Functions of the Human Resource Management essay

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Human Resource Management Final Paper. The paper must have a total of 8 pages excluding title and reference page. The essay should not be written in the passive voice. Should have a clear thesis statement and exceptional conclusion. At the least 5 scholarly references and at least one reference from the class book. The paper should be completed by Monday, the 11th. Please make sure you follow APA format.

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Week 5 - Final Paper Functions of HRM [WLO: 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] The primary function of HRM is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees attaining organizational goals and objectives. Consider all the areas of HRM that have been discussed in this course: • • • • • Performance management Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection Human resources development Compensation and benefits Employment and labor laws and regulations In your final paper, • • • • • Provide a high-level overview of each HRM area listed above. Discuss HR functions within a performance management system that contribute to effective training and development. Explain how an effective performance management system along with compensation and benefits can attract, develop, and retain talented employees. Analyze employment and labor laws and regulations that impact these areas of HRM listed above and the relationships between employees and employers. Explain how the functions of HRM work together in order to optimize organizational and employee behavior. For additional support with completing your final paper, please refer to the following tools: • • • • Finding HR Journals in the AU Library (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. This tip sheet will support you in researching through the Ashford University Library. What Is CRAAP: A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. This will assist you in determining the reliability of an HR website. Scholarly and Popular Resources(1) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. This tutorial explains the differences between scholarly and popular resources. Human Resource Research With FindIt@AU (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. This tip sheet will support you in researching through the Ashford University Library. The Functions of HRM paper 1 • • • • • • • Must be seven to eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Must include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. • • • • • Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource for additional guidance. Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. o For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources. Must use at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed, or credible sources in addition to the course text. o The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment. Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications. Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment. 2 Performance Appraisal: Measurement, Assessment, and Management 6 shirinosov/iStock/Thinkstock Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: • Use a holistic approach to define work performance and identify its dimensions. • Discuss the outcomes of effective performance appraisal. • Link performance appraisal with other functions within the HRM process. • Apply the concepts of validity and reliability to performance measurement. • Describe various commonly used performance appraisal methods. • Identify emerging trends, opportunities, and challenges in performance appraisal. 143 © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 143 10/27/15 1:40 PM What Is Job Performance? Section 6.1 Introduction It is inconceivable that an organization would not want to see high performance from its employees, yet it is very common for organizations to measure performance poorly and, thus, be in the dark about the quality of their employees’ performances. This fact is especially true in light of the increasing emphasis on service jobs. Unfortunately, services are much harder to measure than tangible products. Consequently, performance measurement in today’s business world requires more creativity and a more holistic approach. However, managers tend to dislike the confrontational and judgmental aspects of assessing their employees’ performances. In fact, next to firing employees, performance appraisals are the second most disliked task reported by managers (Heathfield, 2007; Jackson, 2012). The opening case study sheds some light on why that might be the case. This chapter discusses the characteristics of effective performance appraisal systems, as well as the importance and challenges associated with performance management. Opening Case Study Jack Welch and His (In)Famous Rank-and-Yank System Access the following links: As you will learn in this chapter, performance appraisal systems can have absolute or relative standards. The system adopted by Jack Welch, former General Electric CEO, is an extreme example of relative performance appraisal standards. Employees are compared to each other and ranked accordingly. Jack Welch believes this system to be “kind” to employees, under the right conditions. Other organizations have adopted or adapted GE’s former “rank-and-yank” system, with varying degrees of success. 6.1 What Is Job Performance? Job performance is the total expected value to the organization of discrete behavioral episodes that an employee carries out over a prescribed period of time (Motowidlo, 2003). This definition implies that job performance is a property of behavior. That is, job performance is an aggregation of multiple, discrete behaviors that occur over a span of time. A further implication is that some sets of behavior are distinct from other sets of behavior in their contributions to, or detractions from, the effectiveness of the organization and therefore receive greater attention. Finally, results are states or conditions of things that are changed by what employees do in ways that help or hinder the organization in reaching its objectives, and this accounts for results being so appealing as a focal point when considering employee performance (Motowidlo, 2003). The above discussion points toward a holistic approach to performance appraisal involving a multidimensional system of interrelated parts. In this section, several components of performance are discussed and integrated. These components provide the foundation for the design, measurement, assessment, and management of an effective performance appraisal © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 144 10/27/15 1:40 PM Section 6.1 What Is Job Performance? system that can be conducive to continuous performance improvement at both the individual and organizational levels. 1. Employee Productivity Productivity is the most prominent component of performance. Generally speaking, any job or role has a core set of functions, duties, and responsibilities that its incumbent needs to perform. Often, there are also some standards regarding the minimum level of acceptable performance for each of these functions, duties, and responsibilities. This predetermined set of criteria can be used as the bare minimum to define and measure employees’ performances. Employee productivity can then be defined as the ratio of the actual employee production to the planned or anticipated production for the core set of functions, duties, and responsibilities of the job performed. Jim West/age footstock/Superstock Employee productivity can be defined as the ratio of what employees actually produce and what an organization predicted employees would produce based on the specific responsibilities of a job. 2. Employee Attitudes Attitudes can be defined as cognitive and emotional appraisals that shape subsequent behavioral tendencies. Employees’ attitudes have a direct influence on their productivity, as well as on the organizational culture as a whole. As you learned in Chapter 5, this fact makes employee attitudes valid predictors of performance. Some organizations want a more accurate depiction of their employees’ performances; these organizations should incorporate employees’ attitudes in their performance appraisals. Because attitudes are subjective, two people may appraise the same situation differently and, therefore, be inclined to respond to it differently. Important positive attitudes in the workplace include: • Job satisfaction (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001) • Organizational commitment (Riketta, 2002) • Work engagement (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002) Negative work attitudes include: • Cynicism (Wanous, Reichers, & Austin, 2000) • Disengagement (Robison, 2010) Each of these five attitudes has been shown to be a significant predictor of work performance. Importantly, the “softer” and less tangible nature of attitudes makes them harder to measure. However, these specific attitudes have scientifically designed, valid, and reliable measures that can be incorporated within performance appraisal systems, and well-supported HR initiatives can be used to develop and manage these attitudes. © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 145 10/27/15 1:40 PM Section 6.1 What Is Job Performance? Employees with negative attitudes express these attitudes in their behavioral patterns and adversely influence their coworkers, which in turn depresses employee morale and team spirit, triggers employee conflicts, and reduces efficiency, quality, and performance. On the other hand, employees who are satisfied with their jobs are generally more committed to fulfill their tasks and responsibilities efficiently. In addition, they are more likely to get involved and actively engaged in job activities. Employees with positive attitudes can also create a “cheerleader effect” that transfers their positive energy to other individuals and creates a favorable atmosphere that promotes work engagement, commitment, and productivity. Performance appraisal systems that account for attitude recognize that employees with positive attitudes are valuable assets, and these systems provide the means to properly recognize and reward these employees for these attitudes. They also provide mechanisms to identify negative attitudes, diagnose their causes, and design corrective action plans. 