Your answers should be two to three complete and specific sentences. Write using your own words and
sentence structure. You will remember it more if you process the information and write it in your own
1. Study the map on page 75 (Eastern North America in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth
Centuries), what do you observe that seems interesting or important to you, or what questions does it
raise in your mind? Be specific. Remember, there is no right or wrong answer here!
2. Why and when did the English settle in the Carolinas, and what was the primary economy, or way
people made money, in the early years of settlement?
3. What were relationships like (be specific with groups/details) between the English settlers and
American Indians in the Carolinas?
4. In the Carolinas, what type of settlement did the English want to establish, and how did they
encourage others to join them?
5. What type of colony was established in Pennsylvania? In other words, what was the purpose of the
colony, who founded it, and why? Why did people want to go there?
6. Why did the English begin to rely more on a plantation labor force of African slaves than indentured
servants? Why didn’t they enslave Native Americans more than they did?
7. What did you learn, specifically, about the West Indies (who worked there, crops, conditions, profits,
8. What did you learn about the difference between Spanish laws and English laws with regard to
9. What did you learn about the consequences of Bacon’s rebellion? What did the elite decide to do to
prevent a rebellion based on class from re-occurring?
10.According to the textbook, what is a “slave society” versus a “society with slaves”?
11.What, specifically, did you learn about the Atlantic Slave Trade from the textbook?
12.What did you learn about Africa, the African slave trade, and the Middle Passage? Be specific.
13.What did you learn about the Rice Kingdom according to the textbook?
14.What did you learn about slavery in the North? Be specific
W bat were the chief features of the Spanish empire in America?
In the late 1530s and 1540s, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored the
Pacific coast as far north as present-day Oregon, and expeditions led by
Hernando de Soto, Cabeza de Vaca, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado,
and others marched through the Gulf region and the Southwest, fruit
lessly searching for another Mexico or Peru. These expeditions, really
mobile communities with hundreds of adventurers, priests, potential
settlers, slaves, and livestock, spread disease and devastation among
Indian communities. De Soto's was particularly brutal. His men tortured,
raped, and enslaved countless Indians and transmitted deadly diseases.
When Europeans in the seventeenth century returned to colonize the
area traversed by de Soto's party, little remained of the societies he had
dren were consigned to servitude in Spanish families,
while adult men were punished by the cutting off of
one foot. Oñate's message was plain-any Indians
who resisted Spanish authority would be crushed. In
1606, however, Oñate was ordered home and punished
for his treatment of New Mexico's Indians. In 1610,
Spain established the capital of New Mexico at Santa
Fe, the first permanent European settlement in the
The Pueblo Revolt
Spain in Florida and the Southwest
as military base
In 1680, New Mexico's small and vulnerable colonist
population numbered fewer than 3,000. Relations
between the Pueblo Indians and colonial authorities
had deteriorated throughout the seventeenth century,
as governors, settlers, and missionaries sought to exploit
the labor of an Indian population that declined from
about 60,000 in 1600 to some 17,000 eighty years later,
Franciscan friars worked relentlessly to convert Indians
to Catholicism, often using intimidation and violence.
As the Inquisition-the persecution of non-Catholics,
became more and more intense in Spain, so did the friars'
efforts to stamp out traditional religious ceremonies in
New Mexico. At the same time, the Spanish assumed that
the Indians could never unite against the colonizers. In
Nonetheless, these explorations established Spain's claim to a large part
of what is now the American South and Southwest. The first region to be
colonized within the present-day United States was Florida. Spain hoped
to establish a military base there to combat pirates who threatened the
treasure fleet that each year sailed from Havana for Europe loaded with
gold and silver from Mexico and Peru. Spain also wanted to forestall
French incursions in the area. In 1565, Philip II of Spain authorized the
nobleman Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to lead a colonizing expedition to
Florida. Menéndez destroyed a small outpost at Fort Caroline, which a
group of Huguenots (French Protestants) had established in 1562 near
present-day Jacksonville. Menéndez and his men went on to establish
Spanish forts on St. Simons Island, Georgia, and at St. Augustine, Florida.
The latter remains the oldest site in the continental United States continu-
ously inhabited by European settlers and their descendants. In general,
though, Florida failed to attract settlers, remaining an isolated military
settlement, in effect a fortified outpost of Cuba. As late as 1763, Spanish
Florida had only 4,000 inhabitants of European descent.
Spain took even longer to begin the colonization of the American
Southwest. It was not until 1598 that Juan de Oñate led a group of 400
soldiers, colonists, and missionaries north from Mexico to establish a per-
manent settlement. While searching for fabled deposits of precious met-
als, Oñate's nephew and fourteen soldiers were killed by inhabitants of
Acoma, the “sky city” located on a high bluff in present-day New Mexico.
