Finish the rest of a sensory lab report

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As I said on the question title, finished the rest of a sensory lab report from a nutrition class. I already finished the method and result part. What you have to do is finish the discussion, introduction and abstract. And I also upload a lab report that the previous student wrote. All instruction are included in the nutrition sensory lab report doc. Contact me immediately when you have question.

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Gao 1 Abstract ◼ Purpose of study ◼ Where it took place ◼ Tests conducted/methods ◼ Results stated briefly ◼ Concluding statement ◼ <250 words, single spaced, on separate page ◼ Written in past tense Always write last! 1 Gao 2 Introduction ◼ References should be introduced ◼ 1st paragraph– Background on sensory ❑ Use 1 or 2 references ❑ Use lab book or textbook ❑ Research difference tests/experiments for sensory evaluation for background ◼ Paraphrase studies and cite sources ❑ Include methods, results, and conclusion ◼ Look at studies on: ❑ Difference tests ◼ Required: 3-4 pages ❑ Paraphrase ❑ Primarily research ❑ Clarity & Length ❑ No subtitles BE OBJECTIVE 2 Gao 3 Methods Each test was conducted one at a time with a few minutes in between to avoid taste fatigue. Each student was also giving water to cleanse their palate in between tastings. Panelists All Panelists are from the Section 3 of NUTR 205 class. Most of them do not have previous sensory tasting experience. All Panelists finished a demographic questionnaire before the experiment to provide information regarding themselves. The range of the student is from nineteen to over forty. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the panelist were age nineteen, 26% age twenty, 9% age twenty-one, 4% age twenty-two, 13% age twenty-three, 4% age twenty-four, 4% age twenty-seven, 4% age thirty to thirty-nine, and 9% age forty and above. For Gender, 9% of the participants were Male, 91% were female. Of these panelists, 91%were single, 4% were married, and 4% were divorced. All participants were undergraduate food & nutrition, major student. Nine percent (9%) of the panelists reported themselves live alone, 22% of them live with one roommate, 70% reported they share the room with two roommates or more. Ninety-six percent (96%) were non-smoker while 4% was a smoker. Food allergies were reported by 22% of panelists related to nuts, mangoes, sesame, gluten, dairy, fish, and meat. Four percent (4%) of the participants were classified as Vegetarian. Environment All 5 experiment was finished in the same room located on the second floor of the west commons building at San Diego State University. The experimenters were sat in parallel arranged seats facing the front of the classroom. The temperature in the room has remained at 3 Gao 4 69 Fahrenheit degree during the experiments. There is considerable space between each row to preserve some privacy during the process and let the person who assigns the samples to pass without obstacles. The panelists were previously asked by the professor not to make any obvious facial impression to disturb others. Different test Paired Comparison Test The paired comparison test asked the panelists to select the samples that have a different intensity regarding a specific characteristic. In this experiment, sourness was used as the characteristic. The professor asked the panelist in the very front of each row to pass the samples to the rest of the row. The samples were presented in a 1-ounce white paper sample cup with two randomly assigned code. The Panelists need to wait until all participants got their sample before they can start tasting. Each participant was asked to recognize and record which sample is “lesser” or “greater” intensity. After the professor and the teaching assistances collected the date, the professor informs the panelist that the sample 635T1 is apple juice with no citric acid while the sample 573T2 is apple juice with 1% citric acid. Triangle Test The Triangle test is a different test that included three samples with similar appearance and randomly assigned code. The panelists were asked to identify the one sample that is different from the two identical samples. The characteristic of this experiment for the panelist to determine is sourness. The professor asked the panelist in the very front of each row to pass the samples to the rest of the row. The samples were presented in a 1-ounce white paper sample cup with randomly assigned code. The Panelists need to wait until all participants get their 4 Gao 5 sample before they can start tasting. The panelists were asked to record the three sample as “same” or “different.” After the professor and the teaching assistances collected the date, the professor informed the panelist that the sample 777C1 and sample 542E2 is apple juice without citric acid, while the sample 112H9 is apple juice with 1% citric acid. Ranking Test The ranking test contained more than two similar samples with a different variety of a specific characteristic, and