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Slaves gained freedom through various means. Many escaped to a free state or to Canada, often with the help of Quakers, abolitionists, or Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad. Some were granted freedom by their masters; while some were able to save money and buy their freedom, some were given their freedom by masters, although these were relatively few. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation granted freedom to slaves being held in Northern and border states, to include Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and border states which were not aligned with the Confederacy. The Emancipation Proclamation was not enforceable below the Mason-Dixon Line, as those states were part of the Confederacy, which did not recognize Lincoln's proclamation. Freedom was gained by slaves in the southern states with the surrender of the Confederacy in 1865. Passage of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States.
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