Essay #1 Final Draft
Proposing the Monster
The advancement in the field of science, specifically in biotechnology and animal genetic
engineering is providing possibilities for improving human intellectual, psychological and
physical capacities. Scientists are coming up with brave, imaginative and daring inventions to the
aspiration of humanity. An example is Emily Anthes, who incorporates science into animal life
through her fictional book, Frankenstein’s Cat. The purpose of the following paper is to address
the advancement and the contribution of this book in the field of genetic engineering. The target
audiences are scientists in this field. The information will provide an insight into the progress
and imaginations that have been made in this field through the book.
Description of the Issue:
Genetic engineering uses the components of genes in animals by altering their functions in
processes such as deleting, inserting or changing the information in the DNA of the genes to
include or eliminate specific characteristics. Most research in genetic engineering in animals is
done to advance the field of medicine and to create exotic species of animals. The purpose of this
research is to evaluate the contribution and the insight of scientist in the field of genetic
engineering. Information from such a basis will be critical in forming the foundation for future
researches. The main argument of this research is that science is reshaping the animal kingdom
with the possibility of improving human life. These modifications are associated with the options
of impacting positively to the world.
The writer of this book considers humanity as a force of nature that influences animals willingly
or unwillingly. She raises a concern on if the man should shape the bodies and lives of animals,
in which way should this be done, the tools that should be used, and how the process should be
conducted. Her work also raises concerns the results of these scientific activities. She also
stresses that genetic engineering is neither good nor bad, but its utilization by humankind
determines its true nature. The practice in genetic engineering is associated with innovation,
which could be utilized to solve the puzzles in the public health and environmental degradation,
which will ultimately save countless lives as well as saving environment.
What the Research Paper will Add:
● Evaluate the potential of genetic engineering in animals and possible impacts in human
● Review the impacts of procreation between animals that have been genetically modified.
● Examine the potential for conflicting animals’ rights
● Examine genetic engineering in animal’s perspectives
● The research will add on the available knowledge on the subject of genetic engineering in
● It will review the different opportunities and biological limitations for the humankind as
well as for animals, since the two categories share a similar environment, and therefore,
the influence of one category on the other.
Type of Research:
● Conducting primary interview with Emily Anthes
● This research will be a review of various sources of information such as books, movies,
and articles in the discipline of genetic engineering.
● Reviewing articles on animal rights with regards to genetic modification
● Evaluating the scientific articles on the subject matter
● Review of seminal talks such as Ted Talks of genetically modified animals.
● The research will involve conducting an intensive search for the opinions and
contributions of various people in genetic engineering in animals.
● A summary of the findings will then be written to facilitate making conclusions for this
Eventually, this research will impact the public as well as the scientist in the field of genetic
engineering. The public is the main recipient of the efforts and advancement of this field, and
therefore, if people reject the results of scientist, the entire field will be meaningless. On the
other hand, scientists will gain additional insight into the work of various other scientists, which
may form the basis for their future work. The success of genetic engineering depends on the
collaboration between the public and scientists.
Essay #2 Final Draft
How Frankenstein’s Cat book contributes in the field of genetic engineering
Source list with CARS Scores
CARS score: 22
Readability level: 62.4
Quote: “Any change in the bioscience and the related relations to the society over the last two
decades offers a special opportunity for examination of the changes in the language
useful for experimenting the impacts” (Hellsten and Brigitte 357).
Summary: The article explores the metaphorical language used in the English language as a way
of conceptualizing new types of bioscience. The findings of the study show that four key
metaphors were utilized between 2009 and 2010.
Note: The article is fundamentally useful for it show how cultural and social knowledge about
computers, books and engines are interrelated to the knowledge of revolutions made in
science studies (the printing, industrial revolution and information)
Hellsten, Iina, and Brigitte Nerlich. "Synthetic biology: building the language for a new science
brick by metaphorical brick." New Genetics and Society 30.4 (2011): 375-397.
