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School: UC Berkeley

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Unit 1: World War One
Unit 1: World War One
1. What were the causes that led to World War I?
✓ The principal direct cause of the WWI was the Archduke Franz Ferdinand
assassination at Sarajevo that took place on 28 June 1914.
✓ Militarism-military spending increased among all the great powers prior to the
WWI. A large percentage of men in both Germany and France had served either
navy or the army. In addition, the armies of both Germany and France doubled
between 1870 and 1914. Increased rivalry among the powers led to an increased
building of weapons in addition to increase in distrust. For example, colonial
rivalry resulted to naval arms race between Germany and Britain. Furthermore,
HMS Dreadnought launch in 1906 worsened the situation.
✓ Nationalism- the start of the war can significantly be traced to the push of the
Slavic peoples in both Herzegovina as well as Bosnia to no longer being part of
the Austria-Hungary. They instead wanted to be part of Serbia. This conflict
directly led to the Archduke Ferdinand’s assassination.
✓ Imperialism-prior to the WWI, numerous European nations had made rival
imperialistic assertions in parts of Asia an Africa. These claims became points of
contention. As a result of the raw materials that could be exploited from these
countries, there arose tension concerning the countries that had the right of
exploiting the resources in these nations. Due to the rising competition as well as
the desire for mammoth empires, confrontation rose and this contributed to World
War I.

2. What effect did World War I have globally? What impact did it have on the allies that
won, and what impact did that have on those who lost the war?
Global Effect
✓ It led to the death of about 16 million people, including soldiers, civilians,
sailors and flyers from more than 28 nations
✓ In excess of $186 billion was directly wasted in the war. This money could
otherwise have been used in numerous developmental activities. More than
$151 billion was used indirectly in managing the war.
✓ The war left in excess of 7 million men from more than 28 countries
permanently disabled.
✓ The war led to the influenza epidemic, which led to the death of in excess of
25 million people globally
✓ It led to increase of colonial revolts in both Southeast Asia in addition to M.
Impact on the allies that won
✓ Economic wise, the U.S became the globe’s leading creditor as sell as the
leading industrial power in the world.
✓ It led to economic hardship for almost all people in the UK. The government
sunk into debt. Also, unemployment in the country rose
✓ Millions of people belonging to the allies died in WWI
Impact of WWI to the Central Powers
✓ Among the central powers, Germany was the most affected by the WW1.
Germany suffered enormous territorial loses. It was forced to give a large part
of its population as well as land to Poland, Belgium, Russia among other

✓ Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles. As per this treaty,
Germany was imposed to pay reparations as well as accept the "War Guilt
✓ Austria-Hungary was compelled to grant sovereignty to the entire states that it
✓ WWI led to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
3. Who were the major players from the major alliances?
The Central Powers
✓ Austria-Hungary
✓ Germany
✓ Bulgaria
✓ Ottoman Empire.
Allied powers
✓ Serbia
✓ Russia
✓ France
✓ The U. K
✓ Italy
✓ Belgium
✓ The United States.
4. What were the major turning points in the war? Make sure to mention how they were
turning points.
✓ The battle of the Somme- This battle inflicted enormous losses on the German
Army. This aimed at distracting as well as relieving pressure on the French forces

who were struggling in Verdun. The war achieved this target since many Germany
forces were diverted to Somme battle.
✓ Brusilov Offensive- Combination of this and Battle of the Somme drew gigantic
German resources from the Battle of Verdun. This two events were significant in the
war since in th...

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