks as a tool to promote different types of cultures. Disney, for
LLC Uses Rites and Rituals to Embed a Clan and
When customer requests come in to a particular office, “they are posted on a wall-sized whiteboard, and can only
recorded, altered or erased by the salesperson who landed the client.”
A WHITEBOARD AND GONG ARE USED AS KEY ARTIFACTS The whiteboards are visible to everyone and they
have become “a center hub of activity,” according to Adam Sprecher, a managing director at the firm. When a new
name goes up on the board, Sprecher says, “there’s a little anxiety of ‘OK, here we go! Now it’s time to perform.’
Colored pens are used to indicate the status of a project. Initial clients are listed in black, and then updated in
or orange as candidates are added or eliminated. A red check mark means it is time to start thinking about new
Another artifact, a big brass gong, is used to reinforce a market orientation. When a deal is completed, the
rings the gong. “People get up and cheer and clap.” Other teams in the company replace the gong with chest
bumps or victory dances.
RITUALS ALSO USED TO AVOID JINXING A DEAL Salo employees have developed rituals aimed at increasing
sales. Managing director Gwen Martin said, “When we are about to lock a deal down, it’s bad luck to high-five each
because you might jinx it.” But some acknowledgment seemed appropriate. “So you do a ‘pinkie-five’ instead.”56
1. How are clan and market cultures being reinforced by Salo?
2. How comfortable would you be working at a company like Salo that so overtly organizes culture around rites,
rituals, and even the need to avoid jinxes?
3. Which industries are the best fit for Salo’s cultural approach, and why?
500 PART 3 Organizational Processes
example, has invested over $1 billion in big data technology in order to determine the
best way to provide customer service, a characteristic of market cultures.60
EXAMPLE Employees of Canada-based International Fitness Holdings, a health
club group, use a Facebook-like application to “recognize peers by posting
messages to a public ‘team wall’ as well as through private e-mails. . . . Each
employee receives an annual bank of 300 Kudos points to award to coworkers.
Once awarded, these points may be traded for prizes such as paid time off, gas
cards or restaurant gift certificates.” Employees can allocate points in 5-to-50-point
increments depending on the importance of the behavior.61 What type of culture
would this system promote?
EXAMPLE In San Francisco, Hearsay Social Inc., a social-media software
company, uses online technology to collect peer performance feedback, which can
promote any of the four culture types in the CVF. The feedback in turn is used to
determine employees’ performance evaluation. Managers feel that the performance
evaluations are more accurate because they are based on input from multiple
EXAMPLE LifeSize Communications, a video conferencing company in Austin,
Texas, uses an internal online network to promote collaboration (clan) and
increased sales (market). A salesperson recently used the system to close a deal.
The person wanted “advice about how to sell a product against a competitor.” To
get ideas, the salesperson logged onto the network “to access content posted by a
LifeSize partner in South Africa. It describes an approach he used to win business
against that competitor.”63
12. Organizational Goals and Criteria throughout the Employee Cycle How
a company handles basic HR duties—for recruitment, selection, development, promotion,
layoffs, and retirement of people—defines and perpetuates a company culture.
Zappos, ranked as the 38th best place to work by Fortune in 2014, spends a
great deal of time trying to hire people who fit into its clan-based culture (see
EXAMPLE Zappos Works Hard to Recruit and Select People Who Fit Its Culture
Here is what Rebecca Ratner, Zappos’s HR director, had to say about the company’s approach to recruitment and
“We spend seven to 10 hours over four occasions at happy hours, team building events, or other things outside the
office. We can see them, and they can us.” The process seems to be good for retention. “In 2009, we had a 20
turnover rate,” says Ratner. That is impressive for call centers. What keeps people at Zappos? “We pay 100 percent
employee benefits,” . . . and then there’s the wow factor.
“We can’t ask people to wow a customer if they haven’t been wowed by us,” says Ratner. Zappos is so eager to
employees and make sure who they hire is committed that they offer people $3,000 after they’ve been trained to
away if they feel they and Zappos aren’t a good fit. Almost no one takes the $3,000 walk-away money. But many
return for more Zappos training to become managers. 64
1. Why would Zappos’s approach to recruiting result in greater person–organization fit?
2. As a potential employee, what would your concerns be attending a happy hour as part of your employer’s
3. Identify one of the unique things that Zappos does in its recruitment, and explain how that one thing adds to
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 501
SELF-ASSESSMENT 14.2 What Type of Organizational Culture Do I Prefer?
