NSG416 University of Phoenix Benner’s Novice to Expert Theory analysis

Question Description

University of Phoenix NSG/416

Analyze Benner's novice to expert theory. Your analysis should include the following:

  • Description of the theory's background and influencing factors, including worldview
  • Explanation of the underlying assumptions
  • Evaluation of major strengths and weaknesses
  • Application strategies for clinical practice
  • Citation of case example from personal or professional life that describe the application in practice

Cite a minimum of three sources in-text and include a page or slide with APA-formatted references, depending on how you format your assignment.

Format your assignment as one of the following:

  • 1,050- to 1225-word paper

Here is my work experience: I used to work as a private duty nurse,A pediatric case manager at a home health agency, A rehabilitation hospital for adults and I am currently working as a Pediatric RN Care manager for an MCO company.

Final Answer



Benner’s Novice to Expert Theory
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliations




Nursing is a distinctive profession where the skills and knowledge of a nurse is the most
important aspect to professional development and personal growth. With the nursing practice
continuously changing with new developments, the profession depends on nurses’ experience for
growth. Patricia Benner developed the Benner’s novice to expert theory to suggest that proficient
nurses acquire skills of the clinical practice through an appropriate educational and experience
(Altmann, 2007). The paper aims to analyze Benner’s theory, depict the distinctive attributes
within the theory, and apply these attributes to personal clinical practice.
Benner’s Novice to Expert Theory and Background
Theory Elements
The novice to expert theory is a model of skill attainment. Benner suggests that as a
person moves through five stages of skill acquisition, changes occur in various facets of skill
development (Altmann, 2007). She adapted the Dreyfus Model of Skill Attainment as the
underpinning of her theory. The Dreyfus Model postulates that in experience and skills
development, a person undergoes through five stages of expertise: novice, advanced beginner,
competent, proficient, and an expert (Altmann, 2007).
Benner indicates that a novice is person who lacks experience of the environment in
which he or she is anticipated to perform (Reed, 2011). For a trainee nurse to acquire skills, one
must be placed in a new medical situation. The novice nurse must be taught the condition of a
patient in impartial and assessable parameters. This will enable the novice nurse to identify the
features of a patient’s condition without needing a situational experience. Because novice



practice is inadequate and inflexible, a novice nurse act is a manner of “what should I do so that I
can do it.”
Advanced beginner
This is the second stage of skill development in which an advanced beginner is an
individual who can show a satisfactory level of skills. Even though this nurse is still dependent
on rules, he or she has acquired experience with real-life situations and has started to identify
additional aspects that can be applied to related conditions (Reed, 2011). The developed
principles are based on experience are used to guide one’s actions.
A competent nurse is a nurse who has attained experience for more than one year in
similar daily situations. Competence develops when one begins to plan or perceive his or her
actions in terms of long-term objectives (Reed, 2011). Unlike the novice nurse, one plan actions
according to relevant aspects of the situation, rather than all aspects. This plan creates a
perspective, and it is based on considerable systematic examination of the problem.
A proficient nurse observes situations as a whole, rather than in terms of aspects. Benner
indicates that perspective presents itself according to recent events and experience (Reed, 2011).
Perception is important at this stage since it allows one to understand situations holistically,
thereby improving decision-making. Such a nurse has gained experience from typical event
expected in clinical situations and how planning needs to be adjusted to respond to events.
At this level, an expert nurse has a deep understanding and connection of the situation.
This nurse does not depends on analytical skills, but on the instinctive comprehension of clinical



situations to determine what to do (Reed, 2011). The skills and experience of an expert nurse are
highly proficient as well as one is an expert in the utilization of analytical tools as the ...

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