Eastern North America in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries

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Your answers should be two to three complete and specific sentences. Write using your own words and sentence structure. You will remember it more if you process the information and write it in your own words.

i will follow up more picture (5-8)of the book:

Foner, E. U. (2013). Give me liberty! - American history. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.,

that u need to read and no internet source at all, your own work to give me better understanding

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1. Study the map on page 75 (Eastern North America in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries), what do you observe that seems interesting or important to you, or what questions does it raise in your mind? Be specific. Remember, there is no right or wrong answer here! 

2. Why and when did the English settle in the Carolinas, and what was the primary economy, or way people made money, in the early years of settlement?

 3. What were relationships like (be specific with groups/details) between the English settlers and American Indians in the Carolinas? 

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Your answers should be two to three complete and specific sentences. Write using your own words and sentence structure. You will remember it more if you process the information and write it in your own words. 1. Study the map on page 75 (Eastern North America in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries), what do you observe that seems interesting or important to you, or what questions does it raise in your mind? Be specific. Remember, there is no right or wrong answer here! 2. Why and when did the English settle in the Carolinas, and what was the primary economy, or way people made money, in the early years of settlement? 3. What were relationships like (be specific with groups/details) between the English settlers and American Indians in the Carolinas? 4. In the Carolinas, what type of settlement did the English want to establish, and how did they encourage others to join them? 5. What type of colony was established in Pennsylvania? In other words, what was the purpose of the colony, who founded it, and why? Why did people want to go there? 6. Why did the English begin to rely more on a plantation labor force of African slaves than indentured servants? Why didn’t they enslave Native Americans more than they did? 7. What did you learn, specifically, about the West Indies (who worked there, crops, conditions, profits, etc.)? 8. What did you learn about the difference between Spanish laws and English laws with regard to slavery? 9. What did you learn about the consequences of Bacon’s rebellion? What did the elite decide to do to prevent a rebellion based on class from re-occurring? 10.According to the textbook, what is a “slave society” versus a “society with slaves”? 11.What, specifically, did you learn about the Atlantic Slave Trade from the textbook? 12.What did you learn about Africa, the African slave trade, and the Middle Passage? Be specific. 13.What did you learn about the Rice Kingdom according to the textbook? 14.What did you learn about slavery in the North? Be specific W bat were the chief features of the Spanish empire in America? In the late 1530s and 1540s, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored the Pacific coast as far north as present-day Oregon, and expeditions led by Hernando de Soto, Cabeza de Vaca, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, and others marched through the Gulf region and the Southwest, fruit lessly searching for another Mexico or Peru. These expeditions, really mobile communities with hundreds of adventurers, priests, potential settlers, slaves, and livestock, spread disease and devastation among Indian communities. De Soto's was particularly brutal. His men tortured, raped, and enslaved countless Indians and transmitted deadly diseases. When Europeans in the seventeenth century returned to colonize the area traversed by de Soto's party, little remained of the societies he had encountered. dren were consigned to servitude in Spanish families, while adult men were punished by the cutting off of one foot. Oñate's message was plain-any Indians who resisted Spanish authority would be crushed. In 1606, however, Oñate was ordered home and punished for his treatment of New Mexico's Indians. In 1610, Spain established the capital of New Mexico at Santa Fe, the first permanent European settlement in the Southwest. The Pueblo Revolt Spain in Florida and the Southwest as military base In 1680, New Mexico's small and vulnerable colonist population numbered fewer than 3,000. Relations between the Pueblo Indians and colonial authorities had deteriorated throughout the seventeenth century, as governors, settlers, and missionaries sought to exploit the labor of an Indian population that declined from about 60,000 in 1600 to some 17,000 eighty years later, Franciscan friars worked relentlessly to convert Indians to Catholicism, often using intimidation and violence. As the Inquisition-the persecution of non-Catholics, became more and more intense in Spain, so did the friars' efforts to stamp out traditional religious ceremonies in New Mexico. At the same time, the Spanish assumed that the Indians could never unite against the colonizers. In Nonetheless, these explorations established Spain's claim to a large part of what is now the American South and Southwest. The first region to be colonized within the present-day United States was Florida. Spain hoped to establish a military base there to combat pirates who threatened the treasure fleet that each year sailed from Havana for Europe loaded with gold and silver from Mexico and Peru. Spain also wanted to forestall French incursions in the area. In 1565, Philip II of Spain authorized the nobleman Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to lead a colonizing expedition to Florida. Menéndez destroyed a small outpost at Fort Caroline, which a group of Huguenots (French Protestants) had established in 1562 near present-day Jacksonville. Menéndez and his men went on to establish Spanish forts on St. Simons Island, Georgia, and at St. Augustine, Florida. The latter remains the oldest site in the continental United States continu- ously inhabited by European settlers and their descendants. In