Go to connect.mheducation.com and complete Self-Assessment 14.2. It measures your
preferred type of organizational culture. After answering the following questions, results
from this assessment will be used in the associated Take-Away Application.
1. What is the rank order of your preferred culture types?
2. To what extent does your preferred culture type affect your job satisfaction?
TAKE-AWAY APPLICATION—TAAP What Is My Level of Person–Organization Fit?
Use results from Self-Assessments 14.1 and 14.2 to answer the following questions.
1. First, compute the gap between your preferred and actual culture types for clan,
adhocracy, market, and hierarchy. Do this by subtracting the actual culture type
score (Self-Assessment 14.1) from the preferred type score (Self-Assessment 14.2).
Where are your largest gaps?
2. Make a plan to improve your person–organization fit. Focusing on your two largest
culture type gaps, determine what is causing the gaps. You will find it helpful
to look at the survey items that measure these types to determine the cause of
3. Now use the 12 embedding mechanisms just discussed and suggest at least two
things you can do and two things your manager might do to improve your level
4. How would you assess whether or not the changes you identified in question 3
are working? Be specific.
Don’t Forget about Person–Organization Fit Now that we have described the
four key types of organizational culture and the mechanisms managers can use to
change culture, it’s time to reflect on your person–organization (PO) fit. Recall that
PO fit reflects the extent to which your personality and values match the climate and
culture in an organization. Your PO fit matters because it links to positive work attitudes
We have two activities for you to complete to determine your level of fit and
what you can do about it. The first is to take Self-Assessment 14.2. It measures your
preference for the four types of culture in the CVF. The second is a Take-Away Application
that asks you to compute the gap between your organization’s current culture
and your preferred culture. These gaps will then be used to make a plan of
action for improving your PO fit.
502 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Organizational socialization is defined as “the process by which a person learns
the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a
member of the organization.”66 This definition highlights that organizational socialization
is a key mechanism used by organizations to embed their organizational cultures,
particularly for new employees. In short, organizational socialization turns
outsiders into fully functioning insiders by promoting and reinforcing the organization’s
core values and beliefs. This section introduces a three-phase model of organizational
socialization and examines the practical application of socialization research.
A Three-Phase Model of Organizational Socialization
One’s first year in a complex organization can be confusing. There is a constant swirl
of new faces, strange jargon, conflicting expectations, and apparently unrelated events.
Some organizations treat new members in a rather haphazard,
sink-or-swim manner. More typically, though, the socialization
process is characterized by a sequence of identifiable steps.
Organizational behavior researcher Daniel Feldman has
proposed a three-phase model of organizational socialization
that promotes deeper understanding of this important process.
As illustrated in Figure 14.5, the three phases are:
1. Anticipatory socialization
3. Change and acquisition
Each phase has its associated perceptual and social processes.
Feldman’s model also specifies behavioral and affective outcomes
that can be used to judge how well an individual has
been socialized. The entire three-phase sequence may take
from a few weeks to a year to complete, depending on individual
differences and the complexity of the situation.
How can the practical lessons of socialization research be
integrated within the three phases of socialization?
THE BIGGER PICTURE
Take a moment and think back to the last time you started a new job. Were you nervous and
confused about what to do? Did someone help guide you through the transition? If not, you
probably had an uncomfortable few days. If someone did help, then you experienced a form of
proactive socialization. All of us have been socialized at one time or another. It’s a natural aspect
of starting a new job at any company. It’s important to understand the socialization process
because it ultimately affects your work attitudes and performance. You will learn about a
three-phase model of organizational socialization and practical lessons based on socialization
14.4 THE ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION PROCESS
Imagine the feelings that this new employee might
have about starting a job. What emotions might he be
experiencing? Excitement? Worry? Challenge? How can
companies help new employees to “fit in” during the
first few weeks of employment?
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 503
Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization The anticipatory socialization phase occurs
before an individual actually joins an organization. It is represented by the
information people have learned about different careers, occupations, professions,
and organizations. Anticipatory socialization information comes from many
sources. An organization’s current employees are a powerful source of anticipatory
socialization. So are the Internet and social media. For example, a recent survey of
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), the largest professional services firm in the world,
uses several web-based sources to attract potential employees. “PwC’s early identification
strategy is supported by the pwc.tv website, Feed Your Future magazine
(downloadable through pwc.tv; it showcases the lives/careers of PwC professionals),
and Leadership Adventure (face-to-face learning programs that emphasize the
SOURCE: Adapted from D. C. Feldman, “The Multiple Socialization of Organization Members,” Academy of Management Review, April 1981, 309–381. Copyright ©
Academy of Management. Reprinted with permission of Academy of Management, via Copyright Clearance Center.
