Capella University Psychogerontology Comparison Report

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PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORT

As you complete the final Psychogerontology Comparison Report, incorporate into it your instructor's feedback from your Unit 7 draft. You should include previous assignments where you have extended the significance of your research and findings. This project clarifies what is lacking in the community you serve regarding optimal aging and also allows you to learn about exemplary models available for successful aging.

The final project Psychogerontology Comparison Report consists of your Unit 3 Literature Review: Optimal Aging, the Unit 5 Local Older Adult Agency Search, and additional insights you gained after submitting your draft in Unit 7 and receiving instructor feedback. Your final version of the proposal should use the draft suggestions you received as appropriate. You are, however, responsible for the decisions and direction you take in your report.

While writing the final report, use the Psychogerontology Comparison Report course project description and Unit 9 Psychogerontology Comparison Report Scoring Guide to direct your work. Use the Distinguished column on the scoring guide to ensure optimum points are earned.

ASSIGNMENT DIRECTIONS

Integrate your Unit 3 assignment, Literature Review: Optimal Aging, into the report by completing the following:

Include the following information:

  • Analyze the primary and secondary age-related changes in psychological processes, cognitive functions, personality, and interpersonal relationships you discovered from the literature.
    • Identify what preventative services exist that promote physical and mental health, cognitive functions, socialization, and quality of life. For example, Type 2 diabetes is associated with aging, but age does not cause Type 2 diabetes. Poor diet and lack of physical activity lead to Type 2 diabetes.
    • Analyze what services address the impact of normal age-related physiological changes on the older adult's psychosocial functioning.
    • Analyze how changing societal concepts of aging on present and future cohorts of older adults impact optimal aging and services (including technology) that promote optimal aging.
    • Analyze the major theories that link cognitive function and personality with the development and sustainment of interpersonal relationships.

Integrate your Unit 5 assignment, Local Older Adult Agency Search, by including the following:

  • Compare your findings of local area resources to what you found in your literature review about optimal aging and services that support optimal aging.
    • Distinguish how the findings from your area differ or are similar to what you found in the literature.
    • Differentiate community resources in your area that support successful aging.
    • Analyze how physiological changes due to the aging process impact social interactions within families, organizations and communities.
  • Analyze what could make a local resource better.

In addition, integrate previous information you have studied into your Psychogerontology Comparison Report as follows:

  • Analyze the socioeconomic status of the aging demographic and its impact on political action, public policy, and financial markets.

COMPARISON REPORT FORMAT

Your final project report should contain the following structure and components.

  • Title page (all scholarly work should have a title page).
  • Text includes the following major sections:
    • Introduction: Describe your topic and provide an overview of the paper's focus.
    • Objectives: Tell your reader what you hope to accomplish in this paper.
    • Literature review: Incorporate information from the literature review and knowledge you have gained from course readings. How does your review help to accomplish your objectives?
    • Comparison discussion: Compare what you found in the literature review to what you found in your local community.
    • Conclusion: What did you find? What does this information accomplish?
  • References: Includes all literature cited in the report.

SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Written Communication: Exemplify master's level critical thinking and analysis in your paper. Do not just present a summary of the readings. Objectively evaluate and report on the findings of your research materials and the readings from the course.

  • Write professionally by making points that are logical, substantive, and relevant based on the presented evidence, as well as free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • Clearly identify in your paper where you are addressing each grading criterion or part of the assignment.
  • Create written communications that are respectful and appropriate to the purpose, context, and audience.
  • Apply the conventions of the APA style guide and format in written communications.
  • Generate communications that are clear, organized, concise, and use correct grammar and mechanics.
  • Your paper should be double spaced using Times New Roman, 12 point. The paper must be a minimum of eighteen (18) full pages in length not including the title page, abstract, and references list.