general, though, Florida failed to attract settlers, remaining an isolated military settlement, in effect a fortified outpost of Cuba. As late as 1763, Spanish Florida had only 4,000 inhabitants of European descent. Spain took even longer to begin the colonization of the American Southwest. It was not until 1598 that Juan de Oñate led a group of 400 soldiers, colonists, and missionaries north from Mexico to establish a per- manent settlement. While searching for fabled deposits of precious met- als, Oñate's nephew and fourteen soldiers were killed by inhabitants of Acoma, the “sky city” located on a high bluff in present-day New Mexico. Oñate decided to teach the local Indians a lesson. After a two-day siege, his forces scaled the seemingly impregnable heights and destroyed Acoma, killing more than 800 of its 1,500 or so inhabitants, includ- ing 300 women. Of the 600 Indians captured, the women and chil- August 1680, they were proven wrong. St. Anthony and the Infant Jesus, Little is known about the life of Pope, who became the main orga- nizer of an uprising that aimed to drive the Spanish from the colony and painted on a tanned buffalo hide by restore the Indians' traditional autonomy. Under Pope's leadership, New a Franciscan priest in New Mexico in the early eighteenth century. Mexico's Indians joined in a coordinated uprising. Ironically, because the This was not long after the Spanish Pueblos spoke six different languages, Spanish became the revolt's "lingua reconquered the area, from which franca” (a common means of communication among persons of different they had been driven by the Pueblo linguistic backgrounds). Some 2,000 warriors destroyed isolated farms and missions, killing 400 colonists, including 21 Franciscan missionaries. Most of the Spanish survivors, accompanied by several hundred Christian Indians, made their way south out of New Mexico. Within a few weeks, a century of colonization in the area had been destroyed. The Pueblo Revolt was the most complete victory for Native Americans of North America. Cooperation among the Pueblo peoples, however, soon r Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history evaporated. By the end of the 1680s, warfare had broken out among several Oñate in New Mexico over 27 hapter 1 * A New World THE SPANISH EMPIRE villages , even as Apache and Navajo raids continued. Popé died around 1690, In 1692, the Spanish launched an invasion that reconquered New Mexico Some communities welcomed them back as a source of military protection But Spain had learned a lesson. In the eighteenth century, colonial authorities adopted a more tolerant attitude toward traditional religious practices and made fewer demands on Indian labor. THE FRENCH AND DUTCH EMPIRES global trade If the Black Legend inspired a sense of superiority among Spain's European rivals, the precious metals that poured from the New World into the Spanish treasury aroused the desire to match Spain's success. The establishment of Spain's American empire transformed the balance of power in the world economy. The Atlantic replaced the overland route to Asia as the major axis of global trade. During the seventeenth century, the French, Dutch, and English established colonies in North America. England's mainland colonies, to be discussed in the next chapter, consisted of agricultural settlements with growing populations whose hunger for land produced incessant conflict with native peoples. New France and New Netherland were primarily commercial ventures that never attracted large numbers of colonists. More dependent on Indians as trading partners and military allies, these French and Dutch settlements allowed Native Americans greater freedom than the English. French Colonization The first of Spain's major European rivals to embark on New World explorations was France. The explorer Samuel de Champlain, sponsored by a French fur-trading company, founded Quebec in 1608. In 1673, the Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and the fur trader Louis Joliet located the Mississippi River, and by 1681 René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, had descended to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the entire Mississippi River valley for France. New France eventually formed a giant arc along the St. Lawrence, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers. By 1700, the number of white inhabitants of New France had risen to only 19,000. With a far larger population than England, France sent many fewer emigrants to the Western Hemisphere. The government at home feared that significant emigration would undermine France's role as a European great power and might compromise its effort to establish trade and good relations with the Indians. Unfavorable reports about America in New France De Los Dec, Prs VOICES OF FREEDOM From "Declaration of Josephe" (December 19, 1681) From Bartolomé de Las Casas, History of the Indies (1528) Josephe was a Spanish-speaking Indian questioned by a royal attorney in Mexico City investigating the Pueblo Revolt. The revolt of the Indian population, in 1680, temporarily drove Spanish settlers from present-day New Mexico. Las Casas was the Dominican priest who condemned the treatment of Indians in the Spanish empire. His widely disseminated History of the Indies helped to establish the Black Legend of Spanish cruelty. The Indians [of Hispaniola] were totally deprived of their freedom and were put in the harshest, fiercest, most horrible servitude and captivity which no one who has not seen it can understand. Even beasts enjoy more freedom when they are allowed to graze in the fields. But our Spaniards gave no such opportunity to Indians and truly considered them perpetual slaves, since the Indians had not the free will to dispose of their persons but instead were disposed of according to Spanish greed and cruelty, not as men in captivity but as beasts tied to a rope to prevent free movement. When they were allowed to go home, they often found it deserted and had no other recourse than to go out into the woods to find food and to die. When they fell ill, which was very frequently because they are a delicate people unaccustomed to such work, the Spaniards did not believe them and pitilessly called them lazy dogs and kicked and beat them; and when illness was apparent they sent them home as useless. ... They would go then, falling into the first stream and dying there in desperation; others would hold on longer but very few ever