3. Work Behaviors Performance is often visualized in terms of productivity and efficiency. However, the following elements of performance should also be considered in evaluations of employee performance: • • • • Coaching, mentoring, or supporting new coworkers Sharing skills and experience Promoting a friendly work environment and a healthy team spirit Abiding by and encouraging others to follow organizational norms, regulations, and procedures • Assisting employees with their emotional and ­personal problems These are all forms of positive performance that go above and beyond the call of duty. They are not explicit role expectations and are rarely, if ever, formally recognized or rewarded by an organization. These work behaviors are known as ­organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) (Organ, 1988). OCBs are very challenging to evaluate because they are very subjective in nature. Furthermore, they require the assessor to analyze and evaluate multiple subjective parameters simultaneously, processes that introduce bias and inaccuracy. Moreover, this evaluation does not provide the employee with specific feedback necessary for their development. Lee and Allen (2002) identify two types of OCBs: individual-oriented and organization-oriented behaviors. ­ ­Individual-oriented OCBs are targeted toward another individual; an example is helping a coworker with a difficult task. ­Organization-oriented OCBs are targeted toward the organization; for example, conserving office supplies and speaking highly of one’s employer in a social setting constitute Michael Blann/Digital Vision/Thinkstock Organizational citizenship behaviors include promoting a friendly work environment and supporting one’s coworkers. © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 146 10/27/15 1:40 PM What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It Important? Section 6.2 organization-oriented OCBs. OCBs are particularly relevant to a holistic performance appraisal system: they make a significant difference in the quality of employees’ service. Customers are more likely to be satisfied when they do business with organizations where employees go above and beyond their standard duties, rather than offering a bare minimum of effort. Systems in today’s organizations that measure performance appraisal, compensation, and reward, therefore, also need to measure and assess OCBs. However, OCBs are by definition behaviors that go above and beyond the call of duty. Formalizing, measuring, and rewarding these behaviors can defy that definition and turn them into performance expectations, which can represent an added pressure on employees to practice them as an obligation (Cain, 2014). Some work behaviors can also be counterproductive. Bennett and Robinson (2000, p. 556) define counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) as “voluntary behavior of organizational members that violates significant organizational norms, and in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization and/or its members.” Examples of CWBs include physical violence, verbal aggression, harassment, theft, intentionally producing lower quantity or quality, wasting resources or supplies, sabotaging organizational property, leaking confidential information, or refusing to help coworkers (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). Many things can prompt these behaviors—e.g., environmental conditions such as work stressors, perceptions of injustice, or situational frustration. These behaviors hinder the organization’s ability to achieve its goals and objectives and can have serious implications on performance. That’s why it is critical for an organization to take necessary actions to detect, assess, and correct counterproductive behaviors (Spector, Fox, & Domagalski, 2005). Thus, addressing CWBs should also be an integral component of performance appraisal systems. 4. Team Performance There are several approaches for measuring team performances because it is more than the sum of the individual performances of the team members. Some approaches focus on individuals and their contributions to the team, while other approaches focus on the team as a unit, including the synergies, added effectiveness, productivity, problem-solving capabilities, and innovation realized as a result of collaboration across team members (McCann & ­Aldersea, 2002). One major issue with evaluation of teams is that of “free riders” or “social loafers” who make only minimal contributions to team productivity but enjoy equal rewards to those making greater contributions, and this suggests that individual contributions to team performance must be assessed and recognized. Finally, not all teams are created equal. That is, different teams such as work or service teams, project teams, and network teams will require different emphasis at both the individual and team levels (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011). 6.2 What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It Important? Performance appraisal is the process through which employee performance is assessed, feedback is provided to the employee, and corrective action plans are designed. Figure 6.1 outlines the performance appraisal process and positions it within the strategic HRM process. Various sections and discussions in this chapter elaborate on those linkages. © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 147 10/27/15 1:40 PM Section 6.2 What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It Important? Figure 6.1: Performance appraisal Strategic HR planning Benefits and benefit administration Job analysis and job design Attraction and recruitment of talent Compensation Selection and job fit Training and development Performance appraisal/ management Defining performance Developing action plans Selecting performance measures Assessing validity & reliability Providing feedback Measuring performance Ensuring legal compliance Although the main objective of performance appraisals is to evaluate employees’ work performance, performance appraisals are also important for organizations because they reflect the effectiveness and efficiency of achieving organizational goals and objectives. Organizations use performance appraisals for many purposes including: © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mor82551_06_c06_143-166.indd 148 10/27/15 1:40 PM Common Performance Appraisal Methods Section 6.3 • Managing salaries, wages, and pay adjustments • Providing performance feedback for employees and communicating points of strength and weakness • Determining job placement decisions such as promotions, demotions, and transfers • Justifying employee disciplinary actions such as termination or dismissal Performance appraisals are often linked to such incentive systems as bonuses, which sustain a culture of rewarding employees based on their job performance rather than their seniority. However, poorly prepared performance appraisals can negatively Cultura Limited/Cultura Limited/Superstock affect high performers because they may Performance appraisals evaluate an not be fairly rewarded, which can ultimately employee’s performance and provide destroy their morale and sense of trust in management with both strengths and areas organizational practices. Moreover, well- for further training. prepared and documented performance appraisals can protect organizations from litigation and claims of discriminatory practices. Finally, performance appraisals can provide the necessary information for assessing training needs and designing the appropriate training and development initiatives to meet those needs. 6.3 Common Performance Appraisal Methods Organizations commonly use many valid and reliable performance appraisal methods. Different methods provide different types of information. Some measures are objective and some are subjectiv ...
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Functions of the Human Resource Management
Student’s Name
Instructor’s Name