the panelists were asked to rank the samples regarding the intensity of the particular characteristics. In this experiment, the lab technician prepared five samples with a different concentration of citric acid. The panelists from the begin of each row were asked to pour a skank amount of each sample into a 1-ounce white paper sample cup and distribute the sample to the rest of the row. The Panelists needed to wait until all participants got their sample before they can start tasting. Panelists have to rank the samples from #1- Most sour to #5- Least sour regarding the intensity and the preference. After the professor and the teaching assistant collected the date, the panelists have been informed by the professor of the concentration of citric acid in each sample, 555D7 have 10% citric acid, 695F8 have 2.5%, 192L3 have 5%, 543K8 have 1%, and 495P2 without citric acid. Duo-Trio In the Duo- Trio test, the first sample presented as the standard sample, the panelists were asked to determine which sample is different between the two samples that presented later from the standard sample. Panelists were not informed by the professor what was the difference, but the instructor given the panelists three choices of the differences: vanilla content, dryness, and crunchiness. After tasted all three samples, participants were asked to record the result they concluded. At the end of this experiment, the professor informed that the Standard sample 8175 5 Gao 6 and sample 1108 is the Nabisco Nilla Wafers, sample 6104 is Signature Kitchen/Albertsons Vanilla Wafers. Scoring Test In the scoring test, three samples were distributed by the first individual in each row. The reference sample has been set as the scale of four, the panelists were asked to rank the rest of the samples on a scale of one to seven relative to the reference sample. After the professor and the teaching assistant collected the date, the panelists have been informed by the professor of the concentration of citric acid in each sample, Sample 0110, the reference sample, contained 2.5% of citric acid, sample 420M contained 1% citric acid, and sample S723 contained 5% citric acid solution. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statists were used for statistical analysis. All samples will get a random code. The Procedure for data collects well organizes. After each experiment, the professor asks for the result of the individual characteristics by show hand. The responses were counted and recorded by the teaching assistant on an excel chart in a computer in the front of the classroom. 6 Gao 7 Results Paired Comparison A total of twenty-three participants participated in this test. This test determined which sample possesses a higher intensity of sourness. All panelists judge the sample with 1% of citric acid solution (sample 573T2) to be sourer than the sample with 0% of citric acid solution (sample 635T1). Triangle In the triangle test, a total of twenty-three participants participated in this test. This test is a test to determine one sample of the three samples that were different from the remaining two samples. All panelists judge the sample with 1% of citric acid solution (sample 112H9) to be the different sample rather than the two samples with 0% of citric acid solution (sample 777C1 &sample 542E2). Ranking Total of 23 participants participated in the Sourness part of the ranking test. However, only 22 panelists participate in the preference part due to an error. The result of sourness and preferences of the sample with the different amount of citric acid are showed in Figure 1 and Figure 2 which demonstrates a direct relationship between the ranked level of sourness and the concentration of citric acid. As shown in Figure 1, ninety-six percent (96%) of the participants 7 Gao 8 choose the sample with 10% of citric acid solution (sample 555D7) as the most acid sample (rank 1). Sample with 5% of citric acid (sample 192L3) was mostly ranked as rank two by 83% of the participants, and 87% of participants consider sample with 2.5% citric acid (sample 695F8) as rank three. For rank four, 65% of the participants choose the sample with 1% citric acid (543K8). The sample with 0% citric acid (sample 495P2) was ranked as the least sour sample by most of the participants (91%). PERCENTAGE OF PANELISTS Figure 1:Ranking Level Of Sourness of samples By Nutrition 205 Students in section 3 96 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 RANK 1 13 91 87 83 65 0 RANK 2 0 0 13 0 RANK 3 9 9 13 4 0 RANK 4 0 9 0 RANK 5 LEVEL OF SOURNESS FROM 1 (MOST) TO 5 (LEAST) Sample with 2.5% citric acide 0% citric acid 5% citric acid 1%citric acid 10% citric acid Figure 2 demonstrated that the higher the concentration, the lower the preference is. The majority (59%) of the participants rank the sample with 0% citric acid (sample 495P2) as their most preferred sample (rank 1). Half of the participants (50%) consider the sample with 1% citric acid (sample 543K8) as rank 2. The sample with 2.5% citric acid (sample 695F8) was ranked as rank 3 by 55% of the participants. For rank 4, a majority of 82% of the participants choose the sample with 5% citric acid (sample 192L3). Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants rank the sample with 10% citric acid (sample 555D7) as the least preferred sample. 8 Gao 9 PERCENTAGE OF PANELISTS Figure 2: Ranking Level Of Preference of samples By Nutrition 205 Students in section 3 100 80 59 20 55 50 60 40 91 82 23 5 18 18 14 0 9 14 9 5 23 0 0 5 14 0 0 5 5 0 0 RANK 1 RANK 2 RANK 3 RANK 4 RANK 5 LEVEL OF PREFERENCE FROM 1 (MOST) TO 5 (LEAST) Sample with 2.5% citric acide 0% citric acid 5% citric acid 1%citric acid 10% citric acid Duo-Trio Only 17 panelists participated in this test. Sample 6104 and sample 8175 (standard) are the Nabisco Nilla Wafers; sample 6104 is Signature Kitchens/Albertsons Vanilla Wafers. Figure 3: Distribution of penalist choose of differnt sample in duo-trio test by nutrition 205 Students in section 3 6% 94% 6104(Signature Kitchens/Albertsons Vanilla Wafers) 1108(Nabisco Nilla Wafers) According to Figure 3, ninety-four percent (94%) of participants were able to successfully identify which sample was the same as the standard sample as well as 6% of the participants 9 Gao 10 believe that the Signature Kitchens/Albertson Vanilla Wafers (sample 6104) is the same with the standard sample. Figure 4: The differnece between standard sample and odd sample in duo-trio Test choosed by nutrition 205 students in section 3 18% 35% 47% Dryness Crunchiness Less Vanilla Figure 4 illustrates the distribution of the reason why the participants think the sample is different from the standard sample. Forty-seven percent (47%) of the participants consider crunchiness as the main difference between the off sample and the standard sample. Thirty-five percent (35%) of the participants think the different sample has less vanilla than the standard sample. Dryness was picked by 18% of the participants as the reason for the differences. Scoring/rating 10 Gao 11 Level of sourness from 1 (Most) to 7 (Least) Figure 5: Score distribution based on the sourness in scoring test determined by nutr 205 students in section 3 7 6 5 3 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Percentage of Panelists S723 420M 11 Gao 12 Discussion ◼ Use same references in introduction ◼ Relate results to literature in the introduction ◼ Give explanations for why you got the results ◼ Explain limitation/errors ◼ Recommendations to improve the study for future research ◼ General Guidelines: 3-5 pages ◼ Use intro references ◼ Relate results to them ◼ Propose an explanation ◼ Explain: ◼ Limitations ◼ How to improve Recommendations 12 Gao 13 Reference Brown A. 2011. Understanding Food Principles and Preparation. 4th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 625 p. 13 Gao 14 Appendices 14 Gao 15 Due: LABORATORY REPORT EVALUATION FORM Nutrition 205 Student Name: MECHANICS (20 POINTS TOTAL) • Use of correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation • Technical writing style is appropriate • Appropriate word choice • Text citations are correctly formatted in JFS format • References are cited correctly in JFS format • Good professional appearance and overall quality • All appendices are included Value 20 Earned Comments CONTENT (100 POINTS TOTAL) Abstract • Clear purpose statement • Brief explanation of methods • Primary focus is on results • Conclusion is made about study • Appropriate length (<250 words) • Single-spaced, on a separate page, written in 3rd person Introduction • Includes background information on sensory testing • Explains different types of sensory tests • Primarily consists of research—paraphrases relevant literature on sensory testing and briefly states methods and results of each source and provides a conclusion • Includes research on difference tests • Statement of purpose included in the last paragraph • Contains no subheadings and is objective • Appropriate length Methods • Includes subheadings for panelists, environment, as well as each sensory test in a logical order • All panelist demographic information is reported in percentages • Detailed explanations of environment, materials used, and scales • Accurately explains statistical analysis Value 10 Earned Comments 20 20 15 Gao 16 CONTENT, CONTINUED (100 POINTS TOTAL) Results • Includes subheadings for each sensory test in logical order • All results are accurately reported in text and displayed in either figures or tables • All figures/tables have descriptive titles and are numerically labeled • Figures have axis titles • Sample codes are explained both in text and on figures • Scales are explained both in text and on figures • Figures and tables are appropriate and data is clearly displayed Discussion • Detailed explanations on why results were observed • Primary focus is on comparing/contrasting results with the literature referenced in introduction • No new studies are introduced • Explanations of limitations/errors • Recommendations provided for future research • Conclusion provided • Contains no subheadings • Appropriate length Value 25 Earned Comments 