Please put the correct directional term in each blank. Use the anatomical term that
describes the relationship of the two parts listed. For example: The radius is proximal to
the carpals. Do not use any term more than once. Assume that all the bones are in a
human in the anatomical position.
1. The Medial malleolus of the tibia is ______________ to the medial condyle.
2. The pubic symphysis is _____________ to the sternum.
3. The skull is _______________ to the brain.
4. The carpals are __________________ to the metacarpals.
5. The mastoid process is __________________ to the mandibular ramus.
6. The ulna is ________________ to the radius.
7. The mandible is ___________________ to the cervical vertebrae.
8. The ribs are _____________________ to the sternum.
9. The thoracic vertebrae are _________________ to the lumbar vertebrae.
10. The vomer bone is ___________________ to the palatine bone.
Read the following case study and then answer the questions. All the information you
need to figure this out is in your book and your head. This incident happened in Japan
about twenty years ago.
A 13-year-old Caucasian girl of British descent went on a school ski trip. Her ski
bindings were set too tight. She fell and suffered a spiral fracture of the femur. She was
admitted to a Japanese orthopedic hospital. She was losing blood and had a rare blood
type, so surgery was not scheduled until she was stabilized and blood was available. Two
plates were screwed to the sides of her femur to position it properly. She recovered
What is a spiral fracture of the femur?
What caused her to get a spiral fracture of the femur?
Why was she bleeding? (Another child with same injury died of blood loss the same
week in the same hospital!)
Why were the doctors having trouble getting the blood she needed?
What was the purpose of the plates?
How were her osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts all involved in the healing process?
Her doctor emphasized to the family that her epiphysial plates had not been injured in the
accident. Why was this important?
She did not like hospital food and Japanese pediatric wards do not permit any outside
food to be brought into the hospital. What should her mother have fed her when she got
home and why?
List and explain 5 important functions of bones.
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