EEGR 390 Morgan State University Experiment No. 2: Light Seeking Car

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timer Asked: Mar 8th, 2019
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please I need a lab report similar to this one, but please not the same, and change the pictures please, I do not need a paralogism work.

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[Date] Experiment No. 2: Light Seeking Car EEGR 390 Principles of Design Table of Contents Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 2 Fundamental Theory ....................................................................................................... 2 Equipment ....................................................................................................................... 2 IRF234 N-Channel Power MOSFET (x2) ..................................................................... 3 AND gate SN7408 with two inputs ............................................................................... 3 IN914 Fast Switching Diode ......................................................................................... 4 OR Gate SN7432 with two inputs ................................................................................ 4 Inverter Gate SN7404 .................................................................................................. 4 Gearbox ....................................................................................................................... 5 Photo-Resistor ............................................................................................................. 5 LM339 Quad Comparator ............................................................................................ 6 AA Battery .................................................................................................................... 6 Schematics...................................................................................................................... 7 Configuration................................................................................................................ 7 Truth Tables and K-Maps for Right Wheel ................................................................... 8 Truth Tables and K-Maps for Left Wheel ..................................................................... 8 Procedure........................................................................................................................ 9 Connections of Comparator ......................................................................................... 9 Connections of Photo-resistor ...................................................................................... 9 Connections of Inverter .............................................................................................. 10 AND gate configuration .............................................................................................. 10 OR gate configuration ................................................................................................ 10 Results .......................................................................................................................... 11 Discussion ..................................................................................................................... 12 Alternative Configuration and Truth Table for Left Wheel .......................................... 12 Alternative Configuration and Truth Table for Right Wheel ........................................ 13 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 13 1 Objectives The objective of this lab is to use the digital logic design for the designing of Light Seeking Car. The aim is to apply the knowledge related to circuit theory and digital logic designs for building the power supply and movement mechanism by the making K-maps and truth tables. Fundamental Theory The voltage is delivered to the wheels and motors of the car as the comparator is switched on using light wave as the source of energy. A light sensor detects the light wave and generates a digital signal which is transmitted to different components of the circuits. The components would perform their operations according to the design of logic and eventually, cause the movement of the car. Equipment The electrical components and equipment required for this experiment are: ➢ Photo-Resistor ➢ LM339 Quad Comparator ➢ Switch ➢ AND gate SN7408 with two inputs ➢ IRF234 N-Channel Power MOSFET (x2) ➢ AA Battery ➢ 14-Pin Dip Socket ➢ Double Gearbox ➢ Ball Caster ➢ OR Gate with SN7432 ➢ Breadboard ➢ Resistors: 220kΩ (x2), 3.3 kΩ (x6), 22kΩ (x3), 2.2kΩ ➢ Truck Tire Set ➢ Battery Housing 2 ➢ Small Screws w/nuts (x4) ➢ Inverter Gate SN7404 ➢ IN914 Fast Switching Diode IRF234 N-Channel Power MOSFET The flow of charge carriers varies the channel width of the field-effect transistor during its operations. The source is the point of entry of charge carriers, and the drain is exit point of the charge carriers. The change in voltage at the electrode changes the width channel of the field-effect transistor. The point of the physical existence of the gate or electrode is the between the locations of the drain and source. FIGURE 1: IRF234 N-CHANNEL POWER MOSFET AND gate SN7408 with two inputs When both inputs of the gate are HIGH which means 1 then the output of this logic gate is HIGH (1). The output of the gate would be LOW (0) if only one input or both inputs to the gate are LOW (0). FIGURE 2: AND GATE SN7408 3 IN914 Fast Switching Diode It switches the flow of current. It either blocks or allows the flow of current according to the input. The bi-directional flow of current or signal is not possible with this switch. FIGURE 3: IN914 FAST SWITCHING DIODE OR Gate SN7432 with two inputs The output is high either one input or both inputs are high. The output is low when both inputs are low. FIGURE 4: OR GATE SN7432 Inverter Gate SN7404 The operation of this inverter is to invert the low voltage to high voltage, and high voltage to low voltage. 