25 MECHANICS TOTAL (20 POINTS) CONTENT TOTAL (100 POINTS) SUBTOTAL OF FINAL EARNED POINTS MINUS ANY LATE PENALTY POINTS FINAL TOTAL POINTS EARNED (120 POINTS) 16 Zwimpfer 1 Sensory Evaluation Lab Report Taylor Zwimpfer Nutrition 205, Section 3 28 October 2013 Zwimpfer 2 Abstract The purpose of this study was to utilize and evaluate the importance of sensory analysis tests for determining food acceptability, preference, and characteristics. In a food laboratory at San Diego State University, a total of 89 untrained panelists between the ages of 19 and 35 years (79 females, 10 males) were subjects in seven different sensory evaluation tests including: descriptive analysis, beverage association, paired comparison, triangle testing, duo trio, scoring/rating testing, and a ranking test. Tests were conducted to illustrate the importance of the five senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing) in determining food acceptability and preference. Data and results were compiled and analyzed within this study to explain the different methods of sensory analysis and their relevance to food producers and consumers. Sensory evaluations have been proven useful in many food and beverage studies and aid in predicting the successfulness of products within the market. This study demonstrates the significance of chemical compositions of a food in relation to consumer liking, wanting, and behavioral attitude/perceptions toward it. Results of the scoring/rating test, paired comparison test, triangle test and ranking test demonstrated that panelist were able to differentiate sour intensity between apple juice samples containing different amounts of citric acid concentration. The beverage association test results explained and inverse relationship between perceived beverage artificiality and naturalness as color changes from light yellow to emerald green. The analysis of goldfish, raisins, marshmallows, and almonds using descriptive terms yielded results depicting flavor and aroma as being two of the most agreed upon categories to label within the panel. Some of the tests obtained results that correlated well together, while others proved to be limiting. Certain errors could have come into play for each of the tests which are explained within the study. Introduction Appearance, flavor, texture, aroma, consistency and mouthfeel are just a few of the factors influencing food selection and preference. In order to get a better understanding of why consumers select the foods that they do, sensory analysis is employed. Sensory analysis is an experimental approach to measuring consumer feedback of foods through the senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. This type of evaluation is known as subjective because it relies largely upon the opinions of selected individuals, not on measurable, quantifiable data. Sensory Analysis can further be broken down into analytical (effective) tests and affective tests. For the purpose of this study analytical tests were used through a panel of untrained students in a food science class at San Diego State University. These analytical tests were used to detect differences among various samples of beverages and foods. Certain analytical tests differentiate between samples, these tests fall under the category of difference tests. Among these tests include triangle, duo-trio, paired comparisons, ranking, and scoring/rating. Others are descriptive tests that quantify differences and are “used to detail the specific flavors (garlic, vanilla, caramel, boiled milk) or textures (smoothness, springiness, moistness) of a food or beverage” (Brown 2011). Zwimpfer 3 The Beverage Color and Association Test was the first to be conducted and was utilized to look into the influence of color on our perception of the flavor of food and drink. Five different beverages were placed on the front table of the laboratory and given color identities (light yellow, dark yellow, chartreuse, dark chartreuse, and emerald). Panelists were not told what was inside of the samples but were asked to rate them on a one to five scale in the categories of sweetness, sourness, artificiality, naturalness, prefer, and dislike. Panelists were also asked to record at what temperature they would drink the beverage sample (hot, warm, tepid, or cold) and if they would drink it (yes or no). According to a study by Shankar et al. “color conveys critical information about the flavor of food and drink by providing clues as to edibility, flavor identity, and flavor intensity”. Color seems to constitute a key role in our perception of both food identity and flavor. In addition, color maintains symbolic and associative information as a result of lifetime experience. The study by Shankar et al. assessed the spontaneous color-flavor associations held by particular groups of individuals in order to examine how associations of color vary in different cultures. It was hypothesized that human flavor perception may not only be influenced by multisensory integration b ...
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Tutor Answer