FIGURE 14.5 A MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION
1. Anticipatory socialization
Learning that occurs prior to
joining the organization
Values, skills, and attitudes start to
shift as the new recruit discovers
what the organization is truely like
3. Change and acquisition
Recruit masters skills and roles
and adjusts to the work group’s
values and norms
• Anticipating realities about the organization
and the new job
• Anticipating the organization’s needs for
one’s skills and abilities
• Anticipating the organization’s sensitivity to
one’s needs and values
• Managing lifestyle-versus-work conflicts
• Managing intergroup role conflicts
• Seeking role definition and clarity
• Becoming familiar with task and group
• Competing role demands are resolved
• Critical tasks are mastered
• Group norms and values are internalized
• Performs role assignments
• Remains with organization
• Spontaneously innovates
• Generally satisfied
• Internally motivated to work
• High job involvement
Perceptual and Social Processes
504 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Unrealistic expectations about the nature of the work, pay, and promotions are
often formulated during Phase 1. Because employees with unrealistic expectations
are more likely to quit their jobs in the future, organizations may want to use realistic
job previews. A realistic job preview (RJP) involves giving recruits a realistic idea
of what lies ahead by presenting both positive and negative aspects of the job.
EXAMPLE The Hilton Baltimore demonstrates to housekeeping job applicants
how to make a bed. The company then asks the applicant to do it him/herself.
Tishuana Hodge, regional director of HR, said, “We can see who is genuinely
interested and physically up to the challenge” after the RJP.68
EXAMPLE “Applicants of the Idaho State Police are introduced to the sights and
sounds of a law enforcement environment, bringing them into immediate contact
with future colleagues—and unsavory characters that create a need for police.” 69
EXAMPLE AT&T, which has used RJPs for over 20 years, uses face-to-face
meetings and videos to provide applicants RJPs. “One of its newer live realistic job
previews gives insight to potential technicians responsible for installing AT&T’s fiber
optic technology and computer networking. Technicians also teach customers how
to use the merchandise.” AT&T does this because it needs “someone who has the
technical knowledge to install the product and who can also deliver premier
Research revealed that RJPs were related to higher performance and to lower attrition
from the recruitment process. Results also demonstrated that RJPs lowered job
applicants’ initial expectations and led to lower turnover among those applicants
who were hired.71
Phase 2: Encounter This second phase begins when the employment contract has
been signed. During the encounter phase employees come to learn what the organization
is really like. It is a time for reconciling unmet expectations and making
sense of a new work environment. Many companies use a combination of orientation
and training programs to socialize employees during the encounter phase. Onboarding
is one such technique. Onboarding programs help employees to integrate,
assimilate, and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies,
procedures, culture, and politics and by clarifying work-role expectations and
responsibilities.72 A recent corporate survey revealed that roughly 73 percent of organizations
rely on onboarding programs, but only 51 percent of the respondents
believed they were effective.73
There is no set way to onboard a new employee. The Example box illustrates a
variety of methods used at different organizations.
EXAMPLE Companies Use Different Approaches to Onboard Employees
The first day on the job can be filled with completing boring paperwork regarding benefits and dull presentations
the company’s history, mission, and values. While these activities are important, other companies try to find more
ways for employees to spend their first few days and weeks at work.
FACEBOOK USES A BOOTCAMP Facebook asks new hires to complete all necessary paperwork prior to starting
work. This enables the company to send new employees right into its “Bootcamp” program. This six-week program
used for new engineering recruits. Bootcampers are first given a computer and desk and then are asked to open
laptops. They generally find six e-mails. “One welcomes them to the company; the other five describe tasks they’re
supposed to perform, including fixing bugs on the Facebook site.” The program has multiple goals. One is to
the belief that employees “have the power to push changes directly onto the Facebook site. . . . Another is to
independence and creativity. At Facebook there isn’t one way to solve problems; there are many—and everyone is
encouraged to come up with his own approach.” Bootcampers also are paired up with mentors who coach
on how to best get through the first few weeks.74
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 505
Phase 3: Change and Acquisition The change and acquisition phase requires
employees to master important tasks and roles and to adjust to their work group’s
values and norms. This will occur only when employees have a clear understanding
about their roles and they are effectively integrated within the work unit. Being successful
in Phase 3 also necessitates that employees have a clear understanding regarding
the use of social media. It is easy for you to create problems for yourself by not
being aware of expectations regarding surfing, texting during meetings, and sending
personal messages on company equipment. Experts suggest setting ground rules on
the first day of employment, coaching employees on norms, and discussing how
guidelines have changed over time.78 Finally, success during this phase is enhanced
ROVER.COM, RACKSPACE INC., AND BAZAARVOICE USE NOVEL METHODS
Dog-boarding site Rover.com asks new developers to create live updates on the company’s website on their first
at work. Web-hosting firm Rackspace uses a four-day orientation complete with “games, skits, costumes, thumping
music, and a limbo bar” to onboard its new employees.
