Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking On the Phone Discussion

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Question Description

This is lab 6 and it is the final lab.

This is the labs informations to help you on how to write it right.

There is more upload that can help you to do the final report.

You will be writing Abstract, Intro, Method, Results, and Discussion. Each one will be a paragraph.

Last thing is to put reference.

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Lab 2: Introduction 1 Welcome Back! – Game Plan:  Lab 1 Review  Lab 2 Overview  Formatting / Tips  Pass back papers / Check Pre-labs 2 Handout Overview  Handout Questions  Handout Answers  How do you refer to other authors?  Last name and year only! (Carter, 2017).***  What can you put in the references section?  Only primary sources, articles you yourself have read!  What is the current or present study?  Your study, the one you are writing.  When should we use we?  Never! Data is the plural form of datum! Review for Paraphrasing Exercise  Common Notes on your Papers    Cite! Use your own words Paraphrase, do not summarize    Include all relevant pieces of information Only discuss what is in the original paragraph Handing Papers In   Your FULL name and my name (do not write other TA’s name) Make sure to turn your paper in to our locker  I can only grade papers that are turned in hard copy to the locker. 4 LAB 2: INTRO 5 Lab 2: Introduction  This is the first section of your paper – catch the reader’s eye!  Three Important Parts: 1. Literature Review: Introduce the subject of your paper and the previous research that is associated with it 2. The Current Study: Introduce and explain the current study (your study) 3. Hypothesis: State your hypothesis - your expectations for your study based on your literature review  Rationale- connecting why you came up with your hypothesis  Usually from previous research Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE. 6 Where to Start  Start off with a general sentence to set the scene  Talk about why studying this phenomenon is interesting and valuable  Transition into your lit review  Ex: Researchers evaluated ….  Ex. Schwebel et al. (2012) explored…  Page 115-117 in WWS, also on the back cover for more info. Follow along with your pre-lab outline. Take those ideas and make them into 2-3 correctly cited paragraphs. Part 1 of Intro: Lit Review  Literature Review (Review of previous research – Schwebel et al., 2012 article)  Methodology: How did the researchers investigate their variables?  Findings: What did they find? Conclusions: What does that mean in general?    Discuss the parts of the article that relate to your study   EX: people who use cell phones while walking did not notice unusual behavior– why is that important? Unlike the paraphrasing activity, you do not have to explain every detail! Make it interesting!   Engage the reader Explain why your research is necessary, how it fits into field or how it is filling a gap You are only responsible for reviewing the Schwebel article for this paper. Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE. 8 Part 2 of Intro: Your Study  The Current Study (your study)  Methodology: How did (will) YOU collect your data.   You haven’t collected it yet, but you’re writing as if you have already. Variables: What are your variables of interest? (IV and DV)  Avoid using the terms ”independent”, “dependent” and “variable”.  Ex: Cell phone use and stopping at stop signs Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE. 9 Part 3 of Intro: Hypothesis  Four Requirements for the hypothesis: 1. “It was hypothesized that…” 2. Mention both variables (distraction/ & safety) 3. Mention dependency (since we are running a Chi-square test of independence) 4. Past tense. *You can elaborate if you want to (or not)* Rationale  Rationale: Why do you think this, based on your literature review.  In psychology you can’t jump to conclusions, need to cite why you think one thing will be related or affect the other based on previous research  This can be a separate, new sentence OR it can be combined with the hypothesis (if done correctly) 12 Citing Primary Sources For when there are more than two and less than six authors:  The first time you cite the article in your paper, you need to list all the authors’ last names and the year of publication  Ex: In a study by Schwebel, Stavrinos, Byington, Davis, O’neal, and De Jong (2013)  The next time you refer to an article you just need to provide the first authors’ last name followed by et al., and the year of publication  You can do this in two ways:  Most common way: Research on cell phones and walking behavior… (Schwebel et al., 2012)  Also correct: In a study by Schwebel et al. (2012)… PAY ATTENTION TO FORMATTING!  