Multicultural Leadership: Richard Branson discussion

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Question Description

The topic of the paper will be Richard Branson - an effective leader. It will include Cover page, abstract, and a References page. Cite all references using APA style.

The profile (5 double spaced pages) should include:

  • The leader (1-2 paragraphs on his/her background. Note: this is not a biography.)
  • His/her organization (1-2 paragraphs on his/her organization, company, group, etc.)
  • His/her leadership characteristics and philosophy as covered in the readings; that is, what is their approach to leadership?
  • Discuss why this leader is effective in a multicultural setting.
  • Use of concepts in the readings (readings attached) where appropriate
  • Proper use of other sources
  • Cite all sources

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Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing Effective Teamwork, Management Contributors: Craig Paiement Edited by: Linda E. Swayne & Mark Dodds Book Title: Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing Chapter Title: "Effective Teamwork, Management" Pub. Date: 2011 Access Date: March 5, 2019 Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Inc. City: Thousand Oaks Print ISBN: 9781412973823 Online ISBN: 9781412994156 DOI: Print page: 439 © 2011 SAGE Publications, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This PDF has been generated from SAGE Knowledge. Please note that the pagination of the online version will vary from the pagination of the print book. SAGE © 2011 by SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE Reference The need for effective teamwork has become a requirement in business. Workgroups that function as teams have evolved as part of the “total quality management” concept. The evolution of teamwork within management systems was initiated with the belief that employees will be most productive when they identify with the success of an organization, and a small group will have more perceived success while fitting into a largerscale organization. Thus, managers must be trained to take the role of a coach or facilitator and set goals for the work teams to achieve. Establishing the expectation of effective teamwork and supporting team members should increase the rate of goal attainment. Many organizations attempt to develop their work teams in the same manner as sports teams. Management intent on developing effective teamwork must deliberately develop an environment where the elements of teamwork can be practiced and perfected. This takes strategy and discipline. In sport management, the idea is not foreign to managers in many organizations, but they may not have the same opportunities to develop teamwork in practice situations as a sport team. Many organizations place a group of workers together and ask them to work as a team. The newly formed team is then expected to succeed or fail at their given task. Management must be cognizant of the process for developing effective teamwork and what contributes to effective teams. The context of each group can vary significantly, but groups also share similar characteristics. In management there are a number of different team categorizations. The most common types are work teams, project teams, and management teams. Each has a nuanced difference that affects the context of the team; work teams are general teams, project teams are time-limited, and management teams generally supervise subunits of work teams. The scholars Albert V. Carron and Heather A. Hausenblas have identified five categories that define groups/ teams: common fate, mutual benefit, social structure, group processes, and self-categorization. The first category, a common fate, serves as the basis for effective teamwork. The end result is reflected on all group members equally. Once a common fate is established, members must rely upon one another and receive support from one another for a mutual benefit, which is the second category. Social structures, the third category, are established within the group. Group norms and roles are negotiated and accepted within the social structure. Group processes must also be present, specifically communication within the group, cooperative interactions for the task at hand, and social interactions. Finally, the fifth category, known as self-categorization, occurs when the members of the team begin to identify themselves as a collective that is different and distinct from other teams. Effective teamwork is the result of a number of factors, all generally related to the ability of the group to work within the previously mentioned categories as a single cohesive unit. Effective teamwork is more than just individuals participating in coordinated actions; it begins with a set of common goals, beliefs, and purposes enacted with the dependence on and best interests of the team over that of the individual. According to the authors Susan G. Cohen and Diane E. Bailey, the measurement of effective teamwork encompasses three very specific dimensions: (1) quality and/or quantity of outputs, (2) behavioral outcomes, and (3) attitudes of team members. The quantity and quality of output for work teams can usually be measured in an objective way. The measurement is typically assessed through accuracy, speed, and creativity, among others. Behavioral outcomes are somewhat more difficult to measure but may include organizational commitment, trust among group members, perceived cohesiveness, unified communication, and feelings of empowerment. The attitudes of team members may be evaluated with such concepts as group efficacy, group identity, role acceptance, and shared values. While effective teamwork does have specific dimensions of measurement, there are also specific factors that contribute to the ability of the team to work effectively. These factors include group size, homogeneity or heterogeneity of group members, competition with other groups, perceived or measured success, and exclusivity. Group size has been hypothesized to work most efficiently when kept small, ideally between five and 10 Page 2 of 3 Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing SAGE © 2011 by SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE Reference members. Heterogeneity or homogeneity of the team can have a positive or negative effect depending on the team's charges. People typically get along with and communicate most easily with those who are similar to themselves. A homogenous team generally shares attitudes, values, and common experience; these elements typically predict a more effective team. However, heterogeneity can improve effectiveness by encouraging mutual learning or increasing the group's variable strength. Competition with other teams can also enhance effective teamwork as it supports the concept of self-categorization of a certain team. Success also increases effective teamwork as a successful team becomes