Bazaarvoice, a company that markets social commerce
solutions to business problems, “sends
incoming employees on a weeklong scavenger hunt
designed to bring them up to speed on company culture
APPLE FOCUSES ON SECRECY
Apple’s onboarding is a combination of a standard orientation,
challenges, secrecy threats, and peer coaching.
“Many employees are hired into so-called dummy
positions, roles that aren’t explained in detail until after
they join the company.” New employees are given
very limited information outside of the half-day orientation
that includes a welcome package containing
all the paperwork to be completed. For example, employees
are not taught how to connect their newly issued
computers to the network. It is assumed that this
complicated endeavor is no big deal for tech-savvy
individuals. Employees also are given a “secrecy briefing,” which is referred to as Scared Silent. Employees are
about the importance of secrecy and security and are told that swift termination comes to anyone who talks about
Apple’s secrets outside of work. Apple does help hew employees in one important way. They are assigned an
a peer outside the primary work team “who can serve as a sounding board, someone for the bewildered new
to ask questions.”76
AMERICAN INFRASTRUCTURE LIKES THE BUDDY SYSTEM
This civil construction, mining, and manufacturing company assigns new employees an onboarding “buddy.” The
is supposed to help the recruit learn about the corporate culture “and to provide them with the opportunity to ask
gain clarification, and share best practices from their previous organizations.” All new employees also are required
“to wear a ‘green’ hard hat on all of their job locations for the first 90 days in order to signal to their fellow
that they are new to the organization.” This enables new employees to be treated with special care and concern at
1. Which of these onboarding methods is most appealing to you? Why?
2. Which of these onboarding methods is least appealing to you? Why?
3. What are the drawbacks of Apple’s approach of hiring employees into dummy positions (for reasons of secrecy)?
What are the trade-offs?
These individuals are playing a game at an onboarding session.
How can playing games help someone adjust during the
506 PART 3 Organizational Processes
when companies take a long-term approach toward socialization. Miami Children’s
Hospital (MCH) is a great example in that it uses goal setting, continued support,
employee feedback, incentives, and a graduation ceremony to help employees
through this final phase of socialization.
EXAMPLE Socialization at Miami Children’s Hospital (MCH) is driven by the need
to reduce turnover among new employees. The goal is to reduce new employee
turnover by 50 percent. Support is provided in two ways. First, all new employees are
assigned an MCH “buddy” who is trained in communication, coaching, and mentoring
skills. New recruits shadow their buddy for the first 40 hours at work and then meet
weekly to discuss any issues that come up. New employees also are supported by
their direct supervision through this phase. This is facilitated by mandatory lunch
meetings at 30- and 60-day milestones to discuss the onboarding experience. For
feedback on the newcomer’s transition, the hospital uses an online survey that
employees complete at 30, 60, and 90 days. Results are reviewed monthly by
management and further actions are taken whenever the socialization process
appears to be failing. These results also are used to motivate the buddies, who are
rewarded when the new hire rates the onboarding experience as effective. Finally,
“new employees reunite at 90 days for a two-day culture-shaping retreat where they
get to engage with their peers and experience the ‘MCH Way.’ This includes a
graduation celebration that is attended by senior leaders and managers.” 79
Table 14.2 presents a list of socialization processes or tactics used by organizations
to help employees through this adjustment process. Turning to Table 14.2, can
you identify the socialization tactics used by MCH?
To what extent have you been adequately socialized? If it is high, then all is well. If
your socialization is medium to low, you may need to find a mentor: Mentoring is discussed
in the next section. Take a moment to complete Self-Assessment 14.3. It measures
the extent to which you have been socialized into your current work organization.