Formatting is crucial in APA style.  I will be looking at formatting for every assignment, and points will be deducted for incorrect formatting. For each formatting mistake, 0.5 points will be deducted from your final grade. Data Collection Distraction  Question: Is cell phone use/distraction related to safety (at a cross-road)?  Traffic intersection  Only need to watch one corner (not all 4) – but you may  Note time of day & location  Note length of observation (ex: 20 min)  Make chart → Yes Safe Street Crossing Unsafe Need at least 5 in each cell!! No Final Notes 1. Follow the grading rubric, make sure you get it stamped. (That indicates that you did your pre-lab). 2. Make sure you follow the formatting instructions on pages 1-2 of your lab manual.  3. No heading, besides your name and my name The printed copy is due by tomorrow (Tuesday) at 4:00 pm in my locker. Make sure to attach your grading rubric to the top. 15 Final Notes Next week, we will be covering The Method Section Please read over the lab manual and prelab outline in advance – this will make it a lot easier to get everything done Make sure you are on time!! Lab 3 1 Lab 3 Game Plan:  Lab 2 Review  Lab 3 Overview  Formatting / Tips  Pass back papers / Check Prelabs 2 General Notes:  Questions on the comments that I made on your papers? See me!  APA is tricky and it takes practice!  I expect that you are able to apply my comments to your next paper   Hang onto your papers! You’re going to have to combine them into a complete paper, so don’t lose them.  The comments will help you write your second set of papers.  You’ll notice each mark isn’t a deduction, many are just tips  Check Blackboard to make sure that grades are inputted correctly. If not, please send me your grading rubric or talk to me directly, as soon as possible  3 General Notes:  Attach Rubrics to assignments   I will not be able to give you credit for your prelab if you do not attach the rubric. Watch Formatting rules—They’re extremely important!  We will deduct .5 points for every formatting error listed on the bottom of the grading rubric. 4 Clarifications* Therefore...  Always use Schwebel et al. (2012)  If citing at the end of a sentence:  ....(Schwebel et al., 2012) Lab 2 Notes:  Past Tense   Writing Handout Reminders      Spells authors names correctly 6+ author rule clarification Hypothesis     Absolutely no use of we, you, our, I, etc.!! Also no contractions No Quotations – all in your own words Do not use the word “variable” Citation Reminders    You are writing this one step a time, but need to write it like you have already fully completed the research (minus your results) Variables Comparing groups Direction of relationship vs dependency Findings versus Conclusions 6 LAB 3: METHOD 7 Lab 3: Method  This is the second section of your paper:  Most people finish this one in class  The purpose is to describe what you did in your study so that others can replicate  Three sections  Participants  Apparatus (NA)/Materials  Procedure 8 Lab 3: Method  Participants – Who were they? How many did you observe? This can be one or two sentences.  The researcher observed…  No one sentence paragraphs! If Participants section is only one sentence, then combine Participants & Procedure sections.  You do not know anything about the people you study    Do not include age, gender, or say that they are students! Keep it generalizable (don’t say SDSU students) Apparatus – Not needed since our collection is so simple (yay!) 9 Lab 3: Method  Procedure – What you did?  Define your variables (you can use the definition in the lab manual). (Do not use the word variable)  How did you collect your data? When? For how long?  This doesn’t need to be extremely detailed, just the basics is fine.  Do not give building names or exact time of day here → keep it general (AM/PM, urban/rural, campus) Lab 3: Tips  Headings    Method is bold & centered Participants and Procedure sections are bold aligned left If you combine the two sections, write Participants/Procedure and use subheading rules (WWS)  Keep everything in the right section, follow your lab manual and grading criteria  Make sure you attach your grading rubric sheet on top  Your name and my name (Chandler)  Watch Formatting Rules and remember guidelines on Writing Handout. ☺ 11 Lab 3: Tips   IMPORTANT:  You are writing up the method of the current study (the one you did!), NOT the Schwebel et al. (2012) study  Triple check formatting and tense requirements → -.25 for each tense error  Times New Roman, Size 12, double space 0pt before + after, no extra space between text (including header) TIPS:  Read along with the PowerPoint slides and follow what they say  Ask a classmate to proof read your paper  Not too specific = generalizable + replicable  APA Rules for writing numbers  Be clear and concise in your writing  Use your resources 12 13 Quick Activity Write down on a piece of paper: 1. What do you want to learn or take from this class? 