NuFS 139 SJSU The Food System and Food Production discussion

Question Description

Because of the length of this discussion, there are also only 2 topics to review and post on for this week. Topic 1 is broken into 2 parts and focuses on the food system itself and how it developed. It includes a video and a website that really discusses all aspects of the food system relevant to this class but you will only be watching the first section of the video but the two topics together will take some time.

Topic 2 is dedicated to food production and shows trends in food production both past and present. Many people think there is not enough food on the planet right now but that it is not true. However, our world has seen a decreasing trend since around the year 2000 so it is something we need to be concerned about!

Topic 1: Part 1

This link has multiple sections that you must read and answer the questions based on that information. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

  1. In the Food System section, what are the current challenges facing our food system?
  2. In Food Distribution, what are the benefits and drawbacks of a global food system? Is a global food system sustainable (make sure you support your answers from the article)?
  3. What are the benefits and drawbacks of food processing according to the article?
  4. Ih the Food Safety section, how is foodborne illness changed over time? Is our food system safe (please support your answer with information from the readings or articles)?
  5. In Food Waste, what are the ramifications of food waste for world hunger and for the planet?
  6. In Food Policy, what are the benefits and drawbacks of the US food policy?

Topic 1, Part 2:

GMO's Revealed: You will be watching the first 43 minutes of Dr. Zach Bush but parts 2 and 3 are interesting if this topic is important to you. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

  1. When did our food system radically change? What is the "dust bowl"?
  2. What was involved in the Green Revolution? How is it involved with the chemical industry? What are the consequences?
  3. How does the information in the video on the Green Revolution compare to the information in reading #15?
  4. What is the relationship between Round Up and wheat?
  5. What is the effect of the "short cuts" in our food system? Explain your answer and give at least 2 examples.
  6. Do you think the American people have been adequately informed about these foods? Explain your answer.

Topic #2

This is the powerpoint used in my face to face class. I am having a difficult time finding links to provide this information so I decided to use this. Use this and the document below to answer questions on food production.

Food Security.pptx (upload)

This is a document from the Food and Agriculture Organization. Please read the executive summary and section 5 pages 46 to 55.

PDF on food production.pdf (upload)

  1. What are the factors involved in the food security equation?
  2. What is the relationship between the price of food and food security? How does availability factor into this?
  3. How would the food production per capita affect a country's stability?
  4. What are some of the factors resulting in decreased food production?
  5. What are the current and future trends affecting the food system?
  6. At current production levels, are we going to be able to feed the population in 2050 (explain your answer)?
  7. What needs to happen to feed the world in 2050?

