"Florence Nightingale was one of the first nurses to document the impact of the built environment on patients. She wrote about sanitation, infection rates and ventilation while understanding that environmental aspects such as color, noise and light, and the presences of nurse's served as a significant contribution to health outcomes" (Zborowsky, 2014). Florence Nightingale collected information on factors that affected soldiers during the Crimean War. As the video in the lesson for this week describes how she was asked to come and help. She made changes for the better outcomes of the soldiers and decreased the mortality rate by two thirds with her changes. "In the 1950's nursing education made its way into universities and research took on a key nursing activity. Journals founded both in the United States and Internationally focused on nursing research. There was also the creation of the National Center for Research for Nursing which formed in 1986 which recognized the importance of nursing research (Houser, 2018). Florence Nightingale will forever be a nursing legend and the foot print into the evolution of research which continues.
According to Houser (2018), Nursing research "is a systematic process the uses guidelines to produce unbiased and trustworthy answers to questions about nursing practice." Nursing research generates new knowledge in the practice of nursing to help explore and find solutions to existing or emerging problems. Research is used to improve nursing practice and be applicable to the real world. On the other hand EBP "is the best scientific evidence, integrated with clinical experience and patient values and preferences in the practice of professional nursing care." The three element that must be present are the scientific evidence, clinical experience and the patient preference. There must be research, which is a key element, in order for there to be evidence based practice.
One past/historical unethical breach of research conduct which has a long history dating back to WWII was with the experimentation involving Nazi's on prison camp detainees. From this experimentation came the need for consideration of basic human right's when it came to research that involved humans. The experimentation at the time had the goal of advancing the Third Reich in Europe. The results from the experimentation were to be used to produce a race of pure Aryans who would then rule the world, or so they thought. The testing on humans included such act as submerging prisoners in a tank of cold water for days to see how long they would survive as an experiment if a German pilot had to parachute into the water of the cold North Sea. Another example was burning prisoners with phosphorus to track the healing of wounds. As all of this experimentation occurred on prisoners many did not survive the horrific pain and suffering. I'm very sure that the Nazi's did not obtain informed consent from these prisoners. Had the prisoners known the amount of trauma and experimentation that they would endure I'm most positive that they would have declined to be test subjects.
Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence(4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bar
Zborowsky, Terri. Health Environments Research & Design Journal (HERD) (Vendome Group LLC). Summer2014, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p19-34.