The Great Temperature Debate case study analysis

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Please use APA format, please use 3 scholarly references for in-text-citations with page numbers for each question.Please use reference, please include page numbers in every question cite. Please write 500 words before reference is added to bottom.

Complete analyses on the case study and respond by Sunday by 11:59pm CT.Please make sure you use proper academic resources and proper APA standards for each answer.

Read Case Study 3-1, The Great Temperature Debate, in your text(page 112 in book)

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H I G G S , A N G E L A 1 1 0 8 T S H I G G This is an electronic version of theS print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed , content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate A formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. N G E L A 1 1 0 8 T S 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. The Labor Relations Process, 10th Edition William H. Holley, Jr., Kenneth M. Jennings, Roger S. Wolters Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Publisher: Erin Joyner Senior Acquisitions Editor: Michele Rhoades Associate Developmental Editor: Conor Allen Senior Editorial Assistant: Ruth Belanger Marketing Manager: Gretchen Swann Content Project Management: PreMediaGlobal Manufacturing Planner: Ron Montgomery Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Jim Overly Production Service: PreMediaGlobal Rights Acquisitions Specialist (Text, Image): Sam Marshall Senior Art Director: Tippy McIntosh © 2012, 2009, 2005 South-Western, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com H ® ExamView is a registered trademark of eInstruction Corp. Windows I is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation used herein G license. Macintosh and Power Macintosh are registered under trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. used herein under license. G © S2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Library , of Congress Control Number: 2011936297 Cover and Internal Designer: Lisa M. Langhoff ISBN-13: 978-0-538-48198-4 Cover Image: ©Noel Hendrickson/Digital Vision, Getty Images ISBN-10: 0-538-48198-6 A N South-Western G 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason, E OH 45040 USA L A Learning products are represented in Canada by Cengage Nelson Education, Ltd. 1 1 Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our 0 preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com 8 T S For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 14 13 12 11 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. PART 1 Part 1 introduces the labor relations process that will be discussed throughout the book, placing it in historical and legal perH spectives. It also examines the difference I between union and management organizaG tions and their labor relations strategies. G S , A N G E L A 1 1 0 8 T S 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Recognizing Rights and Responsibilities of Unions and Management H I G G S , A N Chapter 1 G Union–Management Relationships in Perspective E Chapter 2 L Evolution of A Labor–Management Relationships Chapter 3 1 Legal Influences 1 0 Chapter 4 8 Unions and Management: Key Participants in the Labor Relations T Process S Chapter 5 Why and How Unions Are Organized 3 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 1 Union–Management Relationships in Perspective BOB SAT IN his office staring out the window and thinking H about the future. As the human resources manager of the firm, I Bob had just finished preparing an announcement to be sent to G all employees informing them that the company had just been G competitor. After 20 years of service, Bob was sold to a larger very proud Sof the employee relations that existed at his , wondered how things might change now that a company and larger corporation would be in charge. Although Bob’s unit was not unionized, A he knew that the new owner had a number of unionized facilities within its corporate structure. Bob had never N thought much G about what it would be like to manage in a unionized firm E and whether the management strategies he had relied upon throughout his career would be as effective or even L entirely legal. How might the labor relations process change if A he had to deal with employees as a group through their selected union representative rather than as individuals? Would there be an1effort to equalize employment terms and policies 1 and nonunion facilities of the new owner? between union 0 already representing employees at other similar Would unions facilities of 8the owner now seek to organize employees at Bob’s unit? T While Bob had more questions than answers about the immediate S future, he did resolve to be proactive by attempting to expand his current level of knowledge about the labor relations process. 4 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Questions 1. In your opinion, what is the biggest difference between managing employees in a unionized versus non-union firm? 2. In your opinion, does having other unionized facilities within a corporation’s operating units alter management’s approach to labor relations at its nonunion facilities and if so, give an example to illustrate what you mean. oday’s global economy presents many challenges and opportunities for both employers and employees. As organizations seek to use resources both efficiently and effectively, there will be inevitable tension over how best to manage those assets to benefit both H ownership and employees. The effective management of human resources is critical to I maintaining an organization’s competitiveness. Recognition of and respect for the legitimate interests of both labor and management are an important step in building and maintaining G work relationships capable of adapting to change in the competitive environment facing most G work relationships are built upon trust between ownership and organizations. Stable employees, which isS reflected in both the actions and words of the parties. Chapter 1 seeks to build a basic frame of