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Food Security Hunger and Environmental Nutrition NuFS 139 Food security thus has three dimensions  Availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports;  Access by households and individuals to appropriate foods for a nutritious diet; and  Optimal uptake of nourishment thanks to a sustaining diet, clean water and adequate sanitation, together with health care. To Provide Food Security   Focus on people! Shift from the problem of food production to the purchasing power of the families at risk for undernutrition.   food production → food shortages →  food prices.  This makes it difficult for the poor to purchase adequate supplies. Food Security Equation  Food Security Equation:  In the simplest form: it compares the value of the food production deficit in a household with the income and liquid assets that household has available to purchase food. Value of food production  Income and liquid deficit in a household (HH) assets available to (are you able to grow food?) purchase food Food Production Equation Continued So the equation can be re-written as: Food Purchase X Price of  Income and liquid requirement food assets available to purchase food  When price of food  →→ the left hand side gets bigger →→ Food insecurity   When price of food  →→ the left hand side gets smaller →→ Food insecurity  Household Food Consumption Requirement The household food consumption rate is affected by: Number of people in the household  Age  Sex  Working status   Childbearing  food needs during pregnancy and lactation. Household Food Production  Poorest people in the world are generally landless.  The relationship between household production and food security is mainly relevant to families with land.  Many Americans are now growing more food at home. (community gardens) Price of Food  Quantity produced   Demand    Weather and Natural disasters can effect this situaion Health trends Size of the population Per capita income   Ability of people to pay for food Economy  Tastes and preferences of the customers  Governments- tariffs, export taxes, price controls, and subsidies of purchased inputs Food Production per Capita  Definition: The food production per capita index presents net food production (after deduction for feed and seed) of a country's agricultural sector per person relative to the base period. The food production per capita index covers all edible agricultural products that contain nutrients; coffee and tea are excluded. Current trends in per capita food production  Food production has continued to grow faster than the population but the % continues to decrease dramatically.  Worldwide food production per capita has increased steadily between 1965 and 2000 at the rate of 5% per decade.  Between 2000 and 2013 Production growth decreased to 2.4% and yields were only 1.8%.  Food production per capita in the developed world where population growth is much slower, has grown much more rapidly Current trends in per capita food production  In the developing countries, food production has continued to grow, but at a slower rate than the population, so production per capita has declined.  Since 1961, worldwide calories per capita have increased over 31%, from 2196 calories per person per day to 2870 calories per person per day in 2011.  Similarly, protein availability has also increased about 17% to 72.4 gms per person per day. U.S. Caloric Availability  The U.S. has 3800 Calories available per person.  The average U.S. citizen consumes 2800 Calories per day.  The remaining 1000 Calories of food is lost in waste, garbage, etc. (I just saw a statistic that we waste on average 1400 Calories per day but could not verify) Top 20 Food Producing Countries  New Zealand  Lithuania  Belgium  Netherlands  Belize  Canada  Ukraine  Belarus  Costa Rica Argentina  Greece  Ireland  Spain   Paraguay  Australia  Uruguay  Denmark  France  Brazil  United States of America Top 10 Food Exporting Countries  United States  Canada  Brazil  China  Netherlands  Belgium  Germany  Spain  France  Argentina Food Supply and the World Markets  High grain prices have lead to world unrest and food riots in 2008  If high grain prices persist, free trade will no longer dominate the world’s food system.  The effect on nations that opened their markets to cheap grain imports:  Can’t afford the higher prices  Farmers have left farming and countries no longer have the ability to feed themselves. World Consumption and Stocks of Grain Annual Average Food Production Increases Food Security Trends Basic indicators of food security signal a tightening situation in the future  Grain production per person is decreasing overall as growth in production can not keep up with population increase  Diets are shifting more toward meat, milk, dairy and sugary foods.  Livestock and biofuel production is decreasing crop production Food Security Trends Cont.    Seafood catch per person is decreasing  Fisheries are being pushed past a sustainable yield  Overfishing  Stock depletion  Decline in catch  Some species no longer available Weather and natural disasters effecting food production (300% increase on produce items for 2011 due to freezing weather in Mexico and the Southern United States. Increased prices with drought in Mid West for 2012 1 ISSN 2522-722X (online) ISSN 2522-7211 (print) The future of food and agriculture Trends and challenges The future of food and agriculture Trends and challenges Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2017 Citation: FAO. 2017. The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Rome. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. ISBN 978-92-5-109551-5 © FAO, 2017 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( and can be purchased through Contents Foreword vi Acknowledgements viii Abbreviations ix Executive summary x CAUSE FOR HOPE AND CONCERN 1 TRENDS 1 Population growth, urbanization and ageing 2 Global economic growth, investment, trade and food prices 3 Competition for natural resources 4 Climate change 5 Agricultural productivity and innovation 6 Transboundary pests and diseases 7 Conflicts, crises and natural disasters 8 Poverty, inequality and food insecurity 9 Nutrition and health 10 Structural change and employment 11 Migration and agriculture 12 Changing food systems 13 Food losses and waste 14 Governance for food and nutrition security 15 Development finance 9 11 17 32 39 46 56 62 70 80 88 98 106 112 118 123 CHALLENGES 1 Sustainably improving agricultural productivity to meet increasing demand 2 Ensuring a sustainable natural resource base 3 Addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards 4 Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequality 5 Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition 6 Making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient 7 Improving income earning opportunities in rural areas and addressing the root causes of migration 8 Building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts 9 Preventing transboundary and emerging agriculture and food system threats 10 Addressing the need for coherent and effective national and international governance 133 136 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 142 143 ANNEX International frameworks of relevance to FAO’s work and mandates 145 REFERENCES 151 iii The future of food and agriculture · Trends and challenges Figures 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 7.1 7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9.1a 9.1b 9.2a Global population growth to 2100, by variant Population growth to 2100, by region (medium variant) Growth in global urban and rural populations to 2050 Urbanization trends, by region Projections of GDP growth, by region Projections of per capita GDP growth, by region Growth in GDP to 2050, by region Growth of per capita GDP to 2050, by region Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), by region, 1990–2015 Investment rates, by country group and region, 1990–2015 Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in agriculture, by country group and region, 1990–2015 Agricultural investment orientation ratio by region, 1990–2015 Agricultural net capital-output (value added) ratio, 1990–2015 Additional income and investment to eradicate hunger by 2030 Total and agricultural international trade volume, 1961–2015 Percentage of net food imports in domestic food supply in total calories FAO real food price index (RFPI) Agricultural and forest land use 1961–2013 Net forests conversion, by region, 1990–2015 Total annual freshwater withdrawals as a percentage of total annual available flow Trends and projections in land equipped for irrigation to 2050 Annual greenhouse gas emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Annual greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors Projected changes in crop yields owing to climate change Average annual rate of change in crop yields Sources of growth in agricultural production, by country income group, 1961–2010 Averages of agricultural research intensity, by country income group Reported outbreaks of lumpy skin disease, per month, 2006–2015 Global spread of crop pests and pathogens, 1950–2000 Prevalence of undernourishment and protracted crises Climate-related disasters, 1980–2011 Agricultural production losses after medium- to large-scale disasters in developing countries, by cause and region, 2003–2013 People below the poverty line (PPP) of US$ 1.90 per day, 1990–2015 Per capita indicators of low- and middle-income countries relative to high-income countries, 1990–2015 GDP per capita projections in low- and middle-income countries as a share of high-income countries Undernourishment in a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, 2005–2050 Per capita calorie intake by source, 1961–2050 Per capita calorie intake in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries Per capita protein intake by source, 1961–2050 iv 12 13 14 15 18 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 33 33 37 38 40 40 42 48 50 52 57 58 63 66 67 71 74 76 78 83 83 84 Contents 9.2b Per capita protein intake in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries 9.3 Greenhouse gas emissions by diet type 10.1 Sectoral contributions to aggregate GDP, by region, 1980–2010 10.2 Sectoral employment shares, by region, 1990–2010 10.3 Sectoral value added per worker, by region 10.4 Estimates of the population aged 15-24 years, 1950–2050 11.1 International migrant stock, by destination, 1970–2015 11.2 International migrants in destination countries, 1990–2015 11.3 Remittances to low- and middle-income countries compared with other financial inflows, 1990–2018 12.1 Share of the food retail trade, by channel and region 13.1 Distribution of food losses and waste along the supply chain 14.1 The Sustainable Development Goals 15.1 Financial flows to low-income countries, 2000–2013 15.2 Composition of financial flows to low-income countries, 2012 15.3 Investment in agriculture in low- and middle-income countries, by source, 2005–7 (annual average) 84 86 89 90 93 96 99 101 102 107 114 119 124 124 128 Tables 5.1 Increase in agricultural production required to match projected food demand, 2005–2050 5.2 Annual average crop yields, 2001–2012 5.3 Real growth of public spending on agricultural R&D 8.1 Number of undernourished, 1990/92–2030 11.1 Numbers of international migrants, by origin and destination, 2013 11.2 Female share of economically active population in agriculture in 1980, 1995 and 2010 15.1 Tentative estimates of annual incremental investments needed in energy, agriculture and food security for sustainable development v 46 47 52 77 99 103 127 Foreword F AO’s vision is of a ‘world free from hunger and malnutrition, where food and agriculture contribute to improving the living standards of all, especially the poorest, in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner’. To help its Member Countries realize that shared vision – individually at the national level and collectively at the regional and global levels – FAO organizes its work taking account of the main challenges facing the food and agriculture sector. The present study, which was undertaken for the quadrennial review of FAO’s Strategic Framework and preparation of the Organization’s Medium-Term Plan, 2018–21, lays out key global trends and challenges that will influence food and agriculture in the coming decades. The trends and challenges analysed here are cause for both hope and concern. Much progress has been made in reducing hunger and poverty and improving food security and nutrition. Gains in productivity and technological advances have contributed to more efficient resource use and improved food safety. But major concerns persist. Some 795 million people still suffer from hunger, and more than two billion from micronutrient deficiencies or forms of overnourishment. In addition, global food security could be in jeopardy, due to mounting pressures on natural resources and