2. Playing God
CARS score: 19
Readability level: 52.4
Quote: “The finalization of human genome project, cloning and the recent controversy
concerning the stem cell studies have elicited lively and heated debates among the public
policy makers and religious thinkers” (Peter n.p)
Summary: In this article, the author put in light the crucial issues in the continuing genetic
engineering debate and makes connections between human efforts to managing
technological innovations and the concept of God.
Note: The primary article is critically useful for it explores the issue of genetic engineering and
how it relates to the concept of creation in the eye of God.
Peters, Ted. Playing God?: Genetic Determinism and Human Freedon. Routledge, 2014.
3. Mass destruction
CARS score: 18.6
Readability level: 49.9
Quote: “The British and US Genetic Engineering policy to the invasion and conquering of Iraq,
by analogy, dismissed the pro-GM argument as unreliable and untrustworthy” (Cook 5).
Summary: The scholarly journal details the findings of two-year projects exploring the British
press and their comprehensive coverage of the debate revolving around the genetically
modified food during the second half of 2004 and both the experts and non-experts on
the issue. During the study, two anti-GM and two pro-GM newspapers were chosen for
the study investigation and analysis, and the articles that were mentioning the genetically
modified food during that time were safeguarded in the machines readable databases.
The data was then analyzed with the use of discourse analytic and corpus linguistic
techniques to disclosing the themes, recurrent wording and content. The analysis of the
study was complemented by 14 interviews with experts who were engaged in the
communication of the GM issues. In addition, a 15 focus-group session was involved in
which the public members reacted differently to the chosen newspapers and texts with
other genetically modified materials. Both in the public reaction and in the press, the
concept of GM was noted to be intimately linked with other political events of the past,
most significantly the invasion and conquering of Iraq.
Note: The journal is crucially significant because it treats genetic modified food as a politically
Cook, Guy, Peter T. Robbins, and Elisa Pieri. "“Words of mass destruction”: British newspaper
coverage of the genetically modified food debate, expert and non-expert reactions."
Public Understanding of Science 15.1 (2006): 5-29.
4. Ethical issues
CARS score: 17.6
Readability level: 45.9
Quote: “Scientific inquiries and studies are related to the issue of animal experimentation in the
human history and popular imagination” (Bishop 91).
Summary: In this journal, the author argues that most of the significant innovations in the
treatment of the human maladies and medical understanding of the condition have been
widely used in the animal-related researches. Nevertheless, the usage of animals in the
experimentation and research has been heavily debated, protested and defended by both
the organizations and individuals in at various levels. Responses can range from fervent
philosophical articles and individual lifestyles to violent demonstration, strident
arguments and direct action. The continued attitude about the human relationship and
animal relationships is said to range between the people with do not support the
regulation of the usage of animals and those who advocate for animal liberation.
Note: The journal is essentially important for it looks into the sensitive issue of animal cloning
and the related ethics.
Bishop, Laura Jane, and Anita L. Nolen. "Animals in research and education: Ethical issues."
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11.1 (2001): 91-112.
5. Technological determinism
CARS score: 16.6
Readability level: 44.9
Quote: “The technological analysis by the sociologists, historians, and philosophers has been
declining over the years” (Mody 95).
Summary: The topic of technological determinism and genetic engineering is of core important,
considerably in the examination of the dynamics of the emerging and advancing
technologies and its related researching areas. This is notably noticeable in the
nanotechnology whereby the futurist traditions, employ classical argumentative
determinism. In this case, therefore, nanotechnology concentrates more on the look into
the past and future than the current traditional disciplines.
Note: The article explores significant ways of nona-presentism and recommends ways of
exploring the issues of nano-determinism
Mody, Cyrus CM. "Small, but determined: Technological determinism in nanoscience."
Nanotechnology challenges: implications for philosophy, ethics and society. 2006.
CARS score: 19.4
Readability level: 36.9
Quote: “Metaphors commonly used in the newspaper and on the internet including ‘cloned
organs are killers” (Nerlich 223).