made it home. I sometimes came upon dead bodies on my way, and upon others who were gasping and moaning in their death agony, repeating “Hungry, hungry.” And this was the freedom, the good treatment and the Christianity the Indians received. About eight years passed under (Spanish rule) and this disorder had time to grow; no one gave it a thought and the multitude of people who originally lived on the island... was consumed at such a rate that in these eight years 90 per cent had perished. From here this sweeping plague went to San Juan, Jamaica, Cuba and the continent, spreading destruction over the whole hemisphere. Asked what causes or motives the said Indian rebels had for renouncing the law of God and obedience to his Majesty, and for committing so many of crimes, ſhe answered] the causes they have were alleged ill treatment and injuries received from (Spanish authorities), because they beat them, took away what they had, and made them work without pay. Thus he replies. Asked if he has learned if it has come to his notice during the time that he has been here the reason why the apostates burned the images, churches, and things pertaining to divine worship, making a mockery and a trophy of them, killing the priests and doing the other things they did, he said that he knows and had heard it generally stated that while they were besieging the villa the rebellious traitors burned the church and shouted in loud voices, "Now the God of the Spaniards, who was their father, is dead, and Santa Maria, who was their mother, and the saints, who were pieces of rotten wood," saying that only their own god lived. Thus they ordered all the temples and images, crosses and rosaries burned, and their function being over, they all went to bathe in the rivers, saying that they thereby washed away the water of baptism. For their churches, they placed on the four sides and in the center of the plaza some small circular enclosures of stone where they went to offer flour, QUESTIONS feathers, and the seed of maguey [a local pant), maize, and tobacco, and performed 1. Why does Las Casas, after describ- other superstitious rites, giving the children ing the ill treatment of Indians, write, to understand that they must all do this “And this was the freedom, the good in the future. The captains and the chiefs treatment and the Christianity the ordered that the names of Jesus and Mary Indians received"? should nowhere be uttered. ... He has seen many houses of idolatry which they have 2. What role did religion play in the built, dancing the dance of the cachina (part Pueblo Revolt? of a traditional Indian religious ceremony], 3. What ideas of freedom are apparent is which this declarant has also danced. Thus the two documents? he replies to the question. VOICES OF FRE World I w QUESTIONS n the last quarter of the seventeenth century, a series of crises rocked the European colonies of North America. Social and political ten- poor, free and slave, settler and Indian, and members of different reli- sions boiled over in sometimes ruthless conflicts between rich and FUCIS empires echoed in the colonies. gious groups. At the same time, struggles within and between European The bloodiest and most bitter conflict occurred in southern New England, where in 1675 an Indian alliance launched attacks on farms and settlements that were encroaching on Indian lands. It was the most dra- matic and violent warfare in the region in the entire seventeenth century. New Englanders described the Wampanoag leader Metacom (known to the colonists as King Philip) as the uprising's mastermind, although in fact most tribes fought under their own leaders. By 1676, Indian forces had attacked nearly half of New England's ninety towns. Twelve in Mas- sachusetts were destroyed. As refugees fled eastward, the line of settle- • Hou did the Englisb empire in America expand in the mid-seventeenth century? • How was slavery estab- lisbed in tbe Western Atlantic world? ment was pushed back almost to the Atlantic coast. Some 1,000 settlers. What major social and out of a population of 52,000, and 3,000 of New England's 20,000 Indi- political crises rocked the colonies in the late seven- teenth century? • What were the directions of social and economic change in the eighteenth- century colonies? ans perished in the fighting. In mid-1676, the tide of battle turned and a ferocious counterattack broke the Indians' power once and for all. Although the uprising united numerous tribes, others remained loyal to the colonists. The role of the Iroquois in providing essential military aid to the colonists helped to solidify their developing alliance with the government of New York. Together, colonial and Indian forces inflicted devastating punishment on the rebels. Metacom was executed, Indian villages were destroyed, and captives were killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies. Both sides committed atrocities in this merciless conflict, but in its aftermath the image of Indians as bloodthirsty savages became firmly entrenched in the New England mind. In the long run, King Philip's War produced a broadening of free- • How did patterns of class and gender roles change in eighteenth-century America? dom for white New Englanders by expanding their access to land. But this freedom rested on the final dispossession of the region's Indians. AMERIC
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1. According to the map one thing stands out for me is the fact that the Spanish
settlement is the broadest meaning that there many settlers from the Spanish origin. But
the Dutch settlement is quite small bringing the picture that they must have been the less
predominant group and the French settlement tend to be surrounded by the water bodies,
and this can easily tell that they relied so much on water activities for their livelihood, for
example, engaging in the plantation.
2. The English settled in Carolina in the year 1664, and their main reason why they
did so was for them to continue with their plantation system that was going on in other
regions, and this would be a good place for their plantation because of the availability of
water and cheap labor from the slaves. Their main source of income was from the cash
crops like rice and indigo that they exported to other places.
3. The relationship between the English and the Americans remained unstable, and
this can be depicted from the fact...

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