PSY87127 CSU Chart For Visual Graphic Research Methods In Psychology

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Using the articles from your quantitative paper and qualitative paper create a chart to provide a visual graphic of how the variables or criteria both quantitative and qualitative align with the selected theory in response to the research question. Add two studies using a mixed methods approach. Note quantitative data is generally statistical for these purposes and qualitative will describe what is happening. Select those factors that are relevant using both approaches. Restate research question or establish two questions. Articulate the applicability to the chart.

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Running head: A QUALITATIVE ESSAY California Southern University Angeles Martinez Research Methods in Psychology PSY 87127-17 March 1, 2019 1 A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 2 Impact of Parenting Style on Child’s Behavior Determining the link between parenting style and the child’s behavior can be quite challenging. Determination of the effect of parenting style on a child's behavior remains a task because there are many forms of parenting styles and varied types of behavioral outcomes among children. The association that exists between the parenting style and child's behavior is narrow and in many cases are dependent on the timing and the measurement of the actions at hand. Previously, many studies focused on the impact of parenting style on the emotional development of the children. The studies had their focus on different parenting styles across cultures. Interestingly, not much research has been done on the impact of parenting styles on the children's behavior. No research has a direct link between the parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and neglectful) on the children's behavior. The studies that have been carried out previously had their focus on the other forms of parenting styles except the permissive and neglectful. Research Questions Do parenting styles affect children behaviors and do the behaviors cause children to be placed in special education classes? Specific Research Questions 1. How does parenting styles affect children behaviors? 2. How does the behavior cause children to be placed in special education classes? A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 3 Attachment Theory The theory that underpins the discussion herein is the Attachment Theory. Notably, it expounds on crafting a close parent-child relationship that is laced with secure attachment. Having this leads to positive parenting. It is critical as through it the determination of a child's behavioral problems can be established. This theory suggests that there is a critical period, about 0-5 years old when there is a developing attachment. If attachment has not developed then there can be severe consequences, such as increased aggressive and reduced intelligence (McLeod, 2017). Annotated Bibliography Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children's behavior. Journal of Education and Educational Development. 3(2) This research looked at the influence parenting styles has on children’s behavior. This author looked at which styles leads the children to be delinquent juveniles and makes these children low academic achievers. He used in-depth interviews with two mothers of delinquent children plus secondary data from online libraries and topic books. He used words like, anger, cursing, beating to define the authoritarian parenting style and words like, understand discuss and ask to describe authoritative parenting style. He also used words like neglect, lenient, saying nothing, etc. These words were used for coding once the interviews were over. He used literature review to define delinquency and to identify 3 parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. This paper defines the different parenting styles in detail. From the findings of this study the authoritarian parenting style causes children/adolescents to be delinquent since the strictness causes A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 4 them to rebel. It is also related to low self-confidence and lower level of ability; children have a difficult time exploring their capabilities and with social skills. Authoritative parenting style is considered good parenting because parents keep an eye on their children and try to understand their mindset. Rodriguez, M.M.D., Donovick, M.R. & Crowley, S.L. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos. Family Process, 48(2). This study is to understand the findings on past literature about Latino’s parenting styles. They use Diana Baumrind research on three primary parenting styles; authoritarian, authoritative and permissive, and Maccoby and Martin (1983) fourth parenting style; neglectful. This study used direct observations of the parents and children’s behaviors. They also studied the influence of child and parent gender on different dimensions: responsiveness (warmth), demandingness (parental control) and autonomy granting. The previous literature on Latino’s parenting styles is inconsistent and sparse; some researchers have claimed that Latino parents are permissive; others claim they are authoritative; the authors decided to use dimensions instead. Parenting dimensions were examined calculating descriptive statistics of dimension for each parent. Latino parents scored high on warmth and demandingness and medium to low on autonomy. The researchers also found that the four traditional parenting styles did not capture Latino’s parenting styles well. Most of the parents (61%) were protective, 31% were authoritative; these traditional parenting styles only accounted for one-third of the Latino families. A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 5 Pinquart, M. & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1). The study aimed to test if there is a link between the parenting styles, the internal problems, the external issues and the differences in academic achievements that happen in different ethnic groups in the western nations. The other scope of the study included diverse regions in the world, and by the degree of collectivism. Besides, the research method used in this case is a systematic search. The technique was made possible by the electronic databases and a cross-referencing of 428 studies. The outcome of the investigation pointed to more ethnic and regional similarities than the differences noted. There was a strong link between authoritative parenting and academic achievement in the non-Hispanics, White families than Asian minorities according to Pinquart and Kauser (2018). In different countries, the link between authoritarian parenting and academic achievement was not negative among the Hispanics families in comparison to the nonHispanics and the Whites. On the authoritative parenting style, there was at least a single positive child outcome while the authoritarian parenting style showed an adverse result. The nations that had higher individualism scores had a lower link with the authoritarian parenting style. The research recommends that parents across the world behave authoritatively even though authoritarian and permissive parenting is also accepted within particular cultural contexts. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Dittus, P., Jaccard, J. Johansson, M., Bouris, A. & Acosta, N. (2007). Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers. National Association of Social Workers. A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 6 Latino parenting in an urban context is what this study is about; it was conducted using focus groups made up of Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers and adolescents’ pairs in New York City Bronx borough. Latino parenting practices were used along with cultural components: familismo, respeto, personalismo and simpatia. The focus groups had five essential parenting practices: 1. making sure there was close monitoring of the children, 2. keeping supportive relationships characterized by high-levels of parent-adolescent sharing and interaction, 3. explaining to the adolescents the parents’ actions and decisions, 4. improving and building relationships, 5. different parenting practices based on the adolescents’ gender. This study found that mothers believed that respeto encompasses family authority and obedience from the children to the adults stresses proper conduct. Mother and children both agree that a level of control was necessary so that the children could benefit from behavior limits. Mothers insisted that parental control must be rational and consistent; they felt that it was important to understand their children and to make sure they knew the expectations and rules. All the mothers agree that parenting their children in a low-income urban neighborhood was hard, but they claimed that they can keep their children away from harm with their parenting strategies. The limitations to this study are that fathers were not involved; and, this was based on what the mothers and adolescents said on interviews. Discussion Through the different studies that have been carried out, it emerges that parenting styles affect children behaviors. Nonetheless, there is no pointer showing that the behavior can cause children to be placed in special education classes. The study done by Sarwar (2016) showed that A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 7 the authoritarian parenting style was responsible for rebellious children behavior and would lead to problematic behavior given the more than the required power that is exercised on the children by the parents. Additionally, the authoritative parenting style is also found to be a usual parenting style. The study also showed that parents who spend much time with their children end up raising those who have low chances of developing delinquent behavior. Spending more time implies that there is a reduction in problematic behaviors. The study done by Rodriguez, Donovick & Crowley (2009) noted that most of the Latino parents were protective. Even though the mothers and the fathers had similar parenting styles, the expectations were different for the male and female children. The Attachment theory underpins the findings. According to the theory, there is a need to come up with a close parent-child relationship that is laced with secure attachment. Having this leads to positive parenting. It is critical as through it the determination of a child's behavioral problems can be established. Notably, it is recommended that parents across the world behave authoritatively even though authoritarian and permissive parenting is also accepted within specific cultural contexts. Conclusion In summary, the study shows that different parenting styles affect children’s behaviors. For instance, the authoritarian parenting style was responsible for rebellious children behavior and would lead to problematic behavior given the more than the required power that is exercised on the children by the parents. Additionally, the authoritative parenting style is also found to be a usual parenting style. However, there is no pointer showing that the behavior can cause children to be placed in special education classes. A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 8 Appendix I Figure 1 shows a graph of parenting styles as the independent variable against the number of positive and negative relationships as the dependent variable. Therefore, the outcome proves that there is a relationship between parenting styles and the behavior. Parenting Styles and Behavior Association 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Authoritarian Permissive Neglectiful -2 Behavior Figure 1 References Authoritative A QUALITATIVE ESSAY 9 Guilamo-Ramos, V., Dittus, P., Jaccard, J. Johansson, M., Bouris, A. & Acosta, N. (2007). Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers. National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu McLeod, S. (2017). Attachment theory. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/ Pinquart, M. & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1). Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu Rodriguez, M.M.D., Donovick, M.R. & Crowley, S.L. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos. Family Process, 48(2). Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children's behavior. Journal of Education and Educational Development. 3(2). Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu Running head: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES California Southern University Angeles Martinez Research Methods in Psychology PSY 87127-13 February 21, 2019 1 QUANTITATIVE STUDIES 2 Introduction Attempting to examine the effect of parenting practices on the child’s behaviour and the outcome remains to be a great challenge. This is because there are several forms of parenting behaviours and parenting styles as well as different kinds of child behavioural outcomes. The link that exists between the parenting practices and child behaviour is narrow and largely depend on the timing and the measurement of the behaviors at hand. A case in point is that a study of adolescents on their parents’ psychological control or the fact that the parents attempt to control the emotions and the beliefs of the children. The outcome of the research showed that child behaviour was a strong predictor of the changes in parental psychological control as compared to the parental behaviour in regards to the changes in behaviours of adolescents. Given that the relation is multidirectional, finding out