Thank you for the opportunity to help you with your question!PTSD develops after exposure to a criterion A1 event, defined as involving actual or threatened death, serious injury or threat to one’s physical integrity. To meet Criterion A1, individual must have been directly involved in traumatic event, witnessed event or learned about death or injury of family member or close friend. Individual must have responded to traumatic event with intense fear, helplessness or horror (Criterion 2) though future conceptualizations of PTSD may omit this criterion. Symptoms of PTSD can be divided into three symptom clusters, B. C and D. Symptom cluster B involves persistent and unwanted recollections of traumatic event, intrusive memories of event and dissociative flashbacks. Individual re-experiences the event despite being removed from traumatic situation. These symptoms can be frightening and disruptive of activities of daily living. Cluster C involves persistent avoidance of people, places and activities that serve as reminders of traumatic event, emotional numbing, difficulty experiencing full range of emotions and diminished expectations of one’s ability to lead a long, fulfilling life. Symptom cluster D involves symptoms of hyper-arousal including difficulty with sleep, irritability and anger, poor concentration, hyper-vigilance and exaggerated startle response. Symptoms of PTSD must be present for more than one month and cause distress or impairment in social and occupational functional in order to differentiate disorder from transient and acute stress reactions. Typical course of PTSD begins with development in symptom occurrence can occur. Individuals whose symptoms persist for more than 3 months are diagnosed with chronic PTSD, which is associated with a host of poor health outcomes, including heart disease, obesity, alcohol abuse and lowered perceptions of general health.
Research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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