4 FIGURE 5: INVERTER GATE SN7404 Gearbox The gearbox is part of the movement mechanism of the car. Photo-Resistor This resistor is light sensitive and its resistance changes with variation in light intensity. The reduction in light intensity increases the resistance of photo-resistor. FIGURE 6: PHOTO-RESISTOR 5 LM339 Quad Comparator This quad comparators have four comparators which compare the voltage levels at the input. The output of each comparator is the signal indicating the higher voltage level out of the two voltage levels being given at the input of the comparator. FIGURE 7: LM339 QUAD COMPARATOR AA Battery The purpose of this battery is to supply the power to different electrical components in the circuit. 6 Schematics FIGURE 8: CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC FOR LIGHT SEEKING CAR Configuration 7 FIGURE 9: CONFIGURATION OF LIGHT SEEKING CAR Truth Tables and K-Maps for Right Wheel Inputs Output SL SC SR WR 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 TABLE 1: TRUTH TABLE FOR RIGHT WHEEL SL SC 00 01 11 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 10 SR 1 1 TABLE 2: K-MAP FOR RIGHT WHEEL Truth Tables and K-Maps for Left Wheel Inputs Output SL SC SR WL 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 8 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 TABLE 3: TRUTH TABLE FOR LEFT WHEEL SL SC 00 01 11 10 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 SR 1 TABLE 4: K-MAP FOR LEFT WHEEL Procedure Connections of Comparator The truth tables and K-maps are created both for the left wheel and right wheel, and the components required to design the circuit are the collected. The AND gate, OR gate, inverter, and comparator are the set up on the breadboard according to the schematic diagram. Secondly, AA batteries are connected with the circuit to supply voltage of 6 volts. The LED and resistor are connected in series along with a switch. The pin 3 of the comparator IC is connected with a power source and grounded with pin 12. The right leg of the photo-resistor is grounded, and the other leg is connected with the pin 4 of a comparator which is connected with the resistor of 22kΩ. Connections of Photo-resistor The center leg of the photo-resistor is connected to pin 8 which is one of the input pins of the comparator. Also, a resistor of 22kΩ is connected to this pin along with its connection with source. Similarly, the other leg is connected to the ground. The pins 5, 7, and 9 of the comparator are connected to a resistor of 33kΩ which is connected to the source and fast switching diode. 9 Connections of Inverter The pin 14 of the inverter IC is connected with the comparator and pin 7 is connected with ground. The pin 2 of the comparator is connected with the pin 1 of the inverter. This pin is the input pin of the inverter. The output pin 2 of the inverter is connected with the input pin 2 of the AND gate. The pin 14 of the comparator is connected with the input pin 3 of the inverter. A connection is made between the output pin 4 of the inverter with the input pin 2 of the OR gate. AND gate configuration The input pin 3 of the AND gate is connected to the input pin 4 of the OR gate. The input pin 1 of the AND gate is connected to the pin 1 of the comparator. OR gate configuration The input pin 1 of the OR gate is connected with the pin 2 of the comparator. The input pin 5 of the OR gate is connected with the pin 14 of the comparator. For the right wheel, a resistor of 3.3kΩ is connected with output pin 3 of the OR gate which is connected with the input gate of MOSFET. For the left wheel, a resistor of 3.3kΩ is connected with the output pin 6 of the OR gate which is connected with the second MOSFET. The drains of MOSFETs are connected with the respective motors, and both motors are connected with a power source. Both MOSFETs are connected with power source and ground through a resistor of 220kΩ. 10 FIGURE 10: LIGHT SEEKING CAR DESIGN Results There are four possible combinations according to the truth tables of right and left wheels. Initially, no light is applied to the left, right and center sensor which constituted the first condition. The application of light to the left wheel is the second condition. In this condition, the light switched the right sensor which turned on the left motor of the car and triggered the movement of the left wheel. Similarly, the application of the light to the left sensor is the third condition. Under this condition, the right motor is turned on and triggered the movement of the right wheel of the car. Finally, the application of light to the center sensor turned on both the left and right motors and triggered the movement of both wheels. Eventually, under this condition, the car started to move forward. 11 Discussion The comparator has been used for the comparison of different voltage levels which are input from the sensors. The respective motor cannot be turned on without the comparator. It facilitates the automatic switching to turn on the motors according to the signal from the sensors. The circuit cannot be implemented properly without this comparator as there would be no other mechanism to compare different voltage levels from different sensors. MOSFET is used for switching purposes. It provides efficient switching according to the input signal. The switching speed of fast switching diode is high as it has quite high resistance in the open state. Alternative Configuration and Truth Table for Left Wheel Inputs Output SL SC SR WL 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 FIGURE 11: ALTERNATIVE TRUTH TABLE FOR LEFT WHEEL 12 FIGURE 12: ALTERNATIVE CONFIGURATION FOR LIGHT SEEKING CAR Alternative Configuration and Truth Table for Right Wheel Inputs Output SL SC SR WR 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 TABLE 5: ALTERNATIVE TRUTH TABLE FOR RIGHT WHEEL Conclusion The light source could be used for turning off and on any device using the knowledge of digital logic designs. The photo-resistors, comparator, logic gates and inverters are some key components which have been used for the designing of such circuits. The truth tables and K-Maps provides a ground for the designing a circuit with some basic principles of digital logic designs. 13 ...
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Tutor Answer