the effect of parenting practices over the child behavioural outcomes end up being complicated. Different forms of parenting results in varied social environments where the children live within. Most of the studies that conducted have focused so much on the effect of parenting style on the emotional development of the children as well as different forms of parenting across cultures and their effect on child development. Conversely, there is no much research that has been carried out on the impact of parenting style on children’s behavioural problems. No research has had a direct link between the parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and neglectful) on the children’s behavioural problems (Pinquart & Kauser, 2018). Those who have attempted have had their focus on the other forms of parenting style except permissive and neglectful parenting styles. This study focuses on the effect of parenting style on children’s behavioural problems. From this research, it was established that there was no QUANTITATIVE STUDIES 3 consistency in the behaviour problems between the different parenting groups. Parenting styles could not also be directly linked to behavioural problems. Hypothesis Guided by the literature on the topic, the focus of the researcher was to test two essential hypotheses: H1: There is a positive correlation between parental behaviour control and children’s behavioural problems. H2: There is consistency in the parenting style linked to the child’s behavioral problems. The research questions for this study are: How does parenting style affect children’s behavioural problems? What is the most frequent parenting style that is least associated with behavioral problems? Is the consistency in the parenting style linked to the child’s behavioural problems? Attachment Theory The theory for this discussion is the Attachment Theory. The theory expounds on crafting a close parent-child relationship that is laced with secure attachment; having this leads to positive parenting. It is critical as through it the determination of child’s behavioral problems can be established. Background of the Problem Worldwide, the parenting practices have current primary roles, which include ensuring that children are safe and healthy, preparation of the children to be productive adults and passing of cultural values to the children. The roles mean that every parent must up their game and parenting is no small feat. For a child to be a healthy, competent and productive adult, several QUANTITATIVE STUDIES 4 environmental and biological factors play a serious role (Huang et al., 2018). The impact on child outcomes is many while most of the literature shows that parenting practices are significant in the equation. Additionally, the degree to which parenting practices determine the behavioural development in children is a complicated issue. At the time, it may remain quite a challenge to answer it with certainty; one can be assured that parents are focal to the behavioural outcomes of their children. Accordingly, research has shown that there is a progressive connection between parenting and child behavioural adjustment. How a parent displays affection to the child and exerts behavioural and psychological control on the child has a direct link and connection to the internalising and externalising behaviours (Choe, Olson & Sameroff, 2013). The internalisation or the emotional and behaviour problems that are evident in the children usually refer to the anxiety and depression (O’Neill & Murray, 2016). On the other hand, externalisation or disruptive behaviour problems usually include different attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders and conduct issues. However, they are just a few behavioural problems which partly are shaped by specific parenting styles. Statement of the Problem The different forms of parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful were found to be vital in defining the behaviour of the parents towards their children. Besides, the interaction between the parents and the children are linked with the cultural environments. Culture affects most of the family life including how parents socialize with their children. Usually, the actions and behaviours that are typical and are evident in one culture may end up being considered abnormal in another culture. Culture can be described in different ways, QUANTITATIVE STUDIES 5 and one such way is through dividing it into individualistic and collectivist forms. Usually, within the same parenting style there are common behaviours. However, there are certain parenting behaviours that are evident across cultures. However, when parenting behaviours are the same across different cultures, the outcomes of the child’s development are still different. Middle Eastern children are used to parents that are controlling them and being firm, a trait that is different from other cultures (Zhang, 2015); however, when the parents of African American children asserted the same, they tend to show higher depression due to so much control. This can be a sign that child development outcome is largely as a result of children parenting; it means that individuals are not fully grasping the effect that parenting has on children across cultures. There is a need to comprehend the role that culture plays in parenting and the interaction that exist between the parenting style and culture. Discussion Through the different studies that have been carried out, it emerges that there are no significant differences between the parenting style and the behavioural problems. This is to infer that the behavioural issues emerged and occurred across the different forms of parenting styles. It only emerged that physical discipline of the children increases the risks of externalising their problems, an aspect that affirms the Attachment Theory. It is also found that the maternal reasoning and the reminding of rules, as well as inductive discipline, have less association with fewer child externalising problems (Braz et al., 2015; Choe, Olson & Sameroff, 2013). From the outcome, it emerged that less inductive and more physical discipline is a predictor of the different externalising problems. From the discussions, there is also an indication that the parenting styles have so much effect on the mediation of the relationship between attachment and QUANTITATIVE STUDIES 6 anxiety. Anxiety is a determinant of behavioural problems in children, as emotions are critical part of as noted in the Attachment Theory (O’Neill & Murray, 2016). Figure 1 shows a graph of parenting styles as the independent variable against the number of positive and negative relationships as the dependent variable. Therefore, the hypothesis tested positive which proves that there is a ...
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