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Running head: OPTIMAL AGING 1 Stacey Tekansik HS5522 Dr Brenda Harms January 26, 2019 OPTIMAL AGING 2 The most important thing to note the care of the geriatric population is to understand the physiology and pathology of aging this is informed by the fact that the human body undergoes a multiplicity of physiological changes each second. Also, the consideration of social, psychological, cognitive, and economics of the aging is paramount to meet the needs of the aging population. Sadly, most elderly people feel that they have no control over their emergencies and fixed incomes. These factors more often than not lead to depression and decreased efficiency. The elderly population is growing at a very fast rate as the years go by. Notably, the prevalence of falls increases with age. It is evident from research that falls are one of the leading causes of injuries among the elderly population in our society. In the year 2015 33,000 deaths were reported as a result of falls among the elderly. It is also estimated that there are 28-35% falls each year amongst people within the age bracket of 65 years and above. Falls are mainly associated with mobility as well as neurological and cardiovascular causes. The several physical changes in the bodies of the elderly contribute greatly to the negative influence on functional balance that interferes with the daily activities. The falls normally lead to the escalation of costs for treatment (Phelan et.al, 2016). . Optimal aging refers to the capacity to function across many domains which includes the physical, functional, cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual to an individual’s satisfaction despite one’s medical conditions. There are two theories that support aging that is disengagement and activity theory. The disengagement theory talks about successful aging being about withdrawal from activities and social interaction. The activity theory on the other hand, proposes that for one to age successfully one should remain engaged in activities and social interaction (Aldwin & Igarashi, 2015). Also, there is a multi-dimensional approach which encompasses many factors which include being free from disease, maintaining relationships, doing the things that make the person happy, having financial stability, and having good coping skills. Other characteristics OPTIMAL AGING 3 include high degree of satisfaction which encompasses feeling that life is rewarding because the goals have been met, has few regrets, has maintained a positive attitude about the future, feels that life is stimulating and sets new goals, is able to relax and is able to relax and has good habits. The next characteristic is having a harmonious integration of personality through developed ego strength, unity, and maturity over the years, demonstrates self-actualization, satisfaction, and authenticity. The next characteristic is the maintenance of a meaningful social system that is involved with the caring network of family and friends. Also, personal control over life which he makes his/her own decisions. In a number of ways the optimal aging and successful aging share a number of similarities. However, the absence of sickness can be attributed to both. Most importantly, aging theories mostly describe aging in relation to behaviour, personality, and attitude that change throughout the aging process. Therefore, the ego development and the challenges they have faced by an individual at different stages that helps in analyzing the personality, mental processes, and attitudes influence an individual’s adaptation to the changes that are there in life. The ever evolving roles, relationships, and status within the culture are also taken in to consideration. This has an impact on the society and these calls for a concern for everyone. The increasing age calls for the increasing amount of the issues that having a longer life brings. The world health organization, International Federation on Aging, American Association of Retired Persons, American Society on Aging, American Planning Association, and National Association of Area Agencies on Aging have tried as much as possible to give attention to the aging friendly communities and these reflects the importance of physical and social environments for the healthy well-being at all ages and especially in the later life. The identification of aging- friendly communities help in the individual processes. It is important to note that the functional perspectives that conceive the aging processes that is observable in OPTIMAL AGING 4 the physical, mental, and social functioning as reflected in the terms of active aging. The functional criteria includes the avoidance of disease and disability, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive functioning as one ages, and the active engagement in social and productive activities. Some of the most critical activities have to do with physical activity which contributes to reduce the risk of a number of diseases that are attributed to a number of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and osteoarthritis. Some cognitive simulation include reading, practicing crossword puzzles, and playing board this has been attributed to the reduction of incidence of cognitive diseases such as dementia. Others include the nutritional interventions which are believed to extend the lifespan and reduce morbidity. Cusack and Harbin (2017), argue that failure to thrive refers to the inability to maintain growth and this is very common among elderly citizens. In an adult, the symptoms include loss of appetite, loss of appetite, less active than normal, memory loss, trouble thinking, and trouble with daily activities. One can become more susceptible because of social isolation, increased need for care, low income, dementia, chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes, side effects from medicine and drug abuse. Failure to thrive can be classified into to two that is medical and environmental. The condition is diagnosed by the Anthropometric criteria whereby the physician does a mental exam, blood or urine tests, hearing and vision tests, and imaging tests. There are several symptoms which include severe respiratory infection, recurrent vomiting, and depression. One can prevent the disease from progressing by observing proper eating diet, encouraging social activities, ensuring that the person drinks liquids as directed, and also, clearing paths to ensure that the person will not trip on objects. Falls OPTIMAL AGING 5 It is important to note that falls are the leading cause of injury and death who are over the age of 65 years. This is because