Arsenic and Rice Discussion

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do a research about arsenic in rice use the outline that i uploaded

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Outline of lay science topic

1. Arsenic Compound

Arsenic is in organic and inorganic form and its freely nature in water, air, and soil. The ubiquitous metalloid has harmful effects depends on, the form of the compound, its oxidation state and the length of exposure. Inorganic arsenic is more toxic than the organic.

2. Arsenic in rice

Rice is the world’s second staple food after maize and it is grown in flooded soils. Farmers have used defoliants containing Arsenic for a long time offering a high possibility of Arsenic presence in the rice plants (Signes-Pastor et al., 2016). There is a well-established relationship between Arsenic and rice depending on the rice, where it is cultivated and the processing. Although the main source of exposure of the Inorganic Arsenic is in dietary intake smoking dry rice plants is another root of exposure. 

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Outline of lay science topic 1. Arsenic Compound Arsenic is in organic and inorganic form and its freely nature in water, air, and soil. The ubiquitous metalloid has harmful effects depends on, the form of the compound, its oxidation state and the length of exposure. Inorganic arsenic is more toxic than the organic. 2. Arsenic in rice Rice is the world’s second staple food after maize and it is grown in flooded soils. Farmers have used defoliants containing Arsenic for a long time offering a high possibility of Arsenic presence in the rice plants (Signes-Pastor et al., 2016). There is a well-established relationship between Arsenic and rice depending on the rice, where it is cultivated and the processing. Although the main source of exposure of the Inorganic Arsenic is in dietary intake smoking dry rice plants is another root of exposure. 3. Effects Inorganic Arsenic is among the top hazardous substances in the ATSDR register (ATSDR, 2018) Inorganic Arsenic is the first-level carcinogen with effects dependent on the quantity and the length of exposure. Infants and young children are more susceptible than adults in terms of per kilogram body weight. Rice together with its low allergic potential is a common fortifier for most of the infants' foods commonly used during from weaning. Long-term exposure increases the risk of lung, skin, bladder, prostate, liver and kidney cancers (Signes-Pastor et al., 2016). 4. The Maximum Tolerable Level Even though changes in the arsenic levels can occur during the preparation by use of contaminated water, there are regulations in trying to lower the Arsenic levels from farming to processing. Through the WHO expert committee, The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (JFA) made recommendations based on the risks for inorganic Arsenic intake (Hojsak et al., 2015). 2 Arsenic 5. Recommendation a) Regulation There should be more awakening regional monitoring of the rice Arsenic content and a combined effort put into place to lower the content. Regulation of dietary products susceptible to inorganic Arsenic should be stepped up especially for infants and kept as low as possible. Through Plant Biotechnology we can lower the levels at the farm level (Deng et al., 2018) b) Alternatives The chances of consuming contaminated rice are high depending on cultural orientations, fortified foods and poor regulations alternatives should span from the farmer to the consumers. Farmers should have alternative crops, populations to adopt other staple foods and companies to use other safe products to fortify infant foods and mothers to breastfeed their infants longer. Rice polish should be adopted for treatment of Arsenic contaminated water in the farms (Ranjan et al, 2009). c) Improved Farming methods The anaerobic cultivation conditions are the major factors for inorganic Arsenic mobilisation into the soil. The Alternate Wetting and Drying not only manages the amount water used but it controls weeds and lowers the arsenic levels (Price et al., 2013). d) Bio fortification alternatives There are other sources which can be used to fortify infant’s foods like the gold rice and therefore manufacturers should seek for more alternatives (Díaz-Gómez et al., 2017). 6. ways to determine Arsenic in rice 7. Conclusion The compound intake at childhood affects the longtime health. Using rice to fortify infants’ food spreads the risks of Inorganic Arsenic-related risks. Arsenic References Substance Priority List | ATSDR. (2018, November 13). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/spl/ Deng, F., Yamaji, N., Ma, J. F., Lee, S., Jeon, J., Martinoia, E., … Song, W. (2018). Engineering rice with lower grain arsenic. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 16(10), 1691-1699. doi:10.1111/pbi.12905 Díaz-Gómez, J., Twyman, R. M., Zhu, C., Farré, G., Serrano, J. C., Portero-Otin, M., … Christou, P. (2017). Biofortification of crops with nutrients: factors affecting utilization and storage. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 44, 115-123. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2016.12.002 Hojsak, I., Braegger, C., Bronsky, J., Campoy, C., Colomb, V., Decsi, T., … Van Goudoever, J. (2015). Arsenic in Rice. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 60(1), 142-145. doi:10.1097/mpg.0000000000000502 Price, A. H., Norton, G. J., Salt, D. E., Ebenhoeh, O., Meharg, A. A., Meharg, C., … Davies, W. J. (2013). Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice in Bangladesh: 3 Arsenic Is it sustainable and has plant breeding something to offer? Food and Energy Security, 2(2), 120-129. doi:10.1002/fes3.29 Ranjan, D., Talat, M., & Hasan, S. H. (2009). Rice Polish: An Alternative to Conventional Adsorbents for Treating Arsenic Bearing Water by Up-Flow Column Method. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(23), 10180-10185. doi:10.1021/ie900877p Signes-Pastor, A. J., Carey, M., & Meharg, A. A. (2016). Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children. Food Chemistry, 191, 128-134. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.078 4 ...
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