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Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis
Epidemiology entails studying disease appearance, its path, and elimination (Community
and Public Health, n.d). Tuberculosis is among the communicable diseases caused by the
bacteria Mycobacterium that targets the lungs. Tuberculosis is spread through the air from one
person to the other. If an individual that has lung TB coughs or sneezes, the TB germs are
propelled to the air. When one inhales the air, he gets infected. Additionally, a few germs inhaled
can make an individual get infected. TB conditions are of two types, the latent TB and TB
disease infection. The TB bacteria can lurk in the body, but an individual can stay for long
without getting sick. This type is latent TB infection. Individuals that breathe the same air
containing bacteria won’t get sick since their bodies fight back and stop the bacteria from
growing. Latent TB bacteria don't have any symptoms displayed in an individual, and they can't
spread to others. TB disease occurs when the bacteria gets active in the body and multiplies. It is
why people having latent TB infection get prescribed for medication to prevent the development
of the disease. Approximately one-quarter of people in the world's population have a latent TB
infection. In 2017, a reported 10 million people got infected with TB in the world. Close to 1.3
million deaths got reported worldwide. In the United States, there were a reported 9,105 cases of
TB in 2017 (CDC). This figure reflected 2.8 circumstances in every 100,000 people. However,
the statistic was a reduction from reported cases in the previous year in 2016 by 2.3% (CDC).
People who have TB bacteria infection have between 5-15% risk in their lives to fall ill with TB.
The risk is much higher on people who have compromised immune systems like tobacco users,
people suffering from malnutrition and living with HIV (CDC, 2012). Anyone can get TB since
prole infected with TB are everywhere at home, school, and even the workplaces. If an
individual develops active TB, its symptoms are usually mild for several months. It contributes
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS
to delays in seeking treatment which further leads to increased transmission to others. Individuals
having active TB can infect between 10-15 people by close contact in 12 months. TB affects
adults mostly during the productive years of their lives. Other age groups also face a similar
situation. An excess of 95% of the TB cases including related deaths are reported in the
developing nations. The people infected with HIV have 20-30 times the chance of developing the
active TB disease (CDC, 2012). In 2017, 1 million children between ages 0 to 14 got infected
with TB while 230,000 which comprised children living with HIV associated TB succumbed due
to the disease (WHO). Using tobacco significantly increases TB risk and death. Approximately
7.9% of cases involving TB globally are attributed to smoking.
Some of the common symptoms associated with active TB include coughs with sputum
and at times, blood, night sweats, fever, weight loss, and weakness. TB bacteria grow in the
lungs. Other symptoms associated with TB include loss of appetite, pain in the chest, and chills.
Several nations depend on the use of sputum smear microscopy ...