2. Why are you taking this class? 3. How can I help you succeed in this lab (within reason)? Your feedback is appreciated! (constructive or positive) → https://sdsu.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_bQuBADX2iPGgERf Lab 4: Results 1 Lab 4 Game Plan:  Lab 3 Methods Review  Lab 4 Results Overview  How to input and analyze data in SPSS  How to write up findings  Tips and Formatting  Check Pre-labs/Hand back papers 2 Lab 3 Review:  Heading: Method not Methods (we just had 1)  Researchers vs researcher  Do not assume anything about your participants  Use your resources → pre-lab outlines, slides, grading rubric, lab manual  APA format – using numbers in text  Use text if the number is between 0-9 and/or if it is the first word in a sentence  Use digits if the number is 10 or above and NOT the first word in sentence Check your grammar and proofread! 3 Lab 3 Review:   You need to operationally define your variables.  2 variables with two levels each:  Texting/Cell Phone Use: What is texting, what is not texting?  Safe Behavior: What is safe behavior and what is risky behavior? Describe type of intersection   Bikes and pedestrians only? Automobiles? Four-way? Do not define unsafe behavior as looking at phones/texting → They are separate measures  Ps can be demonstrate unsafe walking Bx and not be on a cell phone 5 Your Responses 1. 2. 3. What do you want to learn or take from this class? 1. How to write an APA style paper and collect/analyze data 2. How to be a good producer and consumer of research Why are you taking this class? 1. To be a better writer and researcher 2. Build skills for graduate school and/or a future career How can I help you succeed in this lab? 1. Detailed and constructive feedback on papers 2. Answering questions (in person and through email) and proof reading 3. Provide clear grading guidelines and expectations 4. Provide clear pre-lab expectations LAB 4: RESULTS 6 Lab 4: Results  Today…     Input your data into SPSS Run a Chi-Square test Report your results in your paper To start this lab off you’re going to be inputting data. There are detailed instructions in your lab manual, and I’m going to go over everything you need to do right now.  If you miss something, don’t worry, the power point will be available on blackboard as always (in addition to your lab manual)  Going to go through this somewhat quickly so you can get started  Ask specific questions, will not have time to read over your papers today 7 SPSS Entering Variables  Make sure you’re in variable view.  Create two new variables (Cell, Cross)  Assign values to each cell variable   Value = 0, Label = no  Value = 1, Label = yes Assign values to cross variable  Value = 0, Label = safe  Value = 1, Label = unsafe 8 Note: You need to input labels for BOTH “Cell” and “Cross” SPSS Data Entry  Make sure you’re in data view.  Each row represents data about one pedestrian   So if you have 20 observations, you’ll have 20 rows. Input the correct sequence of 0’s and 1’s for each participant/driver/subject. Cell Cross 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 No cell/text (0), Unsafe Crossing (1) No cell/text (0), Safe Crossing (0) Cell phone (1), Unsafe Crossing (1) Cell phone (1), Safe Crossing (0) 12 SPSS Data Entry Ex.  This is an example of what your data might look like: 6 No Cell (0), Unsafe Cross (1) 5 No Cell (0), Safe Cross (0) 6 Cell (1), Unsafe Cross (1) 5 Cell (1), Safe Cross (0) 13 ç 17 This tells us if there are any missing data Of those who stopped safely (16), 6 drivers (28.6%) had a cell phone. Chi-Square value and significance value 18 This tells us if there are any missing data EXAMPLE: Of those who crossed safely (10), 5 pedestrians (50%) had used a cell phone Chi-Square value Significance value Results: Writing it Up  First, restate your hypothesis   Report your statistics:   If I did not make any comments on your hypothesis from your introduction then just use that. If I did, please make the necessary changes. Format: χ2(degrees of freedom) = chi square, p-value  χ2(1)_=_ .03, p_=_.032.  Little details matter (-.25 for each statistics errors!)  Insert chi symbol (not an X)  Insert a ‘2’ and then superscript it (to make it squared)  p needs to be lower case and italicized  Round to two decimals for χ2 , and three decimals for p-value  Note the spacing This needs to be in the body of a sentence (aka not in parenthesis 19 Writing it Up cont'd  Sample write up including your statistics:    χ2 is a test of dependency, NOT correlation Finally, explicitly state whether your hypothesis was supported or not. This seems redundant, but you do need a separate sentence explicitly stating this.   