Super_Teach12
School: UT Austin

I have also attached the plagiarism result :)

Experiment No. 2: Light Seeking Car
Name
Affiliation
Date

2

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this lab is to design a car that uses photo-resistors to seek light. This car will
require three photo-resistors to steer the car left, right, or center (moving straight a forward
direction). To accomplish this task, we must design logic that will be used to determine which
direction the car moves in based off which photo resistors are activated at the time.

THEORY
IRF234 N- MOSFET
A MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a transistor used to amplify
or switch electric signals in a circuit. In this circuit, it will be used to amplify the current
provided by the circuit since the motors in the gearbox require a larger current flow to operate.

FAST SWITCHING DIODE
A fast switching Diode has a high resistance on the cathode that acts as an open switch. Once the
anode voltage changes, the resistance on the cathode side drops and essentially closes the circuit.

3

PHOTO-RESISTOR
Photo-Resistors are variable resistors that are controlled by light. This light will excite electrons
in the valence band, who will then move to the conduction band where they will be able to
provide a current. In this circuit, this current will flow to the comparator.

LM339 COMPARATOR
A comparator is a device used in circuits to compare two input voltages or currents together to
switch to the one of greater current. The comparator takes in two analog inputs and gives a
digital output. This output is key to understanding the logic for the circuit.

4

GATES

HD74LS08 - AND GATE (Dual Input)

HD74LS04 – INVERTER

HD74LS08 - OR GATE (Dual Input)

5

EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
1. Switch
2. Double Gearbox
3. AA Battery x 4
4. 4 Small Screws w/Nuts
5. 14-pin dip Socket
6. Breadboard
7. Truck Tire Set
8. Battery Housing
9. 9 Volt battery connectors
10. Caster Wheels x 2
11. Jumper wires
12. Wood
13. HD74LS04P Inverter
14. HD74LS08P 2-input NAND gates
15. HD74LS32P 2-Input OR gates
16. LM339 Quad Comparator
17. IRF234 N- MOSFET x 2
18. 1N914 Fast Switching
19. 2.2k resistor
20. 3.3k resistors x 6
21. 22k resistors x 3
22. 220k resistors x 2

6
23. Photo-resistors x 3
SCHEMATIC

7
PROCEDURE:
1. Build the circuit on a breadboard using the schematic in figure
2. There are four different types of motors that you can build with the kit given to you. It is
best ...

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Anonymous
Excellent job

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