Drug action and toxicology

timer Asked: Mar 6th, 2019
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Question Description

1. Briefly discuss what is the field of pharmacogenomics and how it could contribute to the development of better drugs for the treatment of diseases. (around 500700 words) including references.

2. For the 2 drugs assigned to me which are; Acrivastine (Semprex), Ketotifen.

you will follow the instructions which i will upload here to write about the two drugs.

thanks and the deadline is on 9th march.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

BIOL-371: Drug Action and Toxicology Spring Semester, 2019 ASSIGNMENT 1 Instructor: Dr. Catherine Demoliou Assignment (worth 5% of the final mark) 1. Briefly discuss what is the field of pharmacogenomics and how it could contribute to the development of better drugs for the treatment of diseases. (around 500‐700 words) including references. 2. For the 2 drugs assigned to you in the list below: i) using the literature available compare and contrast the mode of action of these 2 drugs (how do they work (type of receptors, 2nd messenger, biological action like inhibit/stimulate growth, proliferation, secretion, relaxation, constriction etc), where do they work (i.e. type of tissue/cells, ), and refer to any biomarkers (i.e increase/decrease blood pressure, heart rate, urine output etc), that may indicate the effect of these drugs. ii) using the literature available compare and contrast the pharmacokinetic parameters of these 2 drugs i.e. 1. liberation and bioavailability 2. absorption 3. distribution 4. metabolism 5. elimination iii) using the literature available compare and contrast the main side effects profiles of these drugs and how these are correlated to the pharmacological properties of the drug. iv) discuss the legal status of these drugs in EU legislation (is it allowed to be sold, prescribed?). v) discuss any toxicological properties of these drugs to be considered . vi) explain how an overdose of these drugs may be treated and the mode of action of any antidotes used. Please adhere strictly to the guidelines below: 1 • Use Times New Roman format and 1.5 line spacing. Limit your write‐up of part 2 to 1500 words, excluding references, tables, figures and legends. Excessive text will be penalized. • Use figures and tables whenever possible. The use of tables may reduce the amount of paragraph text required, as well as make your work clearer. Every figure or table must be labeled as Figure 1, Figure 2 …. or Table 1, Table 2, etc. and must have an appropriate descriptive legend. • Do not copy information from the literature blindly. Try to paraphrase and comment on it whenever you feel it is necessary. For example, you may find that there are discrepancies in reported data from different sources. Take this as an opportunity for you to comment on if the differences have any impact on the drug action. • Your data should be mainly sourced from articles in scientific journals and official online scientific repositories, not from standard student textbooks or web sites for the common public. • List all references used, using the Harvard format described below, and enclose copies of abstracts of all articles/abstracts used in your hard copy submission. Format for references Use the Harvard referencing system for citing and listing your references a) Within‐text citations should be listed as follows: • Single‐author articles: (Smith, 2008) • two‐author articles: (Smith and Baker, 2008) • three or more author articles: (Smith et al., 2008) b) References listed at the end of your write‐up should be presented in alphabetical order according to the surname of each first author; chronological order for the same first authors or according to second author if the first author and year are the same: Useful resources University of Nicosia e‐resources library http://www.library.unic.ac.cy/searchtools/e-resources/eresources.html Free full text medical journals online http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/ Free full text medical books online http://freebooks4doctors.com/ PubMed database http://www.pubmed.gov/ Harvard referencing short guide http://wwwm.coventry.ac.uk/Library/Documents/harvardshortversion.pdf 2 NLM Medline Plus and Health Information http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ European Medicines Agency http://www.emea.europa.eu/ US Food and Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/ British Pharmacological Society http://www.bps.ac.uk/ PS. Any papers you can not find on the internet you can request from the Library to get it for you. Medicinal drugs Acrivastine (Semprex), Ketotifen 3 ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Purdue University

And here is the final file. I strictly followed the word file you offered me and my essay contains all the information requested by your professor. I used a variety of academical resources. Pharmacogenomics: 585 words ( your professor requested between 500 to 700 words)Essay: 1392 words ( maximum requested by your professor was 1500 so I tried to stay somewhere in the top)I am also attaching the plag scan results which point a score of 0 %.This means that the file I sent you and on which I worked is 100% original without any signs of plagiarism.Based on the information you have given me, this is what your professor requested. Above you have all the articles I used. If you open the articles you will see the abstract in each of them. You can just copy paste them all in a word file if you need it too. I preferred to send you the article in case you professor requests the full articles.I tried to look for latest articles but taken into consideration that we are talking about medications which were released a very long time ago, the researches were all before 2000. In the essay, I included a chemistry database and other pharmacology pages which are up to date (2018). Looking forward to hearing from you.

This file is intended for personal use. It does not represent the file that should be sent to the professor. Its only role
is to highlight general information about the paper or add any additional ones which were unsuitable for the essay
but might help the student have a better understanding of the topic.

1.General Information About the Paper
File Name: Drug Action and Toxicology
Format: APA
Subject : Health and Medical
Citations : Yes
In text citations : Yes

*The guideline given by your professor was correctly followed
*All the questions requested were answered and were included in the paper with
the suitable references.

Health & Medical


Drug Action and Toxicology
[Your Name]
Pharmacology Paper
College Health & Medical
9th March 2019



Pharmacology Paper
Introduction to Pharmacogenetic
Pharmacogenomics represents an important branch of pharmacology which focuses on
determining the way a person's genes can affect the way their body responds to a specific drug.
As the name states it combines two major fields, one of them is pharmacology representing the
science of drugs while the other one is genomic which focuses on genes and their role in the
body. Currently, the drug industry focuses on producing a medication that should have the same
effect to the entire population, Even so, there are groups of people who end up with a different
reaction in the presence of the substance. One of the major complications which can be a result
of this gene-drug interaction is known as an adverse reaction and they cause a significant number
of hospitalization and even deaths in the U.S. (Jose,Chandran,2009)
The promise of pharmacogenomics is that one day the industry will be able to create a
medication that is tailor-made for specific individuals. Eve...

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