reference for understanding the labor relations process by, first defining the three phases of the labor relations process and then placing this process into an analytical perspective. Chapter 1 introduces the activities, focal point, participants, and influences of the labor relations process, which are discussed in detail in subsequentAchapters. The chapter ends with a discussion of the current status of union membership N and the relevance of labor organizations in today’s economy. T G Phases in the Labor Relations E Process The labor relationsLprocess involves managers (representing the ownership interests) and a labor organization (union), selected by employees as their exclusive bargaining agent to A represent their interests engaging in the joint determination and administration of work rules. Where employees are not represented by a union, work rules are typically determined unilaterally by the 1 employer with the opportunity for individual bargaining between an employee and his or her employer at the employer’s discretion. The negotiation and admin1 demonstrate considerable variation across public- and private-sector istration of work rules organizations in the0United States, reflecting unique aspects of each organization. The labor relations process includes three basic phases: 8 1. Recognition of the legitimate rights and responsibilities of union and manageT ment representatives. Employees have a legal right to form and join a union or to refrain from doing S so (see Chapters 3 and 5). Labor law also sets forth the rights and responsibilities of management and union officials to abide by applicable laws and labor agreement (contract) terms. From a union’s perspective, phase 1 may be the most important phase because without gaining legal recognition as the exclusive bargaining representative of a group of employees in phase 1, the process does not proceed to phases 2 and 3. 2. Negotiation of the labor agreement, including appropriate strategies, tactics, and impasse resolution techniques. Contract negotiation involves union and management 5 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 6 PART 1 • Recognizing Rights and Responsibilities of Unions and Management representatives jointly determining work rules (policies) governing the parties’ rights and responsibilities affecting wages, hours, or other terms and conditions of employment (discussed in Chapters 6, 7, and 8). The outcomes of such negotiations have an important impact on a firm’s labor costs, management’s rights, and covered employees’ standard of living. Most interest disputes (i.e., a dispute over what the terms or conditions of employment or work rules will be) are resolved voluntarily by union and management negotiators during the bargaining process. Strikes, lockouts, mediation, and interest arbitration are examples of impasse resolution techniques (discussed in Chapter 9) that can be used to resolve an interest dispute. Phase 2 of the labor relations process generally receives the most media attention even though phases 1 and 3 are equally essential. 3. Administration of the negotiated labor agreement—the interpretation and application of labor contract terms on a daily basis. Once contract terms have been settled in phase 2, there is a need to apply those terms every day during the stated term or duration of the labor agreement. The contract enforcement phase of the labor relations process is generally accomplished through daily union and management H interactions and, when necessary, the use of a grievance-arbitration procedure to resolve rights disputesI (i.e., disputes over the interpretation or application of a contract’s terms, discussed G in Chapters 10, 11, and 12). Resolving rights disputes accounts for the most time and energy spent by union and management officials in G and usually involves a larger number of these officials the labor relations process than the preceding phases. S Of course, not all labor-management relationships progress smoothly through these three , phases. Indeed, employees and their chosen union representative at some public- and privatesector organizations have a difficult time moving from the recognition of an employee bargaining representative (phase A1) through the remaining two phases of the process.1 The phases of the labor relations process are subject to qualitative variation as well. N organizations vary in the amount of mutual trust and In the first phase, for example, respect union and management officials have for each other’s goals. In the second G phase, negotiations are carried out with different levels of intelligence, preparation, and E sincere desire to achieve results. The third phase may vary as to how well the negotiated L and effectively administered in good faith by both parties. labor agreement is understood There are probably as many different relationships as there are union and management A officials negotiating labor agreements. 1 Elements in the Labor Relations Process 1 Exhibit 1.1 provides a framework for the labor relations process. The elements shown 0 can be applied to the labor relations activities at a single or multiple facilities owned by a single company, or in an8entire industry. The exhibit cites three major elements: (1) the negotiation and administration T of work rules, which are the focal point of labor relations; (2) the key participants in the process, who are the union and management organizaS neutrals, and branches of government (administrative, legtions, employees, third-party islative, and judicial); and (3) the constraints or influences affecting the parties in their negotiation and administration of work rules. Focal Point of Labor Relations: Work Rules Any academic discipline needs a focal point so that research, investigation, and commentary can generate applicable insights. “Labor” or “industrial” relations can become a 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 1 • Union–Management Relationships in Perspective 7 Exhibit 1.1 Elements in the Labor Relations Process nology Tech La bo rM ar k io Product Market z a ti o n s gani Or N at nd C usto m ers et ark al M nci Fina na er l Lab or O