Summary: The genetically modified plants can be classified or grouped into different metaphors
such as ‘Plants are humans’ or ‘clones are plants’ - it is claimed that the issue of cloning
is debated or described in terms of the present stock characters, including Frankenstein’
monster – fictional account of cloning.
Note: The author sound philosophically inclined when he argue that although there are
numerous cases of fictional cloning, no single individual has been cloned.
Nerlich, Brigitte, David D. Clarke, and Robert Dingwall. "Clones and crops: The use of stock
characters and word play in two debates about bioengineering." Metaphor and
symbol15.4 (2000): 223-239.
7. Interfering with nature
CARS score: 19.4
Readability level: 36.9
Quote: “Conceptualization of the natural order and nature of things from the foundation anchor
in our public debate, public understanding, and the controversy about the numerous
developments in genetic research and in animal, human, and plant biotechnology, has
been heavily researched” (Hansen 51).
Summary: The author argues that nature is a social construct, and it is a God-given and the
proper order of the universe. However, the magazine involves in examining the concept
of nature in public arena regarding the advancements made in the biotechnology and
Note: The magazine shows how nature is useful and is frequently invoked in public debates
about genetic application and research
Hansen, Anders. "Tinkering with nature: discourses of ‘nature’in media coverage of genetics
and biotechnology." Comunicação e Sociedade 6 (2012): 51-74.
8. Animal breeding
CARS score: 19.4
Readability level: 36.9
Quote: “Humans think that they are free to meddle with animal kingdom in the name of
‘adopting good measures of breeding” (Katherine n.p).
Summary: the author show how the advancements of biotechnology has given rise to
manipulation of animals. The results of this behavior are considered to be beneficial but
Note: The article is significantly critical for it view the subject of cloning as both profitable and
Katherine Bouton, ‘A High-Tech Menagerie’. New York Times (2013)
9. Genetic Aesthetic statistics
CARS score: 23.4
Readability level: 46.9
Quote: “The popularization of films and novels show how animals are now considered as the
primary means of representing the rapid and proliferation and development of
genetically modified organisms” (McHugh 173).
Summary: The interplay of scientific technologies and aesthetics in the post-Darwinian
portrayal animal special in social lane. The transgenic form of animals explains why
human is now considered to be 0.4% genetically extracted from animals.
Note: The contradiction of animal representation in the popular media has opened up
possibilities for genetic engineering.
McHugh, Susan. "The call of the other 0.1%: genetic aesthetics and the new Moreaus."
Leonardo’s Choice. Springer, Dordrecht, 2009. 173-192.
10. The mad scientist
CARS score: 29.4
Readability level: 35.9
Quote: “Frankenstein is celebrated as a modern myth, rewriting Christian and classical
mythology to challenging the moral lessons derived from the story” (Koepke n.p).
Summary: Complex portrayal of the Frankenstein as an enormous creature has made it
impossible to analyze the character as a hero, victim or villain. For instance, about 30
percent of the readers acknowledge that they are unsure of how to identify or define the
Note: Frankenstein’s myth portrays science as a fundamental paradigm, representing the visions
of science as passionate societal endeavor.
Koepke, Yvette. "Lessons from Frankenstein: narrative myth as ethical model." Medical
humanities (2018): medhum-2017.
11. Biotechnology and strange creature
CARS score: 24.4
Readability level: 34.9
Quote: “Frankenstein’s Cat book makes you to rethink your relationship with animals” (Marc
Summary: In this article, the author notes that Ms. Anthes cites numerous examples of dangers
of genetic engineering including endangering of other animals through cloning, creation
of frozen zoos, and engineering mutant species.
Note: The book explores the dangers of bioengineering projects and threat they pose to the
Marc Bekoff. “Frankenstein's Cat: Biotechnology, Strange Creatures, and Us”. Psychology
12. Challenges of genetic engineering
CARS score: 19.4
Readability level: 34.9
Quote: “Genetic engineering is significantly changing the world around us” (Shawwna n.p).
Summary: The author shows how “Frankenstein’s Cat”, a book by Emily Anthes looks
into the science behind the genetic engineering of the animal creatures and the ethical
implication of the practice.
Note: The article describes the concept of pharming, which is a branch of biotechnology
responsible for farming of animals to be used in pharmacology.
Shawwna Buttery. “Frankenstein's Cat by Emily Anthes looks at how genetic
engineering is changing the animals around us.” Yeastgrrl.Blogspot (2015)
13. Bad ethics
CARS score: 17.3
Readability level: 24.8
Quote: “Genetic engineering is a remiss in addressing social and ethical issues of the new
technology” (Rollin 535).
Summary: The book shows how the issue of genetic engineering perturbs society and hence
difficulties in differentiating between spurious and genuine ethical issues the technology
Note: The concept of ‘welfare conservation’ is described as the plausible moral guidance to the
precepts of genetic engineering
Rollin, Bernard E. "Bad ethics, good ethics and the genetic engineering of animals in
agriculture." Journal of animal Science 74.3 (1996): 535-541.
14. Creatures of new generation
CARS score: 16.3
Readability level: 19.8
Quote: “Frankenstein’s cat gave birth to invention of new creatures including androids and
robots engineering in the world of artificial intelligence” (Gastaldi n.p).
Summary: The book explores how and to what extent the creatures of new millennium have
departed from or are similar to the creatures depicted in the Frankenstein’s Cat book
Note: technology and science are challenging the humanity with the possibility of new world of
human race made from genetic engineering
Gastaldi, Sandra MM. Brave new creatures: a comparative study of Mary Shelley's
Frankenstein and the creatures of the new millenium. MS thesis. 2015.
15. Fiction education
CARS score: 15.3
Readability level: 25.8
Quote: “Fiction stimulates scientists to develop and acquire self-induced opinions concerning
the scientific issues” (Knippels 2057).
Summary: In the study, post-test design and pre-test experimentations were used, and involved
one control group and two treatment groups. The results from the study demonstrate that
scientific imagination has positive impact on their studying skills.
Note: The study show the important of stimulating students’ imagination through fictional
Knippels, M. C. P., Severiens, S. E., & Klop, T. (2009). Education through Fiction: Acquiring
opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics. International Journal of Science
Education, 31(15), 2057-2083.
16. Animal enhancement
CARS score: 16.0
Readability level: 35.2
Quote: “The issue of animal enhancement is a central focus of the transhumanist advocates”
Summary: The article constructs a key debate about the issue of animal enhancements and the
current study on the subject. The problem of animal experimentation is said to rely on
the general view that emphasize the important of eliminating the negative drawbacks of
Note: Project of animal enhancement portrays nature as the last frontier that can easily be
colonized by human’s technological advancements
Ferrari, Arianna. "Animal Enhancement: Technovisionary Paternalism and the Colonisation of
Nature." Inquiring into Animal Enhancement: Model or Countermodel of Human
Enhancement?. Palgrave Pivot, London, 2015. 13-33.
Bekoff, Marc. “Frankenstein's Cat: Biotechnology, Strange Creatures, and Us.” Psychology
Today, Sussex Publishers, 12 Nov. 2013,
Psychology Today is a website that deals with critical issues relating to behavioral and
social psychology. In this special article, Marc shows how fundamental Frankenstein’s Cat book
is and how it has dramatically changed the world of genetic engineering. The author takes a look
at the numerous examples of dangers presented by science genetic engineering. To back his
research, March gives an example demonstrating how genetic engineering is endangering
animals through the process of cloning, engineering mutant species, and creation of frozen zoos.
The article will be significantly important in my research project; it is thoroughly argumentative
about the central issue of cloning and genetic engineering. Furthermore, the article is
comprehensively clear and presentable. In other words, it is written in easy, understandable
language that appeals to all classes of readers. For instance, the first sentence captures the
importance of genetic engineering and how the concept is putting animals in d ...
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