Oñate decided to teach the local Indians a lesson. After a two-day
siege, his forces scaled the seemingly impregnable heights and destroyed
Acoma, killing more than 800 of its 1,500 or so inhabitants, includ-
ing 300 women. Of the 600 Indians captured, the women and chil-
August 1680, they were proven wrong.
St. Anthony and the Infant Jesus,
Little is known about the life of Pope, who became the main orga-
nizer of an uprising that aimed to drive the Spanish from the colony and painted on a tanned buffalo hide by
restore the Indians' traditional autonomy. Under Pope's leadership, New a Franciscan priest in New Mexico
in the early eighteenth century.
Mexico's Indians joined in a coordinated uprising. Ironically, because the
This was not long after the Spanish
Pueblos spoke six different languages, Spanish became the revolt's "lingua reconquered the area, from which
franca” (a common means of communication among persons of different they had been driven by the Pueblo
linguistic backgrounds). Some 2,000 warriors destroyed isolated farms
and missions, killing 400 colonists, including 21 Franciscan missionaries.
Most of the Spanish survivors, accompanied by several hundred Christian
Indians, made their way south out of New Mexico. Within a few weeks, a
century of colonization in the area had been destroyed.
The Pueblo Revolt was the most complete victory for Native Americans
of North America. Cooperation among the Pueblo peoples, however, soon
r Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history
evaporated. By the end of the 1680s, warfare had broken out among several
Oñate in New Mexico
hapter 1 * A New World
THE SPANISH EMPIRE
, even as Apache and Navajo raids continued. Popé died around 1690,
In 1692, the Spanish launched an invasion that reconquered New Mexico
Some communities welcomed them back as a source of military protection
But Spain had learned a lesson. In the eighteenth century, colonial authorities
adopted a more tolerant attitude toward traditional religious practices and
made fewer demands on Indian labor.
THE FRENCH AND DUTCH EMPIRES
If the Black Legend inspired a sense of superiority among Spain's
European rivals, the precious metals that poured from the New World
into the Spanish treasury aroused the desire to match Spain's success.
The establishment of Spain's American empire transformed the balance
of power in the world economy. The Atlantic replaced the overland route
to Asia as the major axis of global trade. During the seventeenth century,
the French, Dutch, and English established colonies in North America.
England's mainland colonies, to be discussed in the next chapter, consisted
of agricultural settlements with growing populations whose hunger for
land produced incessant conflict with native peoples. New France and
New Netherland were primarily commercial ventures that never attracted
large numbers of colonists. More dependent on Indians as trading partners
and military allies, these French and Dutch settlements allowed Native
Americans greater freedom than the English.
The first of Spain's major European rivals to embark on New World
explorations was France. The explorer Samuel de Champlain, sponsored
by a French fur-trading company, founded Quebec in 1608. In 1673, the
Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and the fur trader Louis Joliet located the
Mississippi River, and by 1681 René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle,
had descended to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the entire Mississippi River
valley for France. New France eventually formed a giant arc along the
St. Lawrence, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers.
By 1700, the number of white inhabitants of New France had risen
to only 19,000. With a far larger population than England, France sent
many fewer emigrants to the Western Hemisphere. The government at
home feared that significant emigration would undermine France's role as
a European great power and might compromise its effort to establish trade
and good relations with the Indians. Unfavorable reports about America
in New France
VOICES OF FREEDOM
From "Declaration of Josephe"
(December 19, 1681)
From Bartolomé de Las Casas,
History of the Indies (1528)
Josephe was a Spanish-speaking Indian questioned by a royal attorney in Mexico
City investigating the Pueblo Revolt. The revolt of the Indian population, in 1680,
temporarily drove Spanish settlers from present-day New Mexico.
Las Casas was the Dominican priest who condemned the treatment of Indians in the
Spanish empire. His widely disseminated History of the Indies helped to establish
the Black Legend of Spanish cruelty.
The Indians [of Hispaniola] were totally deprived of their freedom and were put in the
harshest, fiercest, most horrible servitude and captivity which no one who has not seen it
can understand. Even beasts enjoy more freedom when they are allowed to graze in the
fields. But our Spaniards gave no such opportunity to Indians and truly considered them
perpetual slaves, since the Indians had not the free will to dispose of their persons but
instead were disposed of according to Spanish greed and cruelty, not as men in captivity
but as beasts tied to a rope to prevent free movement. When they were allowed to go home,
they often found it deserted and had no other recourse than to go out into the woods to find
food and to die. When they fell ill, which was very frequently because they are a delicate
people unaccustomed to such work, the Spaniards did not believe them and pitilessly called
them lazy dogs and kicked and beat them; and when illness was apparent they sent them
home as useless. ... They would go then, falling into the first stream and dying there in
desperation; others would hold on longer but very few ever made it home. I sometimes came
upon dead bodies on my way, and upon others who were gasping and moaning in their death
agony, repeating “Hungry, hungry.” And this was the freedom, the good treatment and the
Christianity the Indians received.