DrPrinsen
School: Purdue University

Attached.

The primary purpose of this study was to help the food processing industry determine food
characteristics, acceptability and preferences through the utilization, analysis and evaluation of the
sensory elements. The location of the experiment was in a room in the second floor of the west
commons building at San Diego State University. The study included 23 panelists from the Section
3 of NUTR 205 class with a consideration of various demographics such as age and gender. The
age of the panelists ranged from 19 to above 40 years. Consequently, 91% of the panelists were
female while 9% were male. The panelists were subjected to five different tests including the
scoring/rating test, duo trio test, ranking test, triangle test, and paired comparison test. The aim of
the tests was to determine the relationship between food acceptability and preference and the five
human senses which consist of smell, sight, hearing, touch, and taste. The data and findings of the
study were then compiled to determine the significance of the sensory analysis techniques to food
consumers and producers. Most of the data revolved around using sensory analysis and evaluations
to determine the chemical compositions of a given beverage. This was aimed to explain consumer
perception, behavior, and attitude towards the beverage. Based on the findings, the ranking,
triangle, and the paired comparison tests demonstrated the panelists’ ability to differentiate the
intensity of citric acid in the provided beverages. The other two tests correlated well in explaining
the use of other senses to determine consumer preferences. From the results, the study found that
the panelists preferred beverages with less citric acid or sourness. Hence, one can conclude that
sweet beverages are preferred to sour beverages.


Running head: SENSORY ANALYSIS TEST

Sensory Analysis Test
Student’s name:
Institution:
Date:

2
SENSORY ANALYSIS TEST

Introduction
The five senses of human beings play a significant role in determining the aroma,
mouthfeel, texture, flavor, and appearance which in turn influences their preferences and selection
of food. The food processing industry realized this and came up with the sensory analysis approach
to help them know why consumers prefer or how they perceive certain foods (Kildegaard et al,
2011). Thus, sensory evaluation or analysis is a scientific discipline that uses the five sense (sound,
taste, touch, smell, and sight) to analyze the perceived reactions to stimuli. However, this
experiment is considered subjective due to its nature of relying on people’s opinions rather than
on quantifiable or measurable data.
There are two categories of sensory analysis tests; affective tests and analytical or effective
tests. This study heavily relied on the analytical tests where students from a food science class
acted as panelists for the experiment. The purpose of using them for the analytical tests was to
assist in detecting the differences in levels of citric acid or sourness in various beverages to help
in explaining consumer preferences. Sensory analysis deploys difference tests which are tests that
help in detecting differences in various samples of foods and beverages. The tests include a
scoring/rating test, ranking test, paired comparisons test, duo-trio test, and triangle test.
The affective type of difference test stands single-handedly and has various features. Its
primary objective is to determine the acceptance, opinion, and preferences on fatty or oily food
products. It usually includes questioning between 50 to 100 people how much they dislike or like
a sample or which one of two or more products they prefer (Varela et al, 2011). The test is often
conducted on randomly selected and untrained participants. However, this difference test is of little
application on investigating or researching flavor preference on the said products. Instead, it is
more significant to market development studies.

3
SENSORY ANALYSIS TEST

The analytical sensory test, on the other hand, has two other components that have unique
features which play trivial roles in experimenting with food and beverage preferences. The
analytical difference test rates the intensity or quality of flavor or odor characteristics as a
technique of evaluating differences between products. It is the most preferred type of difference
test by food producers because it applies the sensory elements, which have for a long time
determined consumer preferences, into its experiments.
The descriptive approach of the sensory evaluation technique deploys descriptive analysis,
attribute scaling, and intensity or quality rating scales. Consequently, the procedure requires fully
trained and more experienced panelists for its experiments. Lastly, the testers usually must have
the correct vocabulary to describe their perceptions and tastