Evaluation and decision making in social media marketing discussion

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One page Literature Critique for the article below.

The Literature Critique Format Guidelines is uploaded as a BDF.

I found this article from google scholar. our topic is "social media and decision making''. So, when u write the Literature Critique make sure to focus in the section of social media and decision making.

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Management Decision Evaluation and decision making in social media marketing Brendan James Keegan, Jennifer Rowley, Article information: Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) To cite this document: Brendan James Keegan, Jennifer Rowley, (2017) "Evaluation and decision making in social media marketing", Management Decision, Vol. 55 Issue: 1, pp.15-31, https://doi.org/10.1108/ MD-10-2015-0450 Permanent link to this document: https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-10-2015-0450 Downloaded on: 07 March 2019, At: 18:11 (PT) References: this document contains references to 69 other documents. To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 23615 times since 2017* Users who downloaded this article also downloaded: (2015),"Facebook advertising’s influence on intention-to-purchase and purchase amongst Millennials", Internet Research, Vol. 25 Iss 4 pp. 498-526 https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-01-2014-0020 (2013),"The adoption of social media marketing in South African banks", European Business Review, Vol. 25 Iss 4 pp. 365-381 https:// doi.org/10.1108/EBR-02-2013-0013 Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emeraldsrm:358406 [] For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0025-1747.htm Evaluation and decision making in social media marketing Brendan James Keegan Marketing, Operations and Digital Business, Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, UK, and Jennifer Rowley Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) Department of Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK Evaluation and decision making in SMM 15 Received 7 October 2015 Revised 13 April 2016 20 August 2016 Accepted 25 October 2016 Abstract Purpose – As organisations are increasing their investment in social media marketing (SMM), evaluation of such techniques is becoming increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge regarding SMM strategy by developing a stage model of SMM evaluation and uncovering the challenges in this process. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews were conducted with 18 key informants working for specialist SMM agencies. Such informants are a particularly rich source, since they manage social media campaigns for a wide range of clients. An exploratory research was conducted and thematic analysis surfaced the key components of the SMM evaluation process and associated challenges. Findings – The SMM evaluation framework is developed. This framework has the following six stages: setting evaluation objectives, identifying key performance indicators (KPIs), identifying metrics, data collection and analysis, report generation and management decision making. Challenges associated with each stage of the framework are identified, and discussed with a view to better understanding decision making associated with social media strategies. Two key challenges are the agency-client relationship and the available social analytics tools. Originality/value – Despite an increasing body of research on social media objectives, KPIs and metrics, no previous study has explored how these components are embedded in a marketing campaign planning process. The paper also offers insights in the factors that make SMM evaluation complex and challenging. Recommendations for further research and practice are offered. Keywords Social media marketing, Digital marketing, Social media analytics, Agency-client relationship, Social media marketing evaluation Paper type Research paper Introduction Due to its dynamic and emergent nature, the effectiveness of social media as a marketing communications channel has presented many challenges for marketers. It is considered to be different to traditional marketing channels, and even other digital marketing channels, centring around a two-way conversation or exchange (Bacile et al., 2014; Shih, 2009). Many organisations are investing in their social media presence because they appreciate the need to engage in existing social media conversations in order to protect their corporate or brand reputation (Lee and Youn, 2009), increase customer engagement (Gummerus et al., 2012) or increase online sales (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). As organisations increasingly develop their social media presence, it is vital to be able to evaluate the impact of this investment, including its contribution to achieving marketing objectives, as well as more generally understanding any return-on-investment (ROI) (Pang and Lee, 2008; Fisher, 2009; Kumar and Mirchandani, 2012; McCann and Barlow, 2015). Research into social media strategy is limited. There is some research in this area on some specific aspects of strategy, such as reputation management (Rokka et al., 2014), the drivers, activities and benefits associated with social media (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014), practitioner case studies using one organisation such as Finnair ( Jarvenpaa and Tuunainen, 2013), B2B companies adoption of social media (Michaelidou et al., 2011) and the Management Decision Vol. 55 No. 1, 2017 pp. 15-31 © Emerald Publishing Limited 0025-1747 DOI 10.1108/MD-10-2015-0450 MD 55,1 Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) 16 integration of social media into strategic marketing (Choi and Thoeni, 2016). Choi and Theoni (2016) in particular identify a number of challenges in the area of social media marketing (SMM) and suggest that further research is necessary. There is a growing interest in the evaluation of the impact of SMM including research driven by the need to demonstrate the ROI from SMM (Fisher, 2009; Hoffman and Fodor, 2010; Kumar and Mirchandani, 2012; McCann and Barlow, 2015). There is also interest in the potential of SMM to enhance firm and brand equity (Luo et al., 2013; Tirunillai and Tellis, 2012). However, there is a considerable journey to travel before the impact of SMM can be intelligently assessed. Some offer insights into the wider aspects of the processes associated with evaluation of SMM in specific contexts (Kim and Ko, 2012; Michaelidou et al., 2011; Murdough, 2010; Töllinen et al., 2010), in addition, there has been significant activity on measurement frameworks and dashboards (Cvijikj et al., 2012; Marklein and Paine, 2013; Peters et al., 2013), and some discussion of the need to establish clearly defined goals, objectives and metrics related to the use of social media (e.g. Hoffman and Fodor, 2010; Murdough, 2010). Only Jeffrey (2013) and McCann and Barlow (2015) have proposed frameworks that link measurement with SMM decision making and campaign planning. Thus far, neither framework has been empirically tested, and hence is prescriptive in nature rather than practice-based. Yet, as O’Sullivan et al. (2009) demonstrate, marketing performance measurement ability or frequency is linked to firm performance. Accordingly, SMM evaluation offers a pivotal context in which to consider the challenges associated with SMM decision making and management. The aim of this research is contribute to knowledge and theory regarding social media strategy through an exploratory study of the evaluation of SMM, with a view to proposing a process framework. In addition, this paper presents a distillation of the challenges associated with the evaluation process. Hence, the objectives of this research are to: • identify and define the stages of SMM evaluation, as operationalized by practitioners, and to propose a conceptual framework; and • identify and summarise the challenges associated with SMM evaluation. Next, previous research on the importance and potential of SMM and its evaluation is summarised. Then, the interview-based research methodology is outlined. This is followed by a report on SMM evaluation processes and a discussion of the associated challenges. Finally, the conclusion summarises the research and suggests recommendations for research and practice. Literature review SMM Aral et al. (2013) argue that social media is “fundamentally changing the way we communicate, collaborate, consume, and create” (p. 3). Defined as “a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p. 61), social media are impacting on a wide range of business processes, from marketing and operations to finance (Luo et al., 2013) and human resource management (Bolton, 2013). In the marketing context, social media is seen as essentially different to other forms of digital media (Hoffman and Novak, 2012; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2010) and as potentially heralding a paradigm shift in marketing (Hanna et al., 2011). Indeed, studies demonstrate that participation in a firm’s social media activities positively affects profitability. For example, Goh et al. (2013) studied the relative impact of social media on firm profits and established that user-generated content had a greater impact on profits than firm-created content. Tirunillai and Tellis (2012) demonstrate that online reviews and “chatter” are indicators of stock market performance, whilst Luo et al. (2013) Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) show that social media-based metrics are leading indicators of firm equity value. Given the significance of social media as an essential part of everyday business activities, it is important to consider the attributes of these strategic marketing activities in the modern digital economy. Honing SMM requires evaluation, but it is evident that development of effective approaches to evaluation is not straightforward. Online conversations produce large volumes of semantic data that present considerable challenges to any analysis of social media activity (Larson and Watson, 2011). As such, an on-going debate exists surrounding the extent to which social media metrics can be aligned with established digital and general marketing metrics (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2010; Mangold and Faulds, 2009; Weber, 2009). Social media evaluation and decision making The main body of work relevant to SMM evaluation relates to key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics. For example, the Social Media Measurement Standards Coalition (Marklein and Paine, 2013) has generated a set of measurement standards as a means of developing SMM evaluation metrics. These includes content sourcing and transparency; reach and impressions; engagement and conversation; opinion and advocacy; influence; and, impact and value. Cvijikj et al. (2012) have linked metrics and KPIs in a tiered evaluation framework organised according to the following components: user analysis, user-generated content, engagement analysis and benchmarking. Peters et al. (2013) also studied the links between metrics and KPIs, whilst Pauwels et al. (2009) debated the contribution of dashboards. Heijnen et al.’s (2013) empirical analysis highlights the challenges in measuring KPIs with quantitative social media data sets, and suggest that such analysis needs to be supplemented by insights from practitioners’ everyday experience. These works have fuelled the debate around the difficulties associated with SMM evaluation and in particular highlighted the absence of a holistic, or universally agreed approach. In general, empirical research on SMM evaluation is limited; at best, evaluation is considered a minor aspect of a wider study within social media contexts. For example, Michaelidou et al. (2011) found that most B2B organisations do not adopt any metrics to assess SMM effectiveness. McCann and Barlow (2015) claim that 65 per cent of the SMEs in their sample did not measure the ROI in relation to social media activities. Some studies mention evaluation but do not elaborate on it to any great extent (e.g. Choi and Thoeni, 2016; Hanna et al., 2011; Töllinen et al., 2012). Kim and Ko (2012) explore the link between SMM and brand reputation in a fashion retail environment and suggest evaluation merits further exploration. In general, then, as suggested by Ruhi (2014), there is a need for empirical investigations that explore the link between SMM analytics and the generation of business intelligence. Prior works contribute towards supporting the practices of SMM evaluation by proposing frameworks that link goals, objectives, KPIs and SMM metrics. For example, Jeffrey (2013) proposes a measurement process framework that embraces consideration of goals, stakeholders, objectives, social media KPIs, tools and benchmarks and analysis. McCann and Barlow (2015) propose a three-stage measurement framework of the ROI of social media, which includes planning, implementation and evaluation. However, both Jeffrey (2013) and McCann and Barlow’s (2015) frameworks are prescriptive in nature rather than reflective of practice and their frameworks have yet to be empirically tested. Furthermore, both proposed frameworks lack a formal definition of the actions at each stage. Methodology Interview process Since SMM, and more specifically its evaluation, are at a relatively early stage of development with limited prior research, an exploratory study that adopted an inductive Evaluation and decision making in SMM 17 MD 55,1 Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) 18 approach was chosen for this research. This approach provided the opportunity to develop a framework and gather deep insights into the actions and challenges embedded in the evaluation of SMM. It also provided structure and flexibility to ensure the coverage of key themes whilst accommodating unanticipated insights (Bryman and Bell, 2010; Saunders et al., 2009; Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009). The study used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The interview protocol was informed by the relevant literature and was further refined through pilot interviews with four practitioners to test rigour, validity and appropriateness (Bryman and Bell, 2010). All questions were open-ended, thus not limiting the interviewee’s choice of answers (Gubrium and Holstein, 2002) and were supplemented by prompts to ensure coverage of key themes associated with each stage (Creswell, 2013). In-depth interviews were conducted face-to-face in the informants’ offices, a setting where interviewees could elaborate and show supporting documents (Creswell, 2013). Informants were assured of confidentiality and anonymity and careful attention was paid to other ethical issues (Bryman and Bell, 2010). Sample In identifying informants for this study, a purposive sampling approach was used to seek out information-rich cases (Patton, 1990) with key informants who were able to comment on current practice and experience in the evaluation of SMM. Such professionals have considerable experience of SMM across a wide range of clients. In total, 18 specialist marketers were interviewed (Table I), all of whom either had responsibility for SMM, or more generally digital marketing within their agency. This number of informants is consistent with other qualitative studies in this field (e.g. Veloutsou and Taylor, 2012; Wallace and Chernatony, 2007). Using agency practitioners as key informants provides broader insights into SMM evaluation than would have been possible through direct conversations with brand owners. The specialist agencies included ranged from multi-national marketing agencies servicing global client brands, through to small and micro agencies with a UK client base, embracing UK national, regional and sector-specific brands. During the interview process, all informants referred to more than one client brand, such that, in total, perspectives gathered during the interviews encompassed 78 brands, in Table I. Informant profile Informant Informant role title Size of agency P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 Head of social media Head of social and SEO Head of social media Digital strategy director Head, digital marketing Head of social media Head of social media Head of social media Head of social media Head of social media Head of digital marketing Head of digital strategy Director Social media manager Head of digital marketing Digital marketing executive Social media consultant Social media consultant SME Micro Large/international Large/international Micro Large/international Large/international SME Micro Micro SME SME Micro SME SME Micro Micro Micro Clients 4 4 5 4 4 3 5 3 6 4 4 6 3 4 6 3 2 3 Typical client size SME Micro/SME Large/international and national Large/international and national Micro Large/international and national Large/international and national Large/international and national Micro/SME SME National and SME National National SME SME and micro SME Micro SME Downloaded by Morgan State University At 18:11 07 March 2019 (PT) the following sectors: sports, retail, automotive, drinks, hospitality, professional services, transport, and not-for-profit organisations. Client brands which were discussed in the interview were broadly classified as large (international or national), SME or microbusiness (Table I). Data analysis Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted in order to develop a rich description of the data set and to identify implicit and explicit ideas in the data (Creswell, 2013). Thematic analysis is appropriate in research such as this that adopts an inductive approach and seeks to construct theories that are grounded in the data (Charmaz and Belgrave, 2002). Thematic analysis followed the six phases recommended by Braun and Clarke (2006): familiarisation with data, generating initial codes, searching for themes among codes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes and producing the final account of the findings. The data were initially analysed interview transcript by transcript, before checking for verification across transcripts (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The analysis was completed manually supporting a closeness to the data which allowed distinctive themes to emerge and encouraged detailed knowledge of each theme (Eisenhardt, 1991). This analysis led to the identification and emergence of the six stages of the framework, challenges and responses to challenges associated with each stage (as shown in Figure 1 and Table II). Evaluation and decision making in SMM 19 Findings Figure 1 shows the stages of SMM evaluation that emerged from the interviews. It is presented at this point to assist in structuring the details of this section, and was not pre-determined before the interviews were conducted. In the remainder of this section, insights offered on the challenges associated with each of these stages are presented. Setting evaluation objectives There is a recogni ...
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