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Final Results You have successfully completed In uenza in Bentonville You have completed this assignment. Community Advocacy You have completed all tasks related to Community Advocacy Emergency Response You have completed all tasks related to Emergency Response Communicable Disease You have completed all tasks related to Communicable Disease Total Population Student 1,412 Population Fraction 1,271 1,129 988 847 706 564 423 282 141 0 09/05 09/13 09/22 Susceptible (60,623) 10/01 Infected (1,435) 10/10 10/19 Date Recovered (8,472) 10/28 11/06 Vaccinated (7,701) 11/15 Deceased (86) Sta ng Summary 4.5k Work Hours Per Day 4k 3.5k 3k 11/24 Student Demand Treated Nurses Doctors Support 2.5k 2k 1.5k 1k 500 0 09/05 09/14 09/23 10/02 10/11 10/20 Date 10/29 11/07 11/16 Patient Summary Number of Patients 250 11/25 Student Critical Care Flu Care Standard Care 200 150 100 50 0 09/05 09/14 09/23 10/02 10/11 10/20 Date 10/29 11/07 11/16 11/25 Running head: INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE Influenza in Bentonville Name Institution Date 1 INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE Outbreak in Bentonville Bentonville is one of the places that have been affected by flu. The city has a total population of 1,412,000 people with a total number of 1435 being infected and 86 dying from the infection. The people who were at risk were 60,623, with 7,701 being vaccinated. After the epidemic, standard care was provided throughout the city showing that most people received the attention they needed while flu care was not offered to many people while critical care was presented at a low rate. The demand for doctors was not that high through the doctors were available moderately. After the outbreak, emergency response was conducted to help the people who were affected by the administration of medication and making sure that other people were protected. It is clear that the number of students affected was high, but others were vaccinated thus helping reduce the health issue. Epidemiological Determinants and Risk Factors The distinct outbreak of influenza in a year creates an epidemiology pattern which reflects how the antigenic properties change of influenza viruses and factors that support their spread, transmissibility, and susceptibility in the population. , and they undergo periodic changes when they are in the antigenic characteristics of the glycoproteins that envelop them which are the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (Cannon, Bauer, Weust & Southard, 2018). The sialic acid residues which are found on the glycoproteins are bound using influenza hemagglutinin, and the interaction is essential when an infection is being initiated. After viral replication takes place, the progeny virions become attached to the cell of the host. 2 INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE 3 Flu is considered as one of the most severe illnesses, thus the need to determine the risk factors as a way of staying safe. People with chronic lung conditions such as COPD, cystic fibrosis, asthma or bronchiectasis are at high risk. Children and adolescent with long-term aspirin therapy are highly susceptible to influenza. Other risk factors are heart conditions, morbid obesity, liver disorders, severe anemia, diabetes, and chronic metabolic disorder. Other health conditions such as HIV/AIDS and treatments which require chemotherapy and the use of steroids suppress the immune system of the patients thus increasing the risk of getting influenza. Route of Transmission In human beings, transmission of influenza may take place using three ways. The first way is through direct contact with a person who is infected. The second way is a healthy person coming into contact with objects that have been contaminated such as doorknobs and toys, and they are known as fomites. The third method is through inhaling of aerosols that have been contaminated by the virus. Transmission through the respiratory is dependent on the aerosols production containing the virus particles. Aerosols can be produced through sneezing, breathing and speaking and coughing and sneezing results in forceful expulsion. When the infected particles are sneezed or dropped, they can drop few meters on the ground and through breathing, the immediate people will collect the aerosols and get infected (Zhou, Chen, Bao, Xiang, Wu, Wu & Ren, 2018). The droplets carrying the virus travel depending on their sizes, which means the smallest droplets, are able to move further, getting to people a bit far. Some droplets remain suspended on the air, and when breathed in with the air, they reach the lower respiratory tract. When the viruses are placed in the upper respiratory tract, the infection is initiated. Depending on the people who are around, the virus can spread at a very fast rate. Impact on Community INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE The outbreak of flu would affect the functioning of the community due to fear of the spreading to all people. In schools, for instance, they have to be stopped to avoid the spread. The school will be closed for a period of time until the influenza issue has been addressed. When some students are sick, the illness can spread very fast to the other students (Cowling, Chan, Fang, Cheng, Fung, Wai & Chiu, 2009). Therefore, the school will be closed down to make sure that the ill students can get help while others stay at home until the outbreak has been addressed. The local governments will be expected to assist in addressing the issue. They will assist in funding the hospitals to make sure that the infected people are assisted. The local governments will hire other medical professionals to make sure that the influenza vaccine is provided to the healthy people throughout the community to make sure that the illness will not spread further. The community members will also be involved in helping the affected people to make sure that those infected are able to recover much faster so that the entire community can continue with their norm. The hospitals will have to create a place where the flu affected people will be kept to avoid infecting others. Reporting Protocol Reporting of influenza is essential as it helps in detecting emerging threats such as novel influenza strains, clinical severity, and communicability. There are several requirements for legal reporting. The health care providers and medical facilities in the affected and nearing regions should be notified immediately. In two business days, laboratories should be involved by the local hospitals, where a specimen is submitted to determine the specimen that should be isolated. The veterinarians also have to be notified. The local health jurisdictions also have to be aware, for instance, the Office of 4 INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE 5 Communicable Diseases Epidemiology. After the report has been made, the local health jurisdiction investigates the issue. The CDE should be contacted immediately concerning the novel influenza infections thus determining the levels of exposure. They will also be involved in facilitating the transport of the specimens to the laboratories for a test. The local health jurisdiction will also make sure that effective control measures have been implemented before resting has been done. An investigation should also be conducted to establish the efficacy and people who are affected are isolated, and medication is given to those who require it. Strategies to Prevent Outbreak of Influenza The best way in which influenza can be prevented is by making sure that people have been vaccinated annually during the flu season. However, there are good health habits that can help prevent the spread of the flu when there is an outbreak. Some flu antiviral drugs can be administered as a way of treating and preventing influenza. Some of the good health habits include avoiding close contact with sick people. The sick people should stay isolated as a way of making sure that they avoid sneezing and releasing droplets of virus thus spreading to other people. When a person is sick, they should stay at home from work and school to avoid spreading to healthy people. It is essential to cover the mouth and the nose to the people who have influenza when sneezing or coughing. It is a way of preventing to spit the virus droplets out and infecting the healthy people. Cleaning hands helps in protecting from germs with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub. Avoiding touching the mouth, eyes, and nose is necessary to prevent contamination. In school, the management should make sure that there is a separation between sick and healthy students to avoid infecting others. Community Advocacy INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE The first advocacy is educating people about influenza and how it can be spread easily. In that way, people will learn the importance of getting the flu vaccine early to prevent them from contracting the virus. The advocacy will involve encouraging all people to get vaccinated for the flu, from children, adolescents, adults and the aged. When people learn the importance of the flue, they will accept to take the vaccines, and the spread of influenza after an outbreak will be less. The local hospitals should be responsible for making influenza vaccine recommendation to the patients. Since the epidemic happens with seasons, the medical providers should get the patients to get vaccinated when they are in the hospital. The SHARE method should be used during advocacy, starting with sharing the reasons why people should be vaccinated. Highlighting the positive experiences with the vaccine which increases the confidence in patients to get vaccinated should be done (Kiani, Ghazanfarpour & Saeidi, 2019). Addressing the questions of the patients should be addressed, such as the concerns they have, the safety effects, side effects and effectiveness of the vaccine and the concerns should be addressed in a language that is being understood. Reminding the patients of the protection, they gain with their loved ones after the vaccine has been administered should be done. Explaining the potential cost of the influenza is essential such as the time lost and the severe health effects, as well as financial cost and it, is a way of convincing people to get the vaccination. Emergency Response The emergency response starts with isolating the sick people with healthy people. Influenza is a severe condition, and once it has been spread, it can lead to the death of large numbers of people as well as affecting others. The financial cost is high thus calling 6 INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE 7 for emergency administration of medication to the victims. Some anti-viruses can be affected by the people already contaminated by the flu. After the administration, monitoring of the progress should follow to determine if the medication is working. The people who are not affected should be given the measures they should take, such as using mouth covers and washing their hands after visiting the sick people. After the epidemic is over, it is necessary to vaccinate people to protect them in case of a future outbreak (Mermel, 2018). Other measures should be taken such as advertising people to stay at home instead of going to work and school to avoid spreading it to the healthy. The sick people should be advised to cover their mouth when coughing or sneezing and dispose of the tissue properly. The people with the symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, chills, fatigue, body aches and sore throat should undertake tests to make sure that they are cleared off the flu issue. Through the emergency response, both treatment and prevention will be carried out. INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE References Cannon, E., Bauer, R., Weust, J., & Southard, E. P. (2018). Nursing management of influenza. MedSurg Nursing, 27(2), 83-86. Cowling, B. J., Chan, K. H., Fang, V. J., Cheng, C. K., Fung, R. O., Wai, W., ... & Chiu, B. C. (2009). Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 151(7), 437-446. Kiani, M. A., Ghazanfarpour, M., & Saeidi, M. (2019). Influenza: A Unique Disease. International Journal of Pediatrics, 9349-9354. Mermel, L. A. (2018). The great influenza centennial—what have we learned about the epidemiology and prevention of transmission?. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 24(12), 1227-1228. Zhou, L., Chen, E., Bao, C., Xiang, N., Wu, J., Wu, S., ... & Ren, R. (2018). Clusters of human infection and human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, 2013– 2017. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(2), 397. 8 ...
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Tutor Answer

ProfHenryM
School: Duke University

Hello buddy, see the attached assignment.Let me know if you need any clarification or edits on the paper.Otherwise, goodbye and welcome again in the future

Running head: INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE

Influenza in Bentonville
Name
Institution
Date

1

INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE
Outbreak in Bentonville
Bentonville is one of the places that have been affected by flu. The city has a total
population of 1,412,000 people with a total number of 1435 being infected and 86 dying
from the infection. The people who were at risk were 60,623, with 7,701 being
vaccinated. After the epidemic, standard care was provided throughout the city showing
that most people received the attention they needed while flu care was not offered to
many people while critical care was presented at a low rate. The demand for doctors was
not that high through the doctors were available moderately. After the outbreak,
emergency response was conducted to help the people who were affected by the
administration of medication and making sure that other people were protected. It is clear
that the number of students affected was high, but others were vaccinated thus helping
reduce the health issue.
Epidemiological Determinants and Risk Factors
The distinct outbreak of influenza in a year creates an epidemiology pattern which
reflects how the antigenic properties change of influenza viruses and factors that support
their spread, transmissibility, and susceptibility in the population. , and they undergo
periodic changes when they are in the antigenic characteristics of the glycoproteins that
envelop them which are the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (Cannon, Bauer, Weust &
Southard, 2018). The sialic acid residues which are found on the glycoproteins are bound
using influenza hemagglutinin, and the interaction is essential when an infection is being
initiated. After viral replication takes place, the progeny virions become attached to the
cell of the host.

2

INFLUENZA IN BENTONVILLE

3

Flu is considered as one of the most severe illnesses, thus the need to determine the risk
factors as a way of staying safe. People with chronic lung conditions such as COPD, cystic
fibrosis, asthma or bronchiectasis are at high risk. Children and adolescent with long-term aspirin
therapy are highly susceptible to influenza. Other risk factors are heart conditions, morbid
...

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Anonymous
Excellent job

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