About eight years passed under (Spanish rule) and this disorder had time to grow; no
one gave it a thought and the multitude of people who originally lived on the island... was
consumed at such a rate that in these eight years 90 per cent had perished. From here this
sweeping plague went to San Juan, Jamaica, Cuba and the continent, spreading destruction
over the whole hemisphere.
Asked what causes or motives the said Indian rebels had for renouncing the law of God and
obedience to his Majesty, and for committing so many of crimes, ſhe answered] the causes they
have were alleged ill treatment and injuries received from (Spanish authorities), because they
beat them, took away what they had, and made them work without pay. Thus he replies.
Asked if he has learned if it has come to his notice during the time that he has been here
the reason why the apostates burned the images, churches, and things pertaining to divine
worship, making a mockery and a trophy of them, killing the priests and doing the other
things they did, he said that he knows and had heard it generally stated that while they were
besieging the villa the rebellious traitors burned the church and shouted in loud voices,
"Now the God of the Spaniards, who was their father, is dead, and Santa Maria, who was
their mother, and the saints, who were pieces of rotten wood," saying that only their own god
lived. Thus they ordered all the temples and images, crosses and rosaries burned, and their
function being over, they all went to bathe in the rivers, saying that they thereby washed
away the water of baptism. For their churches, they placed on the four sides and in the center
of the plaza some small circular enclosures
of stone where they went to offer flour,
feathers, and the seed of maguey [a local
pant), maize, and tobacco, and performed
1. Why does Las Casas, after describ-
other superstitious rites, giving the children
ing the ill treatment of Indians, write,
to understand that they must all do this
“And this was the freedom, the good
in the future. The captains and the chiefs
treatment and the Christianity the
ordered that the names of Jesus and Mary
should nowhere be uttered. ... He has seen
many houses of idolatry which they have
2. What role did religion play in the
built, dancing the dance of the cachina (part
of a traditional Indian religious ceremony], 3. What ideas of freedom are apparent is
which this declarant has also danced. Thus
the two documents?
he replies to the question.
VOICES OF FRE
n the last quarter of the seventeenth century, a series of crises rocked
the European colonies of North America. Social and political ten-
poor, free and slave, settler and Indian, and members of different reli-
sions boiled over in sometimes ruthless conflicts between rich and FUCIS
empires echoed in the colonies.
gious groups. At the same time, struggles within and between European
The bloodiest and most bitter conflict occurred in southern New
England, where in 1675 an Indian alliance launched attacks on farms and
settlements that were encroaching on Indian lands. It was the most dra-
matic and violent warfare in the region in the entire seventeenth century.
New Englanders described the Wampanoag leader Metacom (known
to the colonists as King Philip) as the uprising's mastermind, although in
fact most tribes fought under their own leaders. By 1676, Indian forces
had attacked nearly half of New England's ninety towns. Twelve in Mas-
sachusetts were destroyed. As refugees fled eastward, the line of settle-
• Hou did the Englisb
empire in America expand
in the mid-seventeenth
• How was slavery estab-
lisbed in tbe Western
ment was pushed back almost to the Atlantic coast. Some 1,000 settlers. What major social and
out of a population of 52,000, and 3,000 of New England's 20,000 Indi-
political crises rocked the
colonies in the late seven-
• What were the directions
of social and economic
change in the eighteenth-
ans perished in the fighting.
In mid-1676, the tide of battle turned and a ferocious counterattack
broke the Indians' power once and for all. Although the uprising united
numerous tribes, others remained loyal to the colonists. The role of
the Iroquois in providing essential military aid to the colonists helped
to solidify their developing alliance with the government of New York.
Together, colonial and Indian forces inflicted devastating punishment
on the rebels. Metacom was executed, Indian villages were destroyed,
and captives were killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies. Both
sides committed atrocities in this merciless conflict, but in its aftermath
the image of Indians as bloodthirsty savages became firmly entrenched in
the New England mind.
In the long run, King Philip's War produced a broadening of free-
• How did patterns of class
and gender roles change
dom for white New Englanders by expanding their access to land. But this
freedom rested on the final dispossession of the region's Indians.
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