especially attractive to the team members, which increases cohesiveness, empowerment, and other positive effects. Exclusivity can increase effectiveness of presenting the members of the team the opportunity to increase their prestige or social status, which increases their commitment to belonging to their team. Conclusion Effective teamwork in management has to be developed and planned in accordance with the aforementioned factors and concepts. The context of the success of each group will provide information for its effectiveness, but as more organizations design their structure-utilizing work teams, the development and measurement of effectiveness of such teams must occur. • • • • • • • teamwork teams work teams categorization group size team management sports teams Craig PaiementIthaca College See Also: • • • • • Centralization Versus Decentralization of Authority Employee Development Employee Relations Human Resources Management Structure and Strategy. Further Readings Carron, A. V., and H. A.Hausenblas. Group Dynamics in Sport, 2nd Ed.Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, 1998. Cleland, D. I.Strategic Management of Teams. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. Cohen, S. G., and D. E.Bailey. “What Makes Teams Work: Group Effectiveness Research From the Shop Floor to the Executive Suite.”journal of Management v. 23/3 (1997). Luthans, F.“The Need for and Meaning of Positive Organizational Behavior.”journal of Organizational Behavior v. 6 (2002). Spencer, B.“Models of Organizational and Total Quality Management: A Comparison and Critical Evaluation.”Academy of Management Review v. 19/3 (1994). Page 3 of 3 Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies Team Diversity Contributors: Doris Fay & Yves R. F. Guillaume Edited by: Stewart R. Clegg & James R. Bailey Book Title: International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies Chapter Title: "Team Diversity" Pub. Date: 2008 Access Date: March 5, 2019 Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Inc. City: Thousand Oaks Print ISBN: 9781412915151 Online ISBN: 9781412956246 DOI: Print pages: 1511-1514 © 2008 SAGE Publications, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This PDF has been generated from SAGE Knowledge. Please note that the pagination of the online version will vary from the pagination of the print book. SAGE © 2008 by SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE Reference Team diversity refers to the differences between team members on any attribute that may lead a single member of the group to perceive any other member of the group as being different from the self of this particular member. These attributes and perceptions refer to all dimensions people can differ on, such as age, gender, ethnicity, religious and functional background, personality, skills, abilities, beliefs, and attitudes. Conceptual Overview The occurrence of diverse teams is widely spread in organizations, with such teams operating at all organizational levels: Top management teams, production teams, task forces, or any other type of team can be diverse. Team diversity has implications for team processes, team and individual performance, and the wellbeing of team members. It is therefore important to understand the consequences of team diversity, especially in the light of an increasing prevalence of diverse teams. Team working itself appears to be gaining in popularity, while at the same time the workforce is becoming more diverse. For example, due to an aging workforce, organizations will depend more on retaining their older employees in the future, contributing to higher age diversity. There is also more use of cross-functional teams to integrate expertise of employees across broad specializations. Furthermore, where organizations establish subsidiaries beyond national borders, cultural diversity is a reality where teams bring together employees from the parent company and the subsidiary. Hence, the existence of diverse teams has become an organizational fact and we can expect more diverse teams to exist in the future. Empirical findings about diversity's impact on work group outcomes and individual outcomes are mixed, with evidence suggesting both negative and positive diversity effects. It is therefore important to understand how to manage diversity such that one can capitalize on its potential benefit and reduce negative effects. Taxonomies of Diversity The various diversity characteristics appear to have different effects on team and individual outcomes. Several attempts have therefore been made to systematize the manifold appearances of diversity, with most research using the following taxonomies: (1) surfacelevel versus deep-level diversity, (2) task-relevant versus task-irrelevant diversity, and (3) actual versus perceived diversity. The first taxonomy distinguishes attributes that are at the surface level of a person from attributes that are at the deep level of the person. Surface-level diversity refers to characteristics such as age, gender, or ethnicity; they can be readily detected when first meeting a person and refer predominantly to demographic attributes. In contrast, deep-level diversity refers to attributes that are detected only when people interact over a period of time with each other (e.g., values, personality, or beliefs). The second approach refers to the role of diversity attributes for team performance and therefore differentiates task-relevant from task-irrelevant diversity. The former refers to attributes such as functional, occupational, and industry background or educational level and educational content. They reflect differences in knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA), and in information, opinion, or experience; these are attributes that are relevant to the task. Similarly, tenure in industry and in the company could also entail diversity in task-relevant issues. The second category, task-irrelevant diversity, comprises demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, ethnicity, cultural background) or personality variables. What might appear at first glance as a straightforward way of classifying is on closer inspection a more complex matter. The specific attributes do not fall exclusively into one or the other category. For example, depending on the task, age and gender can be task relevant, and likewise, the functional background and the associated expertise may not be relevant to a given task. A third approach to classify diversity takes into consideration that actual differences between team members may not be perceived as such. Hence, it distinguishes between objective assessments of attributes (e.g., genPage 2 of 6 International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies SAGE © 2008 by SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE Reference der, age) and the extent to which group members perceive how similar they are regarding these attributes. The former has been referred to as