SELF-ASSESSMENT 14.3 Have You Been Adequately Socialized?
Go to connect.mheducation.com and complete Self-Assessment 14.3. Then answer the
1. What is your level of socialization? Are you surprised by the results?
2. Based on your results and what you have learned about socialization, what advice
would you provide to your organization to improve its socialization process?
Practical Application of Socialization Research
Past research suggests five practical guidelines for managing organizational socialization.
1. Effective onboarding programs result in increased retention, productivity, and
rates of task completion for new hires.80 This reinforces the conclusion that
managers should avoid a haphazard, sink-or-swim approach to organizational
socialization because formalized and proactive socialization tactics positively
affect new hires.81
2. More and more organizations use socialization tactics to reinforce a culture
that promotes ethical behavior. Managers are encouraged to consider how they
might best set expectations regarding ethical behavior during all three phases of
the socialization process.82
3. Managers need to help new hires integrate within the organizational culture
and overcome the stress associated with working in a new environment. The
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 507
type of orientation program used to socialize employees affects their expectations
and behavior. A study of 72 new Asian international graduate students
revealed that they had more accurate expectations, felt less stress, reported
better adjustment, and had higher retention rates when the orientation program
focused on coping with new-entry stress.83 Consider the approach used by John
Chambers, CEO of Cisco Systems: “He meets with groups of new hires to
welcome them soon after they start, and at monthly breakfast meetings workers
are encouraged to ask him tough questions.”84
4. Support for stage models is mixed. Although there are different stages of socialization,
they are not identical in order, length, or content for all people or
jobs.85 Managers are advised to use a contingency approach toward organizational
socialization. In other words, different techniques are appropriate for
different people at different times.
5. Managers should pay attention to the socialization of diverse employees. Research
has demonstrated that diverse employees, particularly those with disabilities,
experienced different socialization activities than other newcomers. In turn,
these different experiences affected their long-term success and job satisfaction.86
ALTERNATIVE TACTICS AND
WHICH IS THIS AN EXAMPLE
COLLECTIVE VS. INDIVIDUAL EXAMPLE
Grouping newcomers and exposing
them to a common set of
Treating each newcomer individually
and exposing him or her to more or
less unique experiences.
All new hires attend an orientation
session on the same day.
SEQUENTIAL VS. RANDOM EXAMPLE
Segregating a newcomer from
regular organization members during
a defined socialization period.
No effort to clearly distinguish a
newcomer from more experienced
Army recruits must attend boot camp
before they are allowed to work
alongside established soldiers.
FIXED VS. VARIABLE EXAMPLE
Management setting a timetable for
the assumption of the role.
Management setting no timetable
and relying on contingencies for
assumption of role.
American university students typically
spend one year apiece as freshmen,
sophomores, juniors, and seniors.
SERIAL VS. DISJUNCTIVE EXAMPLE
The newcomer socialized over time
with help of an experienced member.
The newcomer not provided a role
A buddy system of orientation.
INVESTITURE VS. DIVESTITURE EXAMPLE
The affirmation of a newcomer’s
incoming global and specific role
identities and attributes.
The denial and stripping away of the
newcomer’s existing sense of self and
the reconstruction of self in the
During police training, cadets are
required to wear uniforms and
maintain an immaculate appearance;
they are addressed as “officer” and
told they are no longer ordinary
citizens but representatives of the
TABLE 14.2 SOCIALIZATION TACTICS
Examples in each row illustrate one or the other of the alternatives. Which one?
SOURCE: Descriptions adapted from B. E. Ashforth, Role Transitions in Organizational Life: An Identity-Based Perspective (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
508 PART 3 Organizational Processes
The modern word mentor derives from Mentor, the name of a wise and trusted counselor
in Greek mythology. Terms typically used in connection with mentoring are
teacher, coach, sponsor, and peer. Mentoring is defined as the process of forming
and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety
of developers (i.e., people who provide career and psychosocial support) and a
junior person (the protégé, if male; or protégée, if female). 87 Mentoring can serve to
embed an organization’s culture when developers and the protégé/protégée work in
the same organization for two reasons. First, mentoring contributes to creating a
sense of oneness by promoting the acceptance of the organization’s core values
throughout the organization. Second, the socialization aspect of mentoring also promotes
a sense of membership.