as patients’ age they experience stiff joints, decreased muscle strengths, and neurological feedback. Society et.al (2015), state that it is estimated that at least 24 percent of those who fall certain serious injuries and 6 percent sustain fractures. When an elderly person experiences a fall they often fear and this will lead to them reducing their activities which make them frail as they increase in age this, in turn, leads to them being more susceptible to falls. Risk factors for falls include depression, dizziness, previous falls, decreased strength, diabetes, and arthritis. Physicians diagnose falls by making use of time up and go test. The symptoms include difficulty rising from a chair, dizziness upon rising, increased sway, and path deviation. The falls can be lessened by modification of home environment, an exercise aimed at improving balance, management of foot problems, patient and caregiver education, vitamin D supplementation and cataract surgery for patients with poor vision. Temporal Arteritis According to Sammel et.al (2015), temporal arteritis is a vascular condition in which the temporal arteritis that supplies blood to the head and brain become inflamed. The condition is more common in people who are aged 50 years and above. The condition is mainly caused by the body’s autoimmune response, excessive doses of antibiotics, and severe infections. The symptoms of the condition include fatigue, loss of appetite, sudden loss of sight on one eye, unintentional weight loss, throbbing headache in the temples, and tenderness in the scalp and temple areas. In order to diagnose the condition, the doctor conducts a physical exam, blood test, biopsy, and ultrasound. Since the condition cannot be cured the treatment is meant to minimize tissue damage that occurs due to inadequate blood flow. OPTIMAL AGING 6 All the articles reviewed were pointing towards education by the nurses being one of the major interventions in reducing the falls among the elderly population. In the first article the authors recommended that their colleagues collect data and report on the same so that they can be able to record the unintended outcomes as this will be able to guide the nurses on which education programs to focus on (Manojlovich, Leo, & Lauseng, 2016). The second article on the other hand, indicates that there should be increased messaging informing the public that falls are preventable and should come from the staff and more specifically the nurses providing care to this particular population (Phelan, Aerts, Dowler, Eckstrom, & Casey, 2016). The third article on the other hand, recommends systematic review of articles as this will enable the care givers improve on the quality of care including education as a way of preventing the falls (Lannering, Bravell, &Johansson, 2017). Additionally, in the fourth article the authors recommend that the elderly citizens participate in training as it will greatly increase their flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength (Emilio, Hita, Jimenez, Lattore, & Martinez, 2014). Finally, the last article recommend the use of low cost evidence based approaches in the nursing homes which include education on how to prevent the falls as this will go a long way in helping to reduce the falls hence helping save costs (Teresi et al., 2013). The main overall recommendation is that the nurses should be able to take individual responsibility towards ensuring that the elderly population is well educated on the causes of the falls and how they can be prevented. Stakeholders Floor Nurses the strategy used will be training programs mainly focusing on care to provide to the patients. Nurse Managers- the strategy used is training them on the current interventions so that they can pass over the message to their juniors. OPTIMAL AGING 7 Nurse Administrators- train on how to effectively monitor the care being given to the elderly patients. Their main roles of the stakeholders will be ensuring that there is adequate patient assessment; proper communication between them to ensure that there is proper coordination, that the hospital has proper protocols for safety practices, there is proper leadership in the facilities, and adequate orientation of the staff working in the health facilities. Barriers The main barrier in the intervention would be the attitude by the stakeholders towards the research this would bring a lot of problems when it comes to the implementation of the interventions. The other barrier would be lack of proper education and training on the intervention this would cause a major problem. This would cause a big problem since people would lack adequate information on how to intervene therefore; it is advisable that there is proper training and education. Strategies to Overcome Barriers The two main strategies to overcome the above barriers is adequate communication and planning to counter both issues identified. For instance, to counter the issue of the attitude it is important that the stakeholders are brought on board by adequately being communicated to about the research that is being conducted and how it will be implemented. Secondly, it is important that in the annual plans education and training are slotted in so that they can run through without any interruption. Education by the nurses to the patients should result in reduction in the number of falls by the elderly population. This would be measured by data reports obtained in various hospitals indicating how many elderly patients have been treated for injuries occasioned by OPTIMAL AGING 8 falls after the education has been carried out by the nurses as compared to the number of cases that were reported before the nurses started educating the patients. Research activities involve significant time and resource investment by stakeholders, researchers, and participants (Curtis, Fry, Shaban & Considine, 2017). This, dissemination of findings is an important step in evidence-based research. For this EBP research, the preferred dissemination pathways are conferences, peer-reviewed journals, professional newsletters, institutional newsletters and materials for general audience consumption. The first point of dissemination should be at the institution or hospital where the intervention was carried out to share outcomes with colleagues, peers and hospital management and stakeholders. This can be done using in-house newsletters, memos, news alerts on notice boards and online networking platforms of the institution. Disseminating the findings to professionals is also critical to open the space for peer review, extend the research to other settings and facilitate dialogue. This can be done through educational