# Research Methods as techniques or procedures essay

*label*Mathematics

*timer*Asked: Mar 4th, 2019

*account_balance_wallet*$9.99

### Question Description

Type you answers in Word and when answering statistical calculations, use **Megastat output in Excel**.

Make sure you show all work not just answers. Submit both the Word file and the Excel file containing all the MegaStat output. If you have any questions please let me know.

-Part One

Essays Questions

Type answer in a Word file, **Single **spaced no greater than 12 font and length should be at least a 1.0 pages (not including bibliography).Use Turabian citation methods throughout. Only use book ** Applied Statistics for Public and Nonprofit Administration** 9

^{th}edition by Kenneth J. Meier; Jeffrey L. Brudney; John Bohte as a resource to answer questions if using quotations or the attachments provided.

1.John Grix (2002) defined research methods as “techniques or procedures used to collate and analyses data.”Explain what type of ontological and epistemological perspectives inform statistical (quantitative) methods. You are to only use Meier & Brudney text, the Grix, and Collier & Brady materials (please see attachment below) to answer this question.

2.Explain which type of analysis, what Collier & Brady describe as “thick versus thin analysis” statistical methods relies upon. Why? You need to use several statistical tests & methods to answer.

-Part Two

3. Use Megastat statistical software to perform the following analyses from the Problem 3 is based on data & information included in the dataset titled Homework Data

a)For the variable “Unemployment Rate” produce a frequency distribution and histograms using Megastat.

b)Megastat will default a frequency distribution upon highlighting of the input range and selecting “OK” button to execute the statistics on the data. Include this default frequency distribution and histogram. Write a short paragraph in which you describe the shape of the distribution and summarize the distribution in general terms.

c)Go back and adjust the interval width. You can alter it by typing in your own interval width on the “equal width intervals” tab. Does this help you describe the shape of the distribution? Why or why not?

4. Use Megastat statistical software to perform the following analyses from the Problem 4 is based on data & information included in the dataset titled Homework Data attached below. Submit all Megastat output along with your statistical interpretation (place answer 4b in the same world file with rest of answers).

a)For the variable “ % Poverty” compute the mean, median, standard deviation, IQR or interquartile range, the 25th & 75th percentiles, apply the empirical rule using Megastat and do an outlier analysis if applicable.

b)Based upon these statistics write a short analytical report of what you found for EACH statistic interpreting them. Remember to interpret any numeric value in the language of the variable.

5. Use the variable “%BS or Higher” in to complete the confidence interval problem. Use Megastat statistical software to perform the following analyses from the Problem 6 is based on data & information included in the dataset titled “Homework Data.”Submit all Megastat output along with your statistical interpretation.

a)Go to MegaStat-Confidence intervals/Sample Size and pull up the dialogue box.

b)In the Confidence interval-mean tab type in the mean score from the population of Midwest states on the variable “%BS or higher.” Use MegaStat to calculate your mean score.

c)Next, you must select the “t” or “z” distribution- click with mouse. Explain why you chose “t” or “z” distribution.

d)Calculate the confidence interval and type up in your Word file the interpretation.

6. Use the variable “% Poverty” in problem 4 to complete the sampling problem. Randomly sample 3 states with years and then compare the mean score of the sample to your full population of mean “% poverty” you calculated in problem 4.

a)Include the output of the three states chosen, if you get a state twice, replace with another randomly selected state( use Base Excel to quickly randomly sample 3 states) . A short couple of sentences should be included to describe your process. Use the Data Analysis feature in Excel to do the sampling and the Descriptive Statistics feature in Megastat to do the three state “% poverty” mean calculation.

b)If the mean scores are similar or dissimilar use the idea of the sampling distributions of sample means to attempt to explain the differences or similarities you find.

### Unformatted Attachment Preview

Purchase answer to see full attachment

## Tutor Answer

Please find answer.Thank you.

Q3

Frequency Distribution - Quantitative

Unemployment Rate

lower

upper

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

11.00

midpoint width

3.50 1.00

4.50 1.00

5.50 1.00

6.50 1.00

7.50 1.00

8.50 1.00

9.50 1.00

10.50 1.00

frequency

10

23

8

9

6

4

4

2

66

midpoint width

3.25 0.50

3.75 0.50

4.25 0.50

4.75 0.50

5.25 0.50

5.75 0.50

6.25 0.50

6.75 0.50

7.25 0.50

7.75 0.50

8.25 0.50

8.75 0.50

9.25 0.50

9.75 0.50

frequency

6

4

8

15

4

4

5

4

4

2

1

3

2

2

Histogram

40

35

Percent

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Unemployment Rate

Frequency Distribution - Quantitative

Unemployment Rate

lower

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

upper

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

<

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

10.00

10.00

Histogram

25

Percent

20

15

10

5

0

Unemployment Rate

Q4

Descriptive statistics

count

mean

sample standard deviation

sample variance

minimum

maximum

range

% Poverty

66

12.683

1.601

2.562

9.5

16.2

6.7

empirical rule

mean - 1s

mean + 1s

percent in interval (68.26%)

11.083

14.284

68.2%

mean - 2s

mean + 2s

percent in interval (95.44%)

9.482

15.885

98.5%

mean - 3s

mean + 3s

percent in interval (99.73%)

7.881

17.485

100.0%

1st quartile

median

3rd quartile

interquartile range

mode

11.400

12.850

13.750

2.350

12.200

< 10.50

10.25

0.50

2

66

BoxPlot

3-9-2019 14:48.59 (1)

8

9

10

11

12

13

% Poverty

14

Q5

Descriptive statistics

count

mean

sample standard deviation

sample variance

% BS or higher*

66

29.064

3.144

9.886

Confidence interval - mean

95%

29.064

3.144

66

1.997

0.773

29.837

28.291

confidence level

mean

std. dev.

n

t (df = 65)

half-width

upper confidence limit

lower confidence limit

15

16

17

percent

15.2

34.8

12.1

13.6

9.1

6.1

6.1

3.0

100.0

percent

9.1

6.1

12.1

22.7

6.1

6.1

7.6

6.1

6.1

3.0

1.5

4.5

3.0

3.0

cumulative

frequency percent

10

15.2

33

50.0...

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