Not only is mentoring important as a tactic for embedding organizational culture,
but research suggests it can significantly influence the protégé/protégée’s future
career.88 This section reviews the functions of mentoring, the developmental networks
underlying mentoring, and the personal
and organizational implications of
Functions of Mentoring
Kathy Kram, a Boston University researcher,
conducted in-depth interviews
with both members of 18 pairs of senior
and junior managers. As a by-product of
this study, Kram identified two general
functions—career and psychosocial—of
the mentoring process.
Five career functions that enhanced career
2. Exposure and visibility
5. Challenging assignments
What are the four developmental networks and how can I use
them to advance my career?
THE BIGGER PICTURE
Everyone can benefit from mentoring. We have! This section can help you to improve your
development networks underlying mentoring, which ultimately should help you obtain career
satisfaction and promotions.
14.5 EMBEDDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Big Brothers Big Sisters is the largest volunteer mentoring network in the
United States. The organization has paired adults with children for over 100
years. A survey of former children in the progam revealed that 83 percent
obtained values and principles that influenced them throughout their lives.
Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring CHAPTER 14 509
Four psychosocial functions were:
1. Role modeling
2. Acceptance and confirmation
The psychosocial functions clarified the participants’ identities and enhanced their
feelings of competence.89
Developmental Networks Underlying Mentoring
Mentoring is currently viewed as a process in which protégés and protégées seek developmental
guidance from a network of people, who are referred to as developers.
McKinsey & Company tells its associates, “Build your own McKinsey.” This slogan
means the consulting firm expects its people to identify partners, colleagues, and
subordinates who have related goals and interests so that they can help one another
develop their expertise. Each McKinsey associate is thus responsible for his or her
own career development—and for mentoring others. As McKinsey’s approach recognizes,
the diversity and strength of a person’s network of relationships are instrumental
in obtaining the type of career assistance needed to manage his or her career.90
Figure 14.6 presents a developmental network typology based on integrating the
diversity and strength of developmental relationships.91
Diversity of Developmental Relationships Diversity of developmental relationships
reflects the variety of people within the network an individual uses for
developmental assistance. There are two subcomponents associated with network
diversity: (1) the number of different people the person is networked with and (2) the
various social systems from which the networked relationships stem (e.g., employer,
school, family, community, professional associations, and religious affiliations). As
shown in Figure 14.6, developmental relationship diversity ranges from low (few
people or social systems) to high (multiple people or social systems).
FIGURE 14.6 DEVELOPMENTAL NETWORKS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTORING
Developmental relationship strength
Developmental relationship diversity
D3 D4 D3 D4
Key: D, developer; P, protégé
SOURCE: From M. Higgins and K. Kram, “Reconceptualizing Mentoring at Work: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy
of Management Review, April 2001, 270. Copyright © 2001 by Academy of Management. Reprinted with permission of Academy
of Management, via Copyright Clearance Center.
510 PART 3 Organizational Processes
Developmental Relationship Strength Developmental relationship
strength represents the quality of relationships among the individual and those
involved in his or her developmental network. For example, strong ties are reflective
of relationships based on frequent interactions, reciprocity, and positive
affect. Weak ties, in contrast, are based more on superficial relationships. Together,
the diversity and strength of developmental relationships result in four
types of developmental networks (see Figure 14.6): receptive, traditional, entrepreneurial,
and opportunistic. It is important that you do not ignore weak ties
because they very frequently lead to job opportunities.92
A receptive developmental network is composed of a few weak ties from one
social system such as an employer or a professional association. The single oval
around D1 and D2 in Figure 14.6 indicates two developers who come from one social
system. In contrast, a traditional network contains a few strong ties between an
employee and developers that all come from one social system. An example would be
your creating a strong developmental relationship with your boss and one colleague
at work. An entrepreneurial network, which is the strongest type of developmental
network, is made up of strong ties among several developers (D1–D4) who come
from four different social systems. In this case, you would develop strong ties with
your boss and one internal colleague, but you also would develop a good network
with people from other organizations. Finally, an opportunistic network is associated
with having weak ties with multiple developers from different social systems.
Personal and Organizational Implications
There are six key implications to consider:
1. You should foster a broad developmental network because the number and quality
of your contacts will influence your career success. In doing this, keep in mind
the comments of two networking experts: “Relationships are living, breathing
things. Feed, nurture, and care about them; they grow. Neglect them; they die.93
It’s very important to invest time in your developmental relationships.
2. Look to the consistency or congruence between your career goals and the type
of developmental network at your disposal. This alignment has a big influence
on job and career satisfaction. For example, if you are interested in a job in finance,
then try to develop relationships with people with a finance background.
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