sessions, presenting in conferences, publishing in journals and professional publications (Curtis et al., 2017). News releases and other forms of media engagement can be used to disseminate the research findings to the public to ensure that future and current patients are aware. Lastly, holding presentations, making summaries that highlight the costs and benefits of the intervention and educational sessions with policymakers can help disseminate the research findings to this critical group. When disseminating research findings, it is of importance that the findings are translated or summarized in a way that the particular audience will understand. Thus, there needs to be a plan on how to disseminate the findings, which audiences, where, when and how to ensure not only sharing of research findings but also, spur the spirit of inquiry, facilitate implementation of the intervention in other settings and peer-review and critique. Conclusion OPTIMAL AGING 9 Evidence Based Practice is an important component of the research on aging. Readmission and mortality rates are vital statistics in the elderly citizen management. Readmission is correlated with mortality rates and thus, the need to reduce the likelihood that an elderly citizen will be readmitted. Interventions to achieve this reduction include nurse-led patient monitoring and education. The target population is patients with a definitive diagnosis of different conditions and the outcomes of interest are readmission and mortality rates. The time components are at 30 days and six months. If implemented the findings are to be disseminated to the public, policymakers, peers, and colleagues as well as the institution through conferences, journals, educational seminars, newsletters, policy briefs, and news releases. OPTIMAL AGING 10 References Aldwin, C. M., & Igarashi, H. (2015). Successful, optimal, and resilient aging: A psychosocial perspective. Feltner, C., Jones, C. D., Cené, C. W., Zheng, Z. J., Sueta, C. A., Coker-Schwimmer, E. J., ... & Jonas, D. E. (2014). Transitional care interventions to prevent readmissions for persons with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine, 160(11), 774-784. Lannering, C., Ernsth Bravell, M., & Johansson, L. (2017). Prevention of falls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers among older persons–nursing staff's experiences of a structured preventive care process. Health & social care in the community, 25(3), 10111020. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igy023.540 Manojlovich, M., Lee, S., & Lauseng, D. (2016). A systematic review of the unintended consequences of clinical interventions to reduce adverse outcomes. Journal of patient safety, 12(4), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1097/pts.0000000000000093 More elderly people dying as the crisis deepens (2018, April 7), The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/apr/07/more-elderly-are-dyingafter-falls-as-care-crisis-deepens Older adults with a ‘fall prevention plan’ less likely to end up in hospital (2018, September 24), MedicalXpress. Retrieved from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-09-olderadults-fall-hospital.html Phelan, E. A., Aerts, S., Dowler, D., Eckstrom, E., & Casey, C. M. (2016). Adoption of evidence-based fall prevention practices in primary care for older adults with a history of falls. Frontiers in public health, 4, 190. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00255 OPTIMAL AGING 11 Sharma, A., Lavie, C. J., Borer, J. S., Vallakati, A., Goel, S., Lopez-Jimenez, F., ... & Lazar, J. M. (2015). Meta-analysis of the relation of body mass index to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure. The American journal of cardiology, 115(10), 1428-1434. Vedel, I., & Khanassov, V. (2015). Transitional care for patients with congestive heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 13(6), 562-571. Running Head: OPTIMAL AGING 1 Optimal Aging Stacey Tekansik Capella University 2/6/19 OPTIMAL AGING 2 Optimal Aging As people age, their functionality decreases, for example, they can’t walk long distances, they find it hard to do menial house tasks such as folding clothes among others. Optimal aging ensures that an individual maintains their functionality in all areas, i.e., physical, spiritual, emotional, social, and cognitive despite their age. Optimal aging does not mean that the individual doesn’t get sick, but it means that even with the sickness, they find a way to adapt. There are medical conditions that accompany old age because their immune is not strong enough to fight off diseases. Some individuals easily adapt to their conditions while others don’t. The adaptation is what optimal aging is all about. There are programs and organizations whose main role is to help individuals to maintain their functionality despite their age. This paper will focus on these programs, services, and organizations whose concern for the older generation is helping improve the quality of life. Nascentia Health Optimal aging programs aim at helping old individuals stay in their homes for as long as they need. In nursing homes, they don’t have as much freedom as they do in their own homes. For example, they can’t wake up in the morning and go out without the company of an individual but when at home, they can wake up and decide to visit a friend. In the United States, there are plenty of healthcare organizations that deal with optimal aging. One such organization is Nascentia Health. The organization mainly deals with individuals at risk of falling. As people age, their bones and muscles get weak which makes it easy for them to fall. The most dangerous part of falling is not that they may break a few bones but that they may fall on a sharp object and hurt themselves. OPTIMAL AGING 3 They can also hit their head on a blunt object and sustain a head injury. The organization believes that the best solution for falls and fall-related injury is putting in place, preventative measures. The organization outlines some of the characteristics of an individual who should seek their services. These individuals should have experienced unsteadiness when walking or doing any physical activity, they should have lost a lot of weight unintentionally, they are easily exhausted, and experience body weakness, meaning that they find it hard to lift items they initially lifted easily. These symptoms make it hard for the individual to do any task. For example, they have to take a taxi since they can’t walk for long distances. General body weak ...
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Running Head: PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORT

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Psychogerontology Report
Stacey Tekansik
Capella University
February 23, 2019

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PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORT

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Abstract
As people age, their functionality decreases. For example, they can’t walk long distances,
they find it hard to do menial house tasks such as folding clothes among others. Optimal ageing
ensures that an individual maintains their functionality in all areas, i.e., physical, spiritual,
emotional, social, and cognitive despite their age. Optimal ageing does not mean that the individual
doesn’t get sick, but it means that even with the sickness, they find a way to adapt. There are
medical conditions that accompany old age because their immune is not strong enough to fight off
diseases. Some individuals easily adapt to their conditions while others don’t. The adaptation is
what optimal ageing is all about. There are programs and organizations whose primary role is to
help individuals to maintain their functionality despite their age. This report will focus on these
programs, services, and organizations whose concern for the older generation is helping improve
the quality of life by comparing various factors as discussed.

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Introduction
To define psychogerontology, we have first of all to determine what gerontology is. The
word has been deduced from two Greek words Geron, an old man, and logia, the study of. In
layman’s language, this means the study of an old man. It can be defined as the study of
psychological, social, biological, cultural and cognitive issues of ageing. When it comes to
psychogerontology, we shall forget about other aspects and significant on the mental element
alone. We can, therefore, conclude that it is the study of the psychological point of ageing. The
most important thing to note the geriatric population cares to understand the physiology and
pathology of ageing; this is informed by the fact that the human body undergoes a multiplicity of
physiological changes each second. Also, the consideration of social, psychological, cognitive, and
economics of ageing is paramount to meet the needs of the ageing population. Sadly, older adults
feel that they have no control over their emergencies and fixed incomes. These factors more often
than not lead to depression and decreased efficiency. This is the reason as to why we should try as
much as possible to study these things to develop ways and strategies that will make us understand
and deal with the issue.
Objectives
For this paper, I will identify preventive services that promote socialisation, cognitive
functions, quality of life and physical and mental health. I will analyze the services addressing the
effect of the usual psychological changes that are anchored on age advancement. I will also
examine the changing societal concepts of ageing. I will analyze the significant theories linking
personality and cognitive function with the sustainment and development of person to person
relationships. I will have an analysis of the situation on the ground, my immediate community and
reflect it with the theoretical analysis.

