Running head: PROPOSAL
Proposal: The Rise and Fall of Civilization
San Diego State University
Civilizations have evolved since 3100 BC up to date and have different definitions and
meaning depending on the era. There is no single and exact definition of civilization. The general
and commonly used description is that civilization refers to an advanced state of human society
with highly developed forms of culture, government, and social norms (Sullivan, 2018).
Civilizations keep on developing from time to time, and they disappear as the natural environment
and time change. Why does civilization rise and fall? The main aim of this study will be to establish
when, where and why do civilizations develop. The analysis will consider the rise and fall of
civilization in Mesopotamia, Harappan Indus Valley, East Asia, and Egypt. The research will use
the literature reviews available to gather data and information for analysis. The search is crucial
because we need to understand how and why civilization develops, and the civilizations available
today (Krathwohl, 2019 ).
Researchers and authors have conducted numerous studies on when, where, and why do
civilizations develop and they have put forward different arguments and conclusions. They have
studied how the complex societies formed around rivers. Additionally, they have examined how
climate change and environmental degradation led to the collapse of these river-basin societies.
With the past studies and referencing Mesopotamia, Harappan Indus Valley, East Asia, and Egypt
it is possible to determine the reasons why civilization develops. The results and conclusion will
tell us why some people behave differently from others depending on their living area and
civilization. With these facts in mind, people will be able to know a civilization is about to start
and end which determines social, governmental, and cultural relationships during the civilization
period. The study is crucial because it will enhance the understanding of how civilization affects
our normal life.
Research Design and Methods
The research paper will collect data by searching for and analyzing the information from
the literature review. The formation of the river-basin societies in each country, that is,
Mesopotamia, Harappan Indus Valley, East Asia, and Egypt will be studied and data analyzed to
conclude. Secondly, the effects of climate change and environmental degradation on the collapse
of these river-basin societies will be investigated and analyzed.
The conclusion will explain the final results of the study in details. It will explain the
reasons for the rise and fall of civilizations as well as the reasons why civilizations develop. It will
also explain the conclusions arrived at and how the information is supposed to be used.
Understanding of human social systems is crucial.
Krathwohl, D. R. (2019, Feb 14, ). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Writing a
Research Proposal. Retrieved from USCLibraries:
Sullivan, N. (2018, August 15). What is Civilization? - Definition & Common Elements.
Retrieved from Study.com: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-civilizationdefinition-common-elements.html
Professor Dr. Abman
World History 100 Paper Guidelines
o Term paper: 6-7 double-spaced pages, font Times New Roman, size 12 with
o Papers must be typed and fastened with a single staple.
o Number the pages. Use footnotes or in-text citations to cite your sources for
every quotation and important statement of fact.
o Construct your paper using the course textbook and the reader.
o You are allowed one outside source: it can be a library book, academic articles
(published in peer-reviewed journals), or documents — not Wikipedia.
o Your paper must address one of the following themes of the course:
A) Rise and Fall of Civilization: When, where, and why do "civilizations" develop?
How did complex societies form around rivers? How did climate change and
environmental degradation lead to the collapse of these river-basin societies?
Consider Mesopotamia, Harappan Indus Valley, East Asia and Egypt.
B) First Empires and common cultures: How did climate change, migration and
technological innovations contribute to the world’s first great empires? Discuss the
transition from city-states to empires. Consider Sumerian city-states, Assyrians,
Babylonian and Persian Empires.
C) Axial Age: How did innovations in warfare, political upheaval, economic pressures
and social developments give rise to the ‘second-generation’ societies? Consider the
Zhou China, South Asia, the Mediterranean World, the Americas, and the subSaharan Africa?
D) Shrinking World and interaction between continents: How did civilizations
influence each other through transmission of knowledge from one place to another?
How did conquests of Alexander the Great and the influence of his successor states
spread Hellenism across Southwest Asia and into South Asia? Also consider the
Silk Road-cross cultural interactions, the Colombian Exchange, spread of Bubonic
Plague from Asia to Europe.
Paper Evaluation Checklist
___ Strong: clearly states argument; specifically outlines the paper’s direction
___ Moderate: convincing, but could be more specific or argumentative
___ Weak: vague, unclear, and general
___ Unacceptable: No discernable thesis and/or does not address prompt
___ Incisive, original, and consistent throughout the essay; supports thesis
___ Uneven: sharp on some points but not on others
___ No analysis: provides more description, summary and/or loses clarity
___ Too many vague, sweeping, all-inclusive generalizations
___ Conclusion moves beyond the body and offers something new
___ Conclusion restates the intro
___ Creative and lively style
___ Good use of historical context and background in the paper
___ Excellent use of required material; supports main arguments
___ Adequate use of required material; could have used more material
___ Does not use enough required course material to frame analysis
___ Repetitive; need to use a greater variety of evidence
___ Each paragraph contains a coherent idea
___ Paragraphs contain topic sentences and smooth transitions
___ Paragraphs are logically organized
___ Paragraphs are too long and contain too many ideas
___ Organization of paragraphs needs work
___ Transitions between paragraphs need work
___ Too many quotes
___ Use of Block quotes or excessively long quotes
___ Does not meet page or word requirement
___ Incorrect margins, fonts, or spacing
___ Incorrect use of footnotes or other citations
___ Grammatical errors
___ Awkward sentences
___ Essay not sufficiently proofread prior to submission
___ Passive voice
___ Confuses tenses or does not use past tense
___ Late paper
Suggestions for Improvement
___ Use simpler sentence structures
___ Avoid use of slang, colloquialisms, catch-phrases, or informal language
___ Use more primary documents rather than secondary source to delve deeper into the analysis
___ Be sure that the body and development of the paper supports the thesis
Professor: Dr. Abman
4 Steps to Writing a Good Thesis
1. Don’t start out broad and get narrow - and especially don’t talk about all of history or the world or
something such as that (Probably my biggest pet peeve EVER is “Throughout history” or “Throughout
time”). We will never ask you to answer a question that broad (and even if we did you couldn’t
answer it that broadly! You’d always pick a specific part to focus on.) If your paper’s thesis is too
broad it won’t be a good one; you’re going to want to zero in on your topic immediately.
2. Thesis = Argument. Your thesis is a succinct summation of your argument. It is the most important
aspect of a history paper because it organizes and directs your paper; everything flows from your
thesis. The remainder of the paper, the bulk of your writing, should be a justification/proof of your
thesis with evidence to support that argument. It is nearly impossible to stuff the ENTIRE argument of
an 6-7 page paper into one sentence. Don’t try! A good thesis will be at least 2 sentences, and
3. A thesis is more than a simple topic sentence or the re-phrasing of the prompt. A complete thesis
should have three main components. 1) WHAT? This is your main point and argument; 2) WHY? Your
thesis should have a phrase that explains “why” you think what you do. For example, if you want to
argue that, “This history class is the best ever,” your thesis should explain why you think so. Ex: “The
clear lectures, the interesting readings, and my dedicated TA make this the best history class ever.”;
3) HOW? Tell the reader how you will go about proving your argument. What types of evidence will
you analyze? From where will you draw your evidence?
4. When the reader (me) is done reading your introductory paragraph they should know exactly what
your paper’s gonna look like. I should know your main point, your evidence, and what your
conclusion about that evidence will be. HINT: Give your thesis paragraph to a friend but don’t tell
them what your paper is going to be about. Have them summarize for you what they think you’re
going to be arguing and what your paper is going to be about. Was it right? Great! If it wasn’t, ask
them to explain to you what language made them think your argument was something different than
you intended. Then go back and try to refine your thesis so it better reflects your intended argument.
Sample thesis and component breakdown:
“In addition to being a very nice person, Arabella is a great TA because of her caring
attitude, superb organizational skills, and her ability to communicate information
effectively. These strengths can be seen in her thorough comments on papers, section
planning, in her emails to individual students, and through her section discussions.”
WHAT (argument): In addition to being very nice person, Arabella is a great TA
WHY (basis of argument): due to her caring attitude, superb organizational skills,
and her ability to communicate information effectively.
HOW (evidence): These strengths can be seen in her through comments on
papers, section planning, and in both her emails to individual students and her
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