Ex: “Results suggested that teaching evaluations were dependent on the teaching assistant, χ2(1) = 3.03, p = .032”. Just because you found significant results does not mean they supported your hypothesis! (It could be the case that texting was related to safer crossing!!!) → need to look at % or bar graph to determine this So now let’s talk about significant vs. non-significant results! 20 If Findings are Significant…  If p < .05 (SIGNIFICANT), you’re going to need to give some descriptive information about your sample (#,%).  Of the 40 students in Shelley’s class, 36 (90%) provided good teaching evaluations while 4 (10%) provided bad teaching evaluations.  Of the 40 students in Zach’s class, 25 (62.5%) provided good teaching evaluations while 15 (37.5%) provided bad teaching evaluations.  The % you use is the valid percent! Check your bath  Yes – you need both the number and the valid percent  If significant....Copy/paste your graph onto a separate page and add a figure caption. You’ll also need to reference this in your paper. 21 If Findings are Significant…  Separate page!  Needs to be referenced in the text.   Figure 1. Frequency of crossing behavior and texting behavior.  Pedestrians were more likely to cross safely if they were texting than if they were not texting (Figure 1). Caption is italicized justified left below. The description is NOT italicized. Do not do this if your p > .05 (non-significant) 22 Wrap Up: Significant Findings Restate hypothesis It was hypothesized that teaching evaluations would be dependent on TA. State findings of chi square written up correctly Results suggested that teaching evaluations were dependent on TA, χ2(1) = 3.03, p = .032 State whether it supports or does not support hypothesis The hypothesis was supported. Include descriptive information  Of the 40 students in Shelley’s class, 36 (90%) provided good teaching evaluations while 4 (10%) provided bad teaching evaluations.  Of the 40 students in Zach’s class, 25 (62.5%) provided good teaching evaluations while 15 (37.5%) provided bad teaching evaluations. Reference As your graph/figure in the body of the paragraph seen in Figure 1, … Include Figure on a separate page with caption (watch formatting) 23 If Findings aren't Significant…  p > .05 – findings are not statistically significant Chi square tests analyze whether one variable depends on (or is independent from) another variable. If the test is not significant, than knowing about cell phones tells you nothing about stopping behaviors.  You don’t need to describe %’s and #’s. You don’t need to attach a figure, make a figure caption, or reference it in text.   Your paper is going to be pretty short (~3-5 sentences) 24 Wrap Up: Non-significant Findings Restate It hypothesis was hypothesized that teaching evaluations would be dependent on TA. State findings of chi square written up correctly Results suggested that teaching evaluations were independent from TA, χ2(1) = .026, p = .833.  State it does not support hypothesis The hypothesis was not supported. **Do not include descriptive info, turn in a bar graph, or reference any figures** 25 Formatting and Grading  Your heading (Results) should be bold and centered  Make sure to indent, double space all the way through, Times New Roman, size 12.  -.5 for each formatting error  -.25 for each past tense error  Half credit if late (due 24 hours from the end of lab)  Chi square (χ2):  Insert → Symbol → Greek Small Letter Chi small curvy (χ) or insert 03c7 in the character code.  Squared symbol → Type the number “2” → it → Format Font → Superscript Highlight 26 Tips Non-significant ≠ insignificant → Do not mix these up, the proper term is non-significant   You need to turn in:  Grading Rubric  Results Lab  Figure (if applicable)  SPSS output (will not be able to grade paper without it)  If p = .343, you can either state p > .05 OR the exact p value  If p < .05, state the exact p value  If p = .000 (on your SPSS output), state p < .001 27 28 Final Comments Feedback? ☺ Lecture too fast or too slow? Confusions? Comments? → https://sdsu.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_bQuBADX2iPGgERf Lab 5: Discussion 1 Lab 5 Game Plan:  Lab 4 Review  Lab 5 Overview  Tips / Final Comments  Pass back papers / Check Prelabs 2 Lab 4 Review  p should be in Italics; χ2 as a Greek letter; spacing      Yes: χ2 (1) = 4.04, p = .044 No: x2 (1)=4.043,P=.04 Check your hypotheses! (again ☺) Significant: Include descriptive information & figure Non-significant: Variables we ...
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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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