ffic sa Third-Party Neutral Government: Executive, Legislative, Judicial Federal State Local rc es Oth er Membersh on ip ni Union Negotiators and Administrators d a l, S t a t e, a n Negotiation and Administration C H I G on rs su Sto c k h o ld ers it o lta p et nts G m o C S , Existence and Particular Content Loc ials fic Subc o ntra cto rs Management Negotiators and Administrators Work Rules U the Eco no my s State of s Sup itor pli ed Owners er Cr m e e g n a t n O a f M et Employees o lF na o i at ern Int A Pub N lic O pinion G E L broad topic including many academic concerns. For example, sociologists have examined A employee alienation; psychologists have investigated causes of job satisfaction and work motivation; economists have studied wage determination; and political scientists have assessed the impact1of union and management as interest groups attempting to influence government policy and legislative outcomes. John Dunlop’s1book Industrial Relations Systems provides a useful focal point for these diverse academic 0 approaches. Dunlop suggested that the center of attention in labor relations should be the work rules negotiated between management and union offi8 cials. Work rules facilitate the implementation of operational plans designed to accomplish an organization’s strategic goals. Work rules determine employees’ standard of T living and the work environment within which employees will spend a substantial porS external factors (e.g., state of the economy, technology, internation of their time. Today tional forces) play an increased role in determining the substance and type of work rules created by union and management representatives. It is important to understand the influences determining the creation and particular content of work rules.2 Work rules can be placed in two general categories: (1) rules governing compensation in all its forms (e.g., wages, overtime payments, vacations, holidays, shift premiums), and (2) rules specifying the employees’ and employers’ job rights and obligations, such as no employee strike or employer lockout during the term of the 9781285982953, The Labor Relations Process, Tenth Edition, Holley/Jennings/Wolters - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 8 PART 1 • Recognizing Rights and Responsibilities of Unions and Management labor agreement, performance standards, promotion qualifications and procedures, job specifications, and layoff procedures. Additional examples of work rules are furnished in Exhibit 1.2. Compensation work rules, such as a negotiated wage rate, often capture the attention of employees and the media because they are negotiation outcomes that are easier for most people to understand and compare. Union and management officials, however, may attach equal or greater importance to work rules regarding the second work rule category, job rights and obligations. For example, managers might be interested in obtaining a work rule that permits production employees to perform “minor repairs,” instead of requiring higher-paid maintenance employees to do the tasks. Managers are often adamant about retaining control over key operating decisions such as determining the number and types of employees, equipment and technology decisions, geographic location of company operations, and operating hours. About 39 percent of union contracts contain limitations on the right of management to require employees to work overtime, and some unions have sought work rules that would change the standard work week to less than 40 hours H required to earn full-time pay and benefits.3 Assuming the number of employee work hours required to meet a Ifirm’s work load is relatively stable, reducing the number of hours considered to be an employee’s full work week would theoretically require additional G employee positions or create more overtime work opportunities for union members. Work rules can vary G depending upon whether they are common or unique in the subject matter addressed and S vague or specific in the wording used to express the rule. Because work rules are the outcome of joint negotiation between union and management , typically gets the exact contract language it originally prerepresentatives, neither party ferred. Compromise language is often worded more generally, which allows room for interpretation and can lead to subsequent grievance disputes during the contract’s term A its interpretation of contract terms through job decisions as management implements and that interpretation is challenged by employees or their union representative through N the grievance dispute process. The wording or interpretation of work rules can also G change over time in response to changes in operating environments and the need for greater flexibility. E For example, the work rules for airline flight attendants today would most certainly L differ from the following three work rules formulated in the 1930s: A after takeoff, (2) prevent passengers from throwing lighted (1) swat flies in the cabin cigar butts out the windows, and (3) carry a railroad timetable in case of plane trouble. Today, the flight attendants’ union is concerned with issues such as too much luggage 1 stuffed into overhead compartments, which may fall and hit a passenger, and passenger use of cell phones during flights, which could pose a security risk by making it easier for 1 terrorists to communicate with each other.4 0 helps to explain the complex output of the labor relations An analysis of work rules process. The formal labor8agreement in this sense represents a compilation of jointly negotiated work rules. However, as discussed in Chapter 10, labor relations activities T are not limited to the negotiation of work rules. The labor relations process also includes the everyday interpretationSand application of work rules and the resolution of any disputes arising over such decisions. Concern over health care workers’ exposure to H1N1 flu and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) re ...
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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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