to climate change, both of which threaten the sustainability of food systems at large. Planetary boundaries may well be surpassed, if current trends continue. Our assessment of prevailing trends suggests, therefore, that in order to realize FAO’s vision, transformative change in agriculture and food systems are required worldwide. In FAO’s view, there are 10 key challenges that need to be addressed if we are to succeed in eradicating hunger and poverty, while making agriculture and food systems sustainable. Those challenges include the uneven demographic expansion that will take place in the coming decades, the threats posed by climate change, the intensification of natural disasters and upsurges in transboundary pests and diseases, and the need to adjust to major changes taking place in global food systems. We welcome the growing attention that the international community is paying to these concerns. Overall trends and issues have spurred the global community to action through a series of initiatives and agreements in 2015–16, which have reset the global development agenda. These developments constitute the global context for FAO’s work in the future, under the overall umbrella of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and include the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the World Humanitarian Summit and the United Nations Secretary-General’s Agenda for Humanity. The purpose of this report is to help mobilize the concrete and concerted actions required to realize these global agendas. It contributes to a common understanding of the major long-term trends and challenges that will determine the future of food security and nutrition, rural poverty, the efficiency of food systems, and the sustainability and resilience of rural livelihoods, agricultural systems and their natural resource base. José Graziano da Silva Director-General Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations vii The future of food and agriculture · Trends and challenges Acknowledgements This report is an FAO corporate effort that builds on contributions from all of FAO’s Technical Departments. A preliminary version of this report was prepared as a study for the Strategic Thinking Process underpinning FAO’s Medium-Term Plan 2018–2021, whose objectives are to review FAO’s strategic framework in the light of recent global challenges facing the Organization’s Member Nations and the international community. The FAO Strategic Experts Panel, comprising Alain de Janvry, Ismahane Elouafy, Shenggen Fan, Gustavo Gordillo, Marion Guillou, Mulu Ketsela and Martin Piñeiro, provided comments and guidance for improving the initial assessment. The panel described the document as ‘an example of FAO’s extraordinary capacities to mobilize information and knowledge’ and recommended that it be made public. Preparation of both the preliminary study and this publication was coordinated by FAO’s Global Perspective Studies (GPS) team in the Economics and Social Development (ES) Department, under the general direction and oversight of Rob Vos, Director of FAO’s Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA). Lorenzo Giovanni Bellù (GPS Team Leader) coordinated the technical work. Kostas Stamoulis, Assistant DirectorGeneral a.i. of ES Department, and Boyd Haight, Director of the Office of Resources and Strategic Planning (OSP), provided general guidance and encouragement to complete the work. Aysen TanyeriAbur (OSP) provided substantive inputs to the study while Martin Piñeiro (OSP) contributed to the study design and overall orientation. Graeme Thomas led the final editing of this study. Editorial support was further provided by Gordon Ramsay and Daniela Verona. Giulio Sansonetti did the graphic design and layout. Linda Arata, Aikaterini Kavallari, Marc Müller, and Dominik Wisser (GPS) did research and data analysis. Anna Doria Antonazzo provided administrative support. Forestry Department Simone Borelli, Susan Braatz, Lauren Flejzor, Thais Linhares Juvenal, Eva Müller and Zuzhang Xia. This report would not have been possible without the substantive inputs and review of specialists from across all FAO’s Departments. Critical contributions were provided by the following: Technical Cooperation Department Bruna Bambini, Anne Klervi Cherriere, Rimma Dankova and Guy Evers. Economic and Social Development Department Dubravka Bojic, Andrea Cattaneo, Juan Garcia Cebolla, Michael Clark, Piero Conforti, Andre Croppenstedt, Charlotte Dufour, Valentina Franchi, Ileana Grandelis, Erica Gunther, Günter Hemrich, Julius Jackson, Szilvia Lehel, Andrea Luciani, Dalia Mattioni, Unna Mustalampi, Karfakis Panagiotis, Anna Rappazzo, Josef Schmidhuber, Vanya Slavchevska, Libor Stloukal, Florence Tartanac, Francesco Tubiello, Klaus Urban, Robert Van Otterdijk, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni and Trudy Wijnhoven. Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department Teodardo Calles, Mona Chaya, Giacomo De Besi, Hans Dreyer, Fazil Dus ...
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Final Answer








Topic 1: Part 1

1. In the Food System section, what are the current challenges facing our food system?


Climate change


Chronic illness


Infectious disease


Social inequality


Environmental degradation

2. In Food Distribution, what are the benefits and drawbacks of a global food system? Is a
global food system sustainable (make sure you support your answers from the article)?


Helps in feeding densely populated areas such as New York City
Ensures that there is the availability of out-of-season variety especially during the
winter months


It allows regions to focus on their strength, for example, Vermont for raising dairy




Competitive distributors buy goods from large farms at lower prices driving small
farmers out of business


Fuel-powered vehicles used in distributing food in miles impact the air quality
due to emissions. There are also emissions from food production and

The global food system is suitable because it ensures that the regions which have high
production of a particular food is distributed to regions which do not produce or produce
the similar food at low volumes which cannot satisfy their population. For example,
shipping food from Florida and South America to northern latitudes during winter

3. What are the benefits and drawbacks of food processing according to the article?



It helps in preserving food and delaying spoilage

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