It is important to know that many people do not understand the work of HRM. Some
people only perceive the responsibility of the HRM to hiring, exit interviews, and onboarding.
However, the HRM is the place where people should go to when there exists a pressing issue in
an organization (Lussier & Hendon, 2017). The HRM is the place where many people do not
wish to work at because it attracts a lot of controversies. The Human Resource Management
revolved around almost all activities of the organization from the beginning to the end. For
instance, it is the place where organizational operations are created, updated and monitored. The
primary functions of the HRM include planning, staffing, alignment of activities in the
organization, institution of cultural changes as well as compensation. The functions of the HRM
is crucial in almost all aspects of the organization.
Therefore, the above functions only represent some of the primary daily activities
because the functions of the unit transcend deeper than people can believe. The HRM creates
strategic plans for organizational processes such as job design and analysis, recruitment of the
required talents, selection and job fit, training and development of staff, appraisal, and
compensation as well as legal processes in an organization ((Youssef, 2015). I always say that
HRM is the backbone of all organizations because it does the work of managing skills and talents
that enable the organization to align itself with the established goals (Lussier & Hendon, 2017).
The HRM involves following processes such as performance management, the human resource,
and the planning, recruitment and the selection, development, the employee compensation, as
well as employment and regulation of labor laws and regulations.
Human resource planning, recruitment, and planning
The HRM create the bigger picture in an organization. For instance, it does create the
organizations strategic and planning process. The aspect of the strategic planning process is the


backbone of the organization because it involves the crucial steps needed to achieve the goals of
an organization. The strategic planning process creates a solid foundation for the organization. It
enables each person that works for the organization to fully understand the organization's vision
as well as what should be accomplished to allow for the association to realize its goals. The
HRM strategic planning process assists the management in the process of decision-making,
problem-solving, market planning, designing of the organization and its operational objectives.
The method of strategic planning enables the organization to do environment scanning,
forecasting labor, and market analysis, gap analysis, internal analysis and the development of the
HR plans and strategies. The HRM also enables the organization to assess its strategy
implementation and execution adequately. The first important step in the HRM process is job
design and analysis.
The primary role of the HRM is to improve the effectiveness of employees in an
organization. It is a delicate process that begins with the process of hiring the right people who
can meet the needs and expectation of the organization. It is, therefore, essential to recognize
that the most time-consuming part of the HRM is the planning, recruitment, and selection of
staff that can meet the needs of the organization (Youssef, 2015). The HR reviews all open
positions in the organizatio...

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