I need help in fixing my report

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timer Asked: Feb 28th, 2019
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Question Description

these are some comments i got to use them in fixing the report


Comments:

The SDS for each chemical needs to be included, you can summerize the effects and handling to make it shorter. The calculations should be labled to make it easier to se what you are calculating. For the sources of error, you have to explain what you would do differently and be specific on what your errors are and how you can fix those errors. The research connection has to be a article that you find online, summerize it, then compare it to your experiment. The discussion needs to include detail for both day one and day two experiments. The hypothesis needs to include a reason as to why you think it is magnesium sulfate. I suggest you look at the rubric on canvas, it explains everything you need and what you should include.

1: Elaborate more on hypothesis. 2: Expand more on the methods. 3: Separate each test for the methods used. 4: For safety separate each chemical and write down the Chemical name, mass, and hazards and precautions. 5: For results section make graphs and fill in with results for each trial.

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Lab report 1: detecting unknown chemical by using water samples. Hassan Alzahrani CHM2045L.909S19 Luciano Laratelli 2/21/2019 Introduction: determine inorganic contaminants present in water samples from different sources, and you will be giving a solid sample containing only one salt and using qualitative such as solubility quantitative tests such as volumetric and gravimetric analysis to identity the unknown compound. Background: we will be given an unknown chemical and we are going to try to find out what is it exactly from a given table of chemical elements by conducting various tests on it to differentiate it from the given table of elements. By using this way, we can identity the unknown chemical and confirmed what is it. Also, we can be determining if the compounded mixture has a part of the original composition. The project objective is first will be focusing on preparing the samples and test them than determining what is the unknown element. Theory: by using a variety of tests that will help us to know the properties of the compound. The tests include a flame test that can show the presence of a certain metal in the ionic compound, a conductivity test of the compound in water that tells us whether the material is an electrolyte or not, a pH test that shows if the compounded is acid or a base, and basic physical characteristic tests that includes smell, color, and appearance. Also, using Gravimetric analysis that help us to determine the expected amount of precipitate which uses a certain salt and volumetric with the solution such as NaOH with an acidic salt, or HCl with a basic salt. We use the equation of the neutralization reaction and stoichiometry so we could determine the expected amount of the titrant necessary for the reaction to complete, and if there were different values than what we were thought we will get than there will know the error we made. Hypothesis/Objectives: I think the unknown chemical is magnesium sulfate. The first week we determine 2 chemical compounded from the list by using some tests that I have mentions such as the physical characteristic test and we write them down on a paper to use them in the next week. In the second week, we start to use all the tests to identity the unknown compound Methods: We did the flame test by using HCl and H2O. the compound does not have any color smell, or other observable. We did the pH test and write down the result. Also, we did the solubility test, and it takes a little bit of time to be dissolved. The last test we did is Gravimetric Analysis on some of our samples. In this Gravimetric Analysis we did cupule steps, first we balanced the equation than calculating the mess of the product. We used the highest number we got from our samples and we drop a few of the solution of MgSO4 on the filter to prepare it for the precipitate. Than, we left the solution on the vacuum for a long time, but it did not dry there was error made which was 84% Safety: general items for the safety goggles, a lab coat, closed-toe shoes, gloves, and scrub pants. Being carful with using all the chemical such as Ethanol, Acetone, and HCl Asking the TA for help with using Bunsen Burner. Section: 2 (Hazard(s) Identification). Section: 7 (Handling). Section: 8 (Personal Protection). Wash hands. Dispose the water in the proper. Results: the unknown chemical was white and shiny and, on the Flame, Test the result does not have a color it was pure. On the pH test was 5.8. Solubility Test Ethanol dissolve and Acetone as well. Filter without Precipitate 0.0498 Precipitate Formed from Reaction: 0.025 Calculations: MgSO4 + Na2CO3 → Na2SO4 + MgCO3 the salt is MgSO4 0.0498*142.04=7.07g Discussion: magnesium sulfate is our unknown chemical because it is shiny, white solid, and doe not have a smell. Since we could not notice any unique characteristics in the compound, we decide to start with the flame test so we can have an idea about identification of certain metals in the salt, and the result was with not a color. Then we moved to the next step which doing the pH test. The next step was to try if the compound will be dissolved in a base or an acid, and our compound was dissolved in both. Than, we put the result on the filter. Sources of Error/Changes to the Experiment: The error was because we made a mistake in majoring the solution that we made, and the percentage of the error was so high which is 84%. Also, there was another mistake when we were using our solution on the vacuum on the filter, we can avoid these in the future. Research Connection: For unknown pollutants, we should use the high resolution mass spectrometry this is a good strategy to determine the Identification of the compound through effect-directed analysis. Researchers has used mass spectrometry and effect-directed analysis to find out the unknown pollutants. For example, the Researchers used it to identity an unknown element has harmed the environment. References 1. Ethanol. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ethanol#section=HazardsIdentification (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 2. Acetone. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/acetone#section=Safety-andHazards (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 3. Ammonium chloride. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ammonium_chloride#section=Safetyand-Hazards (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 4. Hydrochloric acid. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/hydrochloric_acid#section=HazardsIdentification (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 5. Calcium nitrate. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/calcium_nitrate#section=Decomposition (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 6. Kiper, R. A. calcium chloride. http://chemister.ru/Database/propertiesen.php?dbid=1&id=558 (accessed Feb 21, 2019). 7. Weiss, J. M.; Simon, E.; Stroomberg, G. J.; Boer, R. de; Boer, J. de; Linden, S. C. van der; Leonards, P. E. G.; Lamoree, M. H. Identification strategy for unknown pollutants using high-resolution mass spectrometry: Androgen-disrupting compounds identified through effect-directed analysis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102845/ (accessed Feb 21, 2019). General Chemistry I Lab Report Rubric – Project 1: Inorganic Salts Present in Water Samples Sections Sub-Sections / Descriptions Requirements Total Describe why it may be necessary to identify unknown chemicals in everyday life with specific examples. Background: A summary of a real-world example(s) and / or application(s) that affirm the importance / help introduce the chemistry of this lab. Note: Do not use the examples in the laboratory manual. If included in your laboratory report, no credit will be given. The example(s) and / or application(s) provided should demonstrate: - Research context for the problem(s) /2 and / or question(s) the experiment seeks to address. - Relate the problem to scientific theory, i.e. the qualitative/quantitative tests. - Explain how and why this research is important to conduct in the laboratory. Concepts that can be covered include, but are not limited to: Qualitative/Quantitative analysis -Solubility -Conductivity Introduction Theory: Provide an overview of the key scientific concepts / theories that explain how the experiment works. -pH -Flame test /2 -Gravimetric analysis -Volumetric analysis The overall goal of this section should be to help familiarize your readers (who may be non-scientists) with the topics you have introduced and the importance of your work. Hypothesis: A hypothesis should logically express what the researcher thinks the overall outcome of the lab should be. Objectives: The goal to be achieved at the end of each part of the experiment and a summary on how those goals will be attained. Hypothesis: From the physical properties of your unknown (texture, color, etc.), what chemical do you hypothesize your unknown to be. Remember to include your rationale for why you think your hypothesis is reasonable. Objectives: Explain the objective for each week of the experiment. - Provide a brief explanation of the investigational method you will execute for each objective. /2 The two main tasks of this section are to: Part 1 Methods: This section should contain all of the details recorded in your notebook on how the experiments were carried out. This includes numerical details such as mass, volume, temperature, reaction time, etc. Describe the exact laboratory apparatus and laboratory procedure a researcher utilized to collected empirical data. - i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware (with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc. Describe the process of how to analyze the collected empirical data. /2 Provide a step-by-step procedure for: -Solubility Note: Each experiment should have its own appropriate subheading. -Conductivity -pH test -Flame test -Analysis of ions The two main tasks of this section are to: Describe the exact laboratory apparatus and laboratory procedure a researcher utilized to collected empirical data. - i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware (with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc. Methods Part 2 Methods: See description above. /2 Describe the process of how to analyze the collected empirical data. Provide a step-by-step procedure for: -Gravimetric analysis, or -Volumetric analysis Use a table to organize the safety information for each chemical utilized during the course of the experiment. Safety: Should contain information on the chemicals used in this experiment and the necessary precautions taken when using them. There should also be information on any other physical hazards (i.e. fire, sharp objects, etc.) and the precautions you took. Please provide all the information stated below for each chemical utilized: - Chemical Name - Chemical Formula Molecular Weight Potential Hazards Safety Equipment Needed Please provide safety information on all laboratory equipment (excluding glassware) when applicable (ex. hot plate) - Equipment Name - Precautions Used /2 Part 1 Results: This section should contain all of the empirical data you obtained or calculated from the experiment you performed. Use a table to organize the empirical data you collected per trial for all the tests carried out. This includes but is not limited to: -Initial masses/volumes The data should be displayed appropriately, i.e. tabulated, graphed, etc. to make it easy for the reader to refer back to it in the corresponding discussion section. -Concentrations used/prepared /2 -Solubility -Conductivity -pH test Therefore, each table, graph, etc. should be numbered and titled appropriately. -Flame test -Analysis of ions Use a table to organize the empirical data you collected per trial for all the tests carried out. This includes but is not limited to: - Initial masses/volumes Results Part 2 Results: See description above. Calculations: Provide sample calculations for all equations used to analyze your results, even for nonobvious algebraic steps. For each type of calculation performed, this should include the mathematical formula and a sample calculation using that mathematical formula. Please number each sample calculation appropriately, to make it easier for the reader to refer to it in the corresponding discussion section. - Moles reacted Concentrations used/prepared /2 Gravimetric analysis Volumetric analysis Theoretical yield / concentrations Standard deviation Percent error Sample calculations to include are: - Dilution Formula, (M1 ∙ V1 = M2 ∙ V2) %wt. solution Preparing solutions Theoretical yield / concentrations Standard deviations Percent error /3 Discuss the results obtained in Results Part 1. Compare and contrast the theory you described in the introduction (this proves you understand the theory). Describe your data in detail, especially the vital information that will help bolster or refute your hypothesis. Part 1 Discussion: This portion of the paper should attempt to explain all of the results from the experiment in Part 1. You should also justify why certain decisions were made when carrying out the experiments (i.e. if there were options for techniques to be used, compounds to be tested, etc.). Compare the standards and your unknown so you can formulate a strong argument to prove the nature of your unknown. Does the data support your hypothesis or hypotheses, why or why not? /3 Does the scientific theory behind the experiment assist you in providing an explanation for your results? Use the values from your results to support your arguments and compare them to theoretical values if possible. Tip: Use page 37 in your lab manual to obtain literature / theoretical values for each of your tests under Supplemental Information and Online Resources. Discussion Discuss the results obtained in Results Part 2. Does the data support your hypothesis or hypotheses, why or why not? Use the values from your results to support your arguments and compare them to theoretical values if possible. Part 2 Discussion: See description above. Does the scientific theory behind the experiment assist you in providing an explanation for your results? Utilizing your calculated standard deviation and percent error values, compare the efficiency of the experimental technique you developed. /3 Sources of Error: Include any systematic and random errors that could possibly influence your results. Are your results reliable? Simply stating human error was present is not valid nor beneficial when considering how to improve your experimental methodology. - As the researcher, you need to mention Sources of Error: Discuss any major sources of error in the experiment that may have altered the experiment’s outcome. Discussion (continued) Changes to the Experiment: Discuss any changes you would make to the experiment (to reduce errors, make the experiment more practical, etc.) and explain why. the specific type of error that occurred during the experiment. Examples of appropriate sources of error are listed below but are not limited to: - Measuring errors, (i.e. chemicals) /3 - Improperly maintained equipment used during the experiment - Improper cleaning / contamination - Discuss the uncertainty of your experimental data by providing statistical analysis when appropriate, i.e. standard deviation can be referenced. Changes to the Experiment: Identify how you would alter your experimental methodology to reduce or minimize errors and increase the reproducibility of your empirical data. What was the purpose of the experiment? A goal of this section is to include a restate the experiment’s hypothesis and objectives. Conclusion In addition, a summary should be provided on whether or not your hypothesis was affirmed or denied based on your empirical data. Finally, briefly outline any major sources of error that could have given unexpected results. Did you learn anything new when you executed the experiment? How did you investigate the problem and why investigate in that specific way? What evidence did you obtain that strongly supported or refuted your hypothesis? As the researcher, after completing the experiment do are you still have any unanswered questions, i.e. is further inquiry and investigation needed, why or why not? /3 Pick a concept or a technique related to the experiment and find a recent peerreviewed scientific article. - (i.e. must have been published within the last five (5) years) Utilize a scientific search engine such as: - Google Scholar - Science Direct - Web of Science - USF Library E-Journals This section should summarize an article (published in an accredited scientific journal) that is related to the experiment that you executed in the laboratory. Research Connection You should describe the technique(s) used in the article, the motivations for performing the experiment(s), the main findings, and how these factors relate to the experiment you performed. Tip: Within your Canvas course there is a resource entitled ‘Searching the Literature for Sources’ that provides additional information on how to search the literature for appropriate research articles. When summarizing the article these are the questions you should answer: /3 What question(s) did the article address? What was / were the objective(s) of the article? What procedure(s) did they utilize to answer their proposed question(s)? What results did they collect and how did they analyze them? What were the conclusions of the experiment? Did the researchers answer their question(s) or is further inquiry and investigation needed? Any idea, concept, application etc., that did not originate from you personally must be cited. References Please utilize ACS (American Chemical Society) format and have both an in-text citation, as well as the full citation under the references heading. As a reminder, directly quoting an external source is unacceptable. You are required to paraphrase, in your own words, all cited information that appears in your laboratory report. Use ACS (American Chemical Society) citation format. All in-text citations should be cited with a superscript number and should match the appropriate cited external reference in the references section. Superscript numbers are issued based on the order they appear in the document. They are not based on the alphabetical last name of the author of the external source your citing. /3 All sections/ subsections, tables, charts, images, etc. headed appropriately. Size 12 font with Times New Roman is appropriate. An example utilizing the illustrated guidelines from the box directly to the left is written below. Use a font/ text that is agreeable to the eye (12-pt font, Times New Roman is the standard). Using the materials provided from the stockroom, the unknown sample was analyzed using the pH test…etc. In addition, gravimetric/volumetric analysis was carried out to… etc. All sections (except the results section) should be written in paragraph form. Overall Format Also, all writing should be in past tense, passive voice. Present or future tense may be used only in the Introduction. /3 Tip: On pp 60-61 of your laboratory manual, you will find additional information on general laboratory guidelines you may utilize to develop your laboratory report. Remember that the only sections allowed to be similar to your group members are the methods and results sections. Additional Information Reminder: You must submit a completed initial laboratory report to Canvas by the submission deadline for your course in order to receive the five (5) points allocated to that assignment. Partial points will not be given for incomplete initial lab reports.  Reminder: Plagiarism is unacceptable, so any form of plagiarism will result in a “0”. 40 Total Score  / 40 ...
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