SCI304B Essay on Chemistry of Liquid Breathing

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Question Description

2-4 page written report. 600 - 1200 words. Please do not use science jargon - should be understood by all audiences.

Please cite sources in MLA format and include in-text citations.

The essay should discuss the following (please see the attached grading rubric):

Discuss the parameters that influence gases in solution.

Explain how nitrogen behaves when a scuba diver dives to great depths, and the consequences this can cause.

Explain various solutions to the problems caused by nitrogen gas in solution at depths.

Explain what liquid breathing is and how it works.

Discuss the progress of liquid breathing technology. (Is it real or science fiction?) Discuss the potential applications in medicine (give specific examples).

Discuss the potential applications of liquid breathing in scuba diving. (Is it real or science fiction?) How might it solve current problems? What are its disadvantages?


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Honors Research Projects In-Text Citations Include a citation for every piece of information that is not common knowledge. Also include a citation every time you quote or closely paraphrase an author’s words. The in-text citation goes at the end of the sentence containing the source information. The citation belongs in parentheses. Provide only the author’s last name and the page number or numbers. Do not put a comma between the author’s name and the page number. Books and magazine articles use the same author-page form: (Curry 19) If the author’s name is not known, your citation should give the title of the work and the page number. Put the title of an article in quotation marks: (“Free or Not, They Made a Contribution” 22) For entries in encyclopedias or dictionaries, you do not have to give the page number because those reference books list entries in alphabetical order. Give the title of the entry. For example, if you cite the “Douglass, Frederick” entry in Encyclopedia Britannica, write the in-text citation as follows: (“Douglass, Frederick”) For websites, simply give the author’s name without the page number. If a website does not give the author’s name, cite the title of the site. Use italics if you are citing an entire website and quotation marks if you are citing a specific page within a website: (Curry) (Africans in America) (“People and Events”) In-text citations may sound complicated, but they are actually simple. The rules boil down to one general principle: Give the author’s name and the page number, if possible. If the author’s name is not available, give the title. The Works Cited Page When writing a paper, the Works Cited list may begin on the last page of your text or on a separate page. This list includes all of the works you actually cited. If you read and took notes on a source but did not include it in your paper, do not include it on your Works Cited page. On the Works Cited page, present all of the entries in a single alphabetized list regardless of type. Books, articles, websites, and other types of sources all make up the one list. Entries that begin with the author’s name and entries that begin with the title are all alphabetized together. If a citation contains more than one line, indent all lines after the first one. Book A citation for a book includes the following information, in this order, with this punctuation: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Publication Year. Curry, Leonard P. The Free Black in Urban America, 1800–1850. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1981. Article A citation for an article includes the following information, in this order, with this punctuation: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Periodical Day Month Year: Pages. Barstow, Emma. “How Free Blacks Lived.” American Past 6 July 2008: 32–35. Note: There is no period after the name of the periodical. Encyclopedia A citation for an entry in an encyclopedia or dictionary includes the following information, in this order, with this punctuation: Author’s Last and First Name (if available). “Title of Article.” Name of Reference Work. Edition. Publication Year. “Slavery.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. 5th ed. 1993. Website A citation for a website includes the following information in this order, with this punctuation: Author’s Last and First Name. “Title of Page.” Name of Entire Website. Day Month Year of creation or most recent update of website. Publisher or Sponsor Information. Day Month Year you accessed the website . Tyson, Peter. “Living at Extremes.” NOVA Online Adventure: Into the Abyss. 2000. WGBH Educational Foundation. 15 Jan. 2007 . At times, not all possible information is available; for example, the name of the author of an article or Web page may be missing. In such cases, you omit that part of the citation. For more information, refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition, by Joseph Gibaldi. You can also find good summaries of citation form on several websites, such as the following: The Owl at Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/ Duke University Libraries, http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/ MLA Citation Style, Cornell University, http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/mla.html Graded Assignment SCI304B: Honors Chemistry | Unit 10 | Lesson 1: Liquid Breathing Grading Rubric Honors Project 1: Liquid Breathing Your teacher will use this grading rubric to evaluate your project. Criteria 15 Points 12–14 Points 8–11 Points 4–7 Points 1–3 Points Discuss the parameters that influence gases in solution. Student includes a thorough discussion of the effects of pressure and temperature on gases in solution (increased pressure causes more gas to dissolve, increased temperature decreases the amount of dissolved gas). Student mentions the parameters but does not discuss them thoroughly. Student mentions the parameters but does not discuss them at all. Student mentions one of the parameters but does not discuss it at all. Student neither mentions nor discusses the parameters affecting gases in solution. Explain how nitrogen behaves when a scuba diver dives to great depths, and the consequences this can cause. Student discusses how nitrogen dissolves in blood and tissues with increased pressure at depths, and how nitrogen forms bubbles in blood and tissue when the diver ascends and pressure decreases. Student explains decompression sickness, nitrogen, narcosis, and high-pressure nervous syndrome. Student discusses 75% of the topics. Student discusses 50% of the topics. Student discusses 25% of the topics. Student discusses fewer than 25% of the topics or none at all. Explain various solutions to the problems caused by nitrogen gas in solution at depths. Student explains how decompression stops allow nitrogen to come out of solution slowly without forming bubbles. Student also explains principles of saturation diving and how it can allow divers to remain at great depths for extended periods. Student discusses 75% of the topics. Student discusses 50% of the topics. Student discusses 25% of the topics. Student discusses fewer than 25% of the topics or none at all. Explain what liquid breathing is and how it works. Student has written a thorough description of liquid breathing and how the technique works. Student discusses 75% of the topics. Student discusses 50% of the topics. Student discusses 25% of the topics. Student discusses fewer than 25% of the topics or none at all. © 2009 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 1 of 2 Graded Assignment SCI304B: Honors Chemistry | Unit 10 | Lesson 1: Liquid Breathing Criteria 15 Points 12–14 Points 8–11 Points 4–7 Points 1–3 Points Discuss the progress of liquid breathing technology. (Is it real or science fiction?) Discuss the potential applications in medicine (give specific examples). Student discusses that liquid breathing or partial liquid ventilation is a real technique. Student provides examples of the use of liquid breathing in medicine with examples such as premature infants and patients with respiratory problems. Student discusses 75% of the topics. Student discusses 50% of the topics. Student discusses 25% of the topics. Student discusses fewer than 25% of the topics or none at all. Discuss the potential applications of liquid breathing in scuba diving. (Is it real or science fiction?) How might it solve current problems? What are its disadvantages? Student discusses that liquid breathing in diving is still experimental and may discuss some of the experimental studies to show progress. Student may mention that the scene from The Abyss with the liquid-breathing rat was real, but that human divers have not used this technology. Student should discuss how this technology will solve the problems of decompression sickness and nitrogen-associated problems. Student should discuss the disadvantages of liquid breathing, such as the increased work needed by the respiratory muscles to inhale and exhale the dense, viscous, perfluorocarbon fluid. Student may mention that mechanically assisted ventilation like that used with respiratory patients might help solve the problem of increased work of breathing. Student discusses 75% of the topics. Student discusses 50% of the topics. Student discusses 25% of the topics. Student discusses fewer than 25% of the topics or none at all. © 2009 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 2 of 2 ...
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BaddestEEva
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Chemistry of Liquid Breathing
The solubility of gases in solutions is mainly influenced by the amount of temperature
and pressure. A decrease and an increase in temperature and pressure respectively will result in
an increase in the solubility of gases in solution such as water. This effect is demonstrated by
Henry law which states that “at a constant temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is
directly proportional to the pressure of the gas.” Increase in temperature will result in a more
significant movement of gas particles which will lead to dissolved gases in solution to escape
inform of gas particles. Hence this means that solubility of gases decreases with increase in
temperature. Increase in pressure, on the other hand, will force gas particles into solution thus
resulting from increasing solubility of the gas (Peter).
Scuba divers use Trimix gas for breathing while deep underwater. The gas is made up of
compressed air of about 20% oxygen, 80% nitrogen and some traces of Helium. The pressure
that results from increased changes in depth below sea level leads to more nitrogen dissolving in
and out of blood and tissue of the scuba divers. The more the divers go deep, the pressure
increases rapidly resulting in more dissolution of nitrogen in and out of the diver's tissue and
blood. However, if the pressure is too high such that the dissolved nitrogen fails to dissolve out
of the fabric and blood quickly enough, then the gase...

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Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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