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Literature review
The human body undergoes multiple physiological changes now and then, and this can be
used to explain the pathology and physiology of ageing. To understand the ageing population
better, it is essential to consider their social, psychological, cognitive, and economics as they get
older. In most cases, the old have no control over their fixed incomes and personal incomes.
Optimal ageing is known to be influenced by genetics, although, research has suggested that good
lifestyle choices like maintaining optimal weight, remaining physically, cognitively, and socially
active, and healthy dietary pattern also plays roles. Research findings regarding potential
modifiable effects of physical activity, social support and nutrition are presented about the optimal
ageing elements: higher physical functioning, higher cognitive functioning, active social
functioning and overall health.
Optimal ageing refers to the capacity to function across many domains which include the
functional, emotional, physical, cognitive, social and spiritual to an individual’s satisfaction
despite one’s medical conditions. Activity and disengagement theories support ageing through the
use of different ideas. The activity theory proposes that for one to age successfully, one should
remain engaged in activities and social interaction. Disengagement theory, on the other hand, talks
about successful ageing being about withdrawal from social activities and interaction.
Other characteristics are having a harmonious integration of personality through developed
ego, strength, unity, and maturity over the years, demonstrate self- actualisation, satisfaction, and
authenticity. Also, maintaining a meaningful social system that is involved with a caring network
of family and friends can help achieve a well-controlled ageing process.
The world health organization, American Association of Retired Persons, American
Society on Aging, American Planning Association, and National Association of Area Agencies on

PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORT

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ageing have tried as much as possible to give attention to the ageing-friendly communities and
these reflect the importance of physical and social environments for healthy well-being at all ages
and especially in the later life. It is important to note that the functional perspectives that conceive
the ageing processes that are observable in the mental, physical, and social functioning as reflected
in terms of active ageing. The technical criteria include the avoidance of diseases and disability,
maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive functioning as one age, and the active
engagement in social and productive activities.
Mental and physical health
Mental health problems can also be associated with old age. This is as a result of healthy
emotional and physical illness that is significant factors for with mental illness, like anxiety and
depression. Stress is another mental problem affecting the elderly. It floods the body of an aged
person with adrenaline, which raises blood pressure and heart rate.
Physiological processes like inflammation, exposure to pollution and radiations, the effect
of lifestyle factors like smoking, diet, wear and tear and fitness levels accelerates the rate of decline
of different people. Recent research has estimated that 20% of people aged 55 years or older
experience mental health concerns with the most common conditions being anxiety, severe
cognitive impairment, and mood disorders ( such as bipolar disorders, eating disorders, and
depression). Evidence has also pointed out that some natural body changes associated with ageing
could increase a person’s risk of experiencing chronic depression.
Some preventative services that promote mental and physical health include tertiary
prevention where interventions that reduce disability enhance rehabilitation and could prevent
recurrences of illness. The availability of medicines that cure mental diseases of the aged is also a
preventive service that has significantly been affected to help the ageing population. Offering

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social support is also an essential factor in the maintenance of health issues at an old age as it
contributes to physical and cognitive functioning and supporting engagement with life.
Gaming activities keep the mind active leaving no room for stress-related mental problems.
There has also been an improvement in environments where people with Parkinson’s disease and
seniors could be walking in the fully immersive virtual environment. Fall- prone older people are
also benefiting from Virtual Reality Technology that prevents falls.
Another preventive service is providing the ageing population with proper nutrition, which
is a dominant lifestyle factor that delays and prevents chronic diseases of old age. It also leads to
additional years of health, productivity and high functioning. However, older adults may be at risk
for failure to get adequate nutrition because of physiological changes that are related to organ
function decline like metabolism and digestion leading to poor absorption of nutrients. Nutritional
problems may also be developed in older adults due to poor eating habits that may be related to
difficulties in swallowing or chewing of food. Researchers have also noted that older people are
deficient in some vitamins, including B12, B6, D, and K. Adults with these vitamin deficiencies are
always at high risks of cognitive disorders. These nutritional problems could be prevented by the
provision of proper dietary services to the aged by, and teaching on the importance of consistent
optimal nutrition and reduction in food intake as this has been proven to maximize life span and
positively affect disease prevention.
Providence Health and Services
Providence Health and Services is an organization that believes that optimal ageing
improves the quality of life of an individual. It works by the principle that, if older individuals
maintain their independence, they will be healthier, happier, and will require less medical attention.
The company connects clients with service providers who help complete tasks that they need help