actual diversity, the latter as perceived diversity. Theories Relevant to Work Group Diversity Researchers exploring diversity in surface-level attributes, i.e., demographic variables, tend to draw on the similarity-attraction paradigm and social identity theory, whereas scholars looking into the effects of task-relevant diversity rely on the cognitive resources perspective. The similarity-attraction paradigm assumes that similarity on any attribute increases interpersonal liking, whereas dissimilarity decreases interpersonal liking. Lower level of interpersonal liking is associated with less positive attitudes toward each other, less information sharing, poorer communication, and increased message distortion and errors in communication. This harms team processes and impairs team outcomes. As diversity implies dissimilarity, the similarity-attraction paradigm suggests that diversity is detrimental to team outcomes. Social identity and the related social categorization theory make similar predictions about the effects of diversity on team processes. These theories are based on two assumptions: First, the theories suggest that people try to maintain a positive self-identity. Second, they hold that human beings have a tendency to simplify the world by sorting each other into social categories that are relevant to their own identity. For example, members of a team will use the categories male or female, or nurse or medical doctor, or any other detectable attribute to categorize each other. To secure a positive self-image and to enhance selfesteem, people develop positive views and judgments about their own category and less favorable ones about members of other categories. For instance, in a hospital's task force where half of the team members are nurses and the other half medical doctors, social identity theory predicts that the nurses will develop a positive bias towards their own category (the so-called in-group) in order to maintain their self-esteem. At the same time, they will distance themselves from the doctors (from their perspective, the out-group). Members of out-groups are more likely to be treated in a disparaging manner and discriminated against. The same process—the positive bias toward the ingroup and negative bias toward the out-group—happens likewise to the doctors. These processes impair group functioning, reduce identification and commitment with the task at hand, and are suggested to impair team performance and cohesion. The cognitive resource perspective, in contrast to the previous theories, argues for a positive effect of diversity. “Cognitive resources” refers to a team's means as far as their pooled KSA, experiences, and perspectives; it is therefore also referred to as the “information/decision making” or “trait” perspective. Diversity in task-related attributes is assumed to increase the pooled cognitive resources, which should in turn benefit a team's quality of decision making, problem solving, and creativity. For example, a team that is charged with new product development possesses a broader range of relevant expertise if team members come from different functions within the organization in comparison to a team that is staffed with members from the R&D department only. Such a cross-functional team disposes over information on marketing, product development, production, and financial issues, and thus can draw on a larger pool of expertise. The wider breadth of cognitive resources is suggested to benefit team performance, such that team members can be more creative and effective in the new product development. Related to the cognitive resource perspective is the notion of social networks as a source. While individuals based in the same organizational department are likely to have similar networks within the organization, people from different department are likely to have nonoverlapping social networks. Thus, a team diverse in functional composition has access to a larger network as well as access to a larger pool of information, skills, and supports that lie in this network. This network-based advantage may also apply (but to a smaller extent) to other diversity attributes, as for example members belonging to an ethnic minority within a team (e.g., one Page 3 of 6 International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies SAGE © 2008 by SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE Reference Chinese among four white Americans) might be more likely to meet with people of the same background belonging to other teams. Empirical Evidence: Impact of Diversity on Work Group Outcomes Comprehensive reviews such as those compiled by Katherine Williams and Charles O'Reilly or Frances Milliken and Luis Martins suggest that the pattern of diversity effects on group outcomes such as cohesion, team performance, or member satisfaction is inconsistent and complex. For example, while top management teams' functional diversity was found to be positively related to organizational innovation by Karen Bantel and Susan Jackson, the study done by Deborah Ancona and David Caldwell found a negative effect of functional diversity for new product teams. Karen Jehn and colleagues showed a positive effect of informational diversity (i.e., diversity in taskrelevant attributes) on team performance; looking beyond direct effects, they found that the positive result of informational diversity was enhanced when the teams were at the same time homogenous in terms of their demographic composition and their values. Explorations of diversity effects on individual team members' satisfaction and morale also deliver a complex pattern. Karen Jehn and colleagues found that individuals in teams with higher diversity in values were less satisfied, and had a lower level of commitment and intent to stay, whereas the reverse was true for diversity in demographic variables. One of the critical components seemed to be the level of emotional conflicts experienced, enhanced by demographic diversity. This was further explored by Lisa Pelled and colleagues who found that emotional conflict was a function of demographic diversity and contextual variables. This research suggests that, depending on contextual variables, demographic diversity and underlying differences in belief systems and attitudes might lead via emotional conflicts to lower cohesion, poorer coordination, and poorer communication on the group level, and to individuals developing lower satisfaction, higher absenteeism, and greater turnover. On the other hand, Pelled and colleagues showed that differences in taskrelevant characteristics facilitate task conflicts. As task conflict comes along with dissenting opinions, conflicting viewpoints, and the sampling of diverse information, it has been frequently suggested that task-relevant diversity facilitates creativity and innovation, problem solving, and decision quality in groups. Critical Commentary and Fut ...
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Tutor Answer

School: UCLA




Multicultural Leadership
student’s name:
Due date:



The evolution of new technological trends in telecommunications, social media, and
leadership among other sectors has transformed the world into a small village. These trends result
in the recruitment of experts from diverse cultural and social backgrounds. Thus, the organizations
should invest in the training and development of multicultural leaders who can navigate the
strength and weaknesses of human resource accrued from different parts of the world.
Thus, multicultural leadership refers to the leadership framework that recognizes the
different cultural aspects of the firm, understands and attempts to integrate the various values into
the firms’ management framework. Multicultural leadership also involve the utilization of the
various cultural aspects in the firm to unlock vital insights that can help the firm thrive in the
different geographical areas under its coverage (Connerley & Pedersen, 2015). This paper
discusses Richard Branson as an effective multicultural leader, his philosophies, and approach to
Background of the Leader
Sir Richard Branson is a famous English entrepreneur, investor, and philanthropist.
Richard Branson expressed his entrepreneurial skills during his teenage years. Richard’s decision
to drop out of school at the age of sixteen stimulated the creation of his first business, the Virgin
records (Branson, 2014). As a young entrepreneur, Richard began his entrepreneurship in the
music industry. His entrepreneurial passion further enabled him to venture into the tourism-space.
Branson’s leadership and entrepreneurial desire can be traced back to a young age. His
artistic and innovative ideas resulted in his boom in the industry. Among Branson’s businesses
includes; the Virgin Records, the Virgin Galactic, among other businesses in the Virgin Group



category. The expansion of the various ventures in the Virgin group eventually resulted in the
success of Branson.
Branson’s Organizations
Richard Branson is the founder of the multinational Virgin Group. The group comprises of
several business ventures that trade on transnational levels. His first venture, the Virgin Records
was a venture in the music industry. The Virgin records produced various hit songs that thrived on
various UK music charts.
With a reasonable rate of return, Branson expanded the record and signed other music
labels into his record. This collaboration improved the profit accumulation momentum thus
attracting other musical groups to the Virgin Records

(Connerley & Pedersen, 2015).

Consequently, Virgin records thrived and became among the top six music record groups
Similarly, Branson had an entrepreneurial venture known as the Virgin Galactic. Virgin
Galactic, voyages, and hotels focused on the space-tourism idea. Branson signed various
partnerships with successful companies and groups to develop an upper hand in the market for the
Virgin Galactic. His energetic and effective leadership enabled him to secure a spaceship which
maximized success (Connerley & Pedersen, 2015). The Galactic spaceship officially launched
their functionality in 2013. By 2015, Branson had already expanded and launched Virgin voyages
and hotels. The Virgin group has generally maintained its market share and excellent service
provision since its launch thus terming the founder as an excellent one.
Leadership characteristics and Philosophy



Sir Richard Branson portrays excellent leadership qualities and philosophies that
ultimately term his leadership style as an admirable one. His colorful personality and dynamic
nature are among the basic qualities that promote his entrepreneurial skills and enhance his fame.
His charisma, which results from the personality and attitude forms the basis of his leadership
characteristics (De Vries, 2017). Richard Branson expresses various characteristics that stir his
passion thus branding him a famous entrepreneur.
First, Branson is a believer in mentorship. Just like a newborn baby acquires knowledge
through exposure and learning, entrepreneurs and leaders also need the same. Branson believes
that the innate understanding of life has to be sharpened to accommodate and perform particular
operations. Thus, success and direction in life requires upfront mentoring and coaching. He
believes that his ever-inquisitive nature helped him acquire knowledge thus stirring excellent in
his leadership and managerial operations.
Another leadership characteristic portrayed by Branson is the firm believer of innovation
and entrepreneurship. Just like any leader, Branson believed in creativity and innovation. Focusing
on the emerging trends and understanding the market niche is a vital area that every leader should
focus on (Branson, 2014). His creative and innovative ideas enhanced him to transform his ideas
into competitive products and services that fulfilled the market needs. Also, the innovative nature
helped him achieve mental rigidity and alertness that facilitate the tough approach towards
challenges in the business.
Another leadership characteristic accrued form Branson is his outstanding team layer
qualities. As a leader, Branson openly engaged his team and employees in brainstorming and
decision-making process. This enhances various inputs from the numerous players thus increasing
the probability of achieving success (Dolan & Altman, 2012). A delegation of duties allowed



employee focus thus creating a responsible and focused group to work on the various ventures in
his business.
Commitment is a vital characteristic of Branson’s leadership. Here, the leader has to exhibit
an internal locus of control towards the motivating factors. Despite the success, fame, and profitmaking, other innate desires should drive the leader to perform. Branson’s desire and zeal to start
his business from an early age enhanced his excellent leadership and managerial qualities.
Branson’s philosophy
Every leader has a particular trend or say that motivates them to perform and succeed in
their operations and Branson is not an exception. Branson believed in the act of identifying a need
and ensuring the optimum fulfillment of the same (Shriberg, Shriberg & Lloyd, 2015) . Branson
major focus was on identification of customer needs, creating corresponding products and services
that match with the needs and providing optimum customer satisfaction. An example of this
philosophy is the genesis of his airline business.
According to Branson, the business accidentally began because of the numerous canceled
flight that inconvenienced several customers. Starting the airline business saw the customer’s need
solved (Dolan & Altman, 2012). This, according to him, was the best way to identify a niche and
fulfill the daily demand of the services and products.
His other philosophy is the customer-centered approach. Most of Branson’s ventures are
built by customer commitment. Branson believes that providing the customers with prod...

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