Legal, Ethical and Professional Issues in Information Systems

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8 pages without the references page.

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Definition: A literary research paper is a compilation and interpretation of factual materials and of critics’ opinions on a specific subject in a literary work. Since the selection of materials is filtered and processed by the writer, the paper reflects the author’s views also; hence, it is both objective and subjective in content. Because the paper expresses the writer’s opinions, s/he must find a topic of interest from a work that s/he has read and examined. Writing Process 1. Select a topic related to a poem, short story, play, or novel that you have read. Note: The work which is under study is called the primary source; the critical and historical references are called secondary sources. 2. Write a tentative thesis to establish your purpose for research. This is what you are trying to support. After some reading, you may need to refine your thesis statement. 3. Prepare a working bibliography—a list of available sources. • Consult books of literary criticism, the MLA International Bibliography, and other books and periodicals related to your subject and author. • If your topic is current, check the Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature. In addition, remember that much information is available on computer. Microfiche catalogs have replaced the card catalog in most libraries. Microforms contain information on a screen. • Make copies of information that you think is pertinent. 4. Take notes. There are two methods of note-taking: index cards and highlighting your copies. Select the one that works better for you unless instructed otherwise. If you select to use highlighting, use a different color highlighter for each topic within your subject (comparable to main points on the outline). 5. Make an outline using the information assembled from the notes. 6. Write a rough draft inserting parenthetical citations within the text unless instructed otherwise. This method of acknowledging sources has replaced footnotes and end notes because it is immediately accessible to the reader. Use guidelines from The Modern Language Association Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA), or some other source as assigned, for citations and works cited. 7. Write a Works Cited (bibliography) following MLA guidelines or any other reference assigned. 8. Lay the paper aside; proofread later. 9. Write the final copy. 10. Proofread the final copy. Research Paper Guidelines Sample Outline Notice that no correct number of letters or numbers exists; the only determining factor is the number of points you need to make for the required length of your paper. I. Introduction A. Background information connecting the reader to the subject B. Thesis statement II. First Main Point A. First subpoint 1. Supporting example or detail—either your insight or a critic’s comment paraphrased or directly quoted Never start a sentence with a quote that you have not introduced. a) First comment on support b) Second comment on support 2. Supporting example or detail (your comment on supporting detail from a critic) a) First comment b) Second comment B. Second subpoint 1. Supporting example or detail 2. Supporting example or detail C. Third subpoint (same as A, B above) At this point continue with D, E... if needed III. Second Main Point A. First subpoint—Comment on subpoint (only one comment on this detail) As in the above example, use a dash after a point if it is followed by only one detail or comment. B. Second sub point 1. Supporting example—only one comment on this example: hence use the dash, not an a by itself 2. Supporting example a) Comment b) Comment Continue with the same sequence alternating numerals and letters until you have completed outlining all of your material. IV. Critical Thinking Section A. Incorporate reactions to the source materials B. Include insights about the research topic C. Synthesize critical thinking threads V. Conclusion Affirm that the thesis has been proven General Guidelines • • • • • • • • Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt. Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor). Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted). Formatting the First Page of Your Paper • • • • • • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking" Double space between the title and the first line of the text. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.) ...
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Msharon
School: University of Virginia

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Legal, Ethical and Professional Issues in Information Systems
Cybercrime is continuously evolving with retailers being a primary target. Information
security is not just a responsibility for an organization or a job for computer geeks in data centers
but also for the customers. Cybersecurity is a concern for individuals, corporations, and
governments. With cloud adoption, for example, one has a potential step forward and opportunity
for transformation. However, such benefits are accompanied by increased cyber threats impacting
the efficient flow of information and operations. Over the years, the government has intervened in
data security in an organization by passing laws that protect information, especially personal
information. These laws are not optional and require that data be protected be a certain way. For
example, is a law applied to an organization; it must follow the law. As such, these rules are more
than just good business practices but have also been identified as business requirements. Besides,
ethics and professional standards in an organization also form part of information security in an
organization. This paper discusses the Legal, Ethical and Professional Issues in Information
Systems.
The United States Patriot Act (USPA) was passed as a response to the September 11
terrorist attack in 2001. The law grants federal officials with authority to track and intercept
communications for law enforcement and foreign intelligence gathering. Also, this law allows the
secretary of the Treasury Regulatory to prevent corruption in the US financial institutions from

Last Name2

laundering money (Justice.gov). The law begins with the aim of enhancing domestic security
against terrorism and provides that the U.S government should take the issue of cyber terrorism
seriously. Section 105 of the act order for the expansion of the country’s electronic crime task
force. The primary aim of such a development is to prevent, detect and investigate various forms
of electronic crimes including possible crime attacks against the critical national infrastructure and
financial payment systems. Section 214 of the act widens the scope of the information that is
retrieved through trap and trace devices and pen registers (Grama). Also, the act increases the
frequency of the government’s internet traffic monitoring requests.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) is a law passed by congress in 1999. Also known
as the Modernization Act of 1999, this law has been used to make a huge transformation of
information security in the banking industry. The GLBA defines a financial institution as an
institution that engages in the transaction of financial activities such as lending, borrowing,
providing credit counseling and debt collection (Grama). Essentially, this law requires that
financial institutions protect customers’ personal financial information. According to the law, each
financial institution a responsibility to affirm and respect the privacy of its customers. The financial
institutions must provide privacy and security of nonpublic information of the customer such as
social security number, financial account numbers, credit card numbers, date of birth, name,
address, phone numbers and any other sensitive details of the financial transactions (Grama). The
law requires that any financial institution should follow the...

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