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doing. Some of these tasks include chore assistance, home maintenance, transportation, and
preparing meals. The optimal ageing program is set to help the individual stay at home and
maintain the independence that they need. Whenever a client reaches out to them, they try to
understand what he/she needs then try to cater for that need. There are those that need help doing
grocery shopping, attending hospital appointments, cleaning the house, cooking, and doing laundry
among others.
The company in 2017 partnered with Saferide, a company that provides transportation.
When you visit the Providence health and services site, you will come across a testimony of an
individual who has used the Saferide service to attend his medical appointments. The client’s name
is Charlie. He suffers from memory loss and other chronic conditions that make it hard for him to
move around. He has a daughter who takes care of her and ensures that he attends his checkups,
but there are times when her work schedule collides with that of Charlie’s appointments. The
optimal ageing program comes in handy and books a medically qualifies transport when their
agenda crashes. Charlie gets dropped off at the hospital, and after the appointment, he is taken
back home ("Optimal Aging | Providence Oregon," n.d.).
When people get older, they develop certain types of medical conditions such as mild
forgetfulness. This is a normal part of the ageing process. The individual can forget about where
they placed their keys, forget to make a monthly payment, or even forget which day it is. Some
individuals develop chronic conditions such as Alzheimer’s which completely messes with their
neurological function. Some individuals get concerned when they start forgetting mundane things
but often; it is attributable to their age. Whenever this happens, the patient is usually advised to
play cards, participate in various activities to keep his/her mind occupied at all times as this may
help with memory issues.

PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORT

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Nascentia Health
Optimal ageing programs aim at helping old individuals stay in their homes for as long as they
need. In nursing homes, they don’t have as much freedom as they do in their own homes. For
example, they can’t wake up in the morning and go out without the company of an individual but
when at home, they can wake up and decide to visit a friend. In the United States, there are
plenty of healthcare organizations that deal with optimal ageing. One such organization is
Nascentia Health. The organization mainly deals with individuals at risk of falling. As people
age, their bones and muscles get weak which makes it easy for them to fall. The most dangerous
part of falling is not that they may break a few bones but that they may fall on a sharp object and
hurt themselves. They can also hit their head on a blunt object and sustain a head injury. The
organization believes that the best solution for falls and fall-related injury is putting in place,
preventative measures.
The organization outlines some of the characteristics of an individual who should seek their
services. These individuals should have experienced unsteadiness when walking or doing any
physical activity, they should have lost a lot of weight unintentionally, they are quickly exhausted,
and experience body weakness, meaning that they find it hard to lift items they initially lifted
easily. These symptoms make it hard for the individual to do any task. For example, they have to
take a taxi since they can’t walk for long distances. General body weakness makes it hard for them
to wash their clothes or even cook. They can’t also stand for a long time because they are at
significant risk of falling. Some even find it hard to bath themselves which then calls for the need
of a caregiver to be present in the home.

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Whenever a patient calls the organization and informs them about their situation, they carry
out their assessment to determine what solution will best work for the individual. Some of the
assessments they undertake include nutritional assessment, function, and strength assessment,
vestibular assessment, assessment of the patient’s medical records, and lastly, multi-factor falls
assessment ("Optimal Aging - Nascentia Health," n.d.). The results from the assessment are then
used to make recommendations on the modifications that need to be done to ensure that they
address the risk of falling.
Lifestyle has an impact on the process of aging. Some conditions emerge because of the
lifestyle that an individual chooses. Also, the environment a person exists has a huge impact on
their aging process. When you look at the world today and how it was, you will notice a change in
the aging process. For example, people managed to move around and do plenty of things even at
the age of 85 which is not the case today. People believe that people weaken with age which makes
it hard for them to register into the optimal aging program. They believe that nursing homes are
the best place for a person to spend their old age. Few people believe in aging optimally. When
they see an individual fall, they assume that they can’t stay alone in the home and need 24-hour
surveillance.
Nascentia Health believes that individuals can navigate their homes if a few modifications
are made. The trick is to find out the main cause of the fall. As individuals grow old, they develop
stiff joints and experience a decrease in neurological feedback and muscle strengths. Older
individuals can’t do rigorous exercises but can do simple exercises that can help increase their
muscle strengths and lessen the stiffness of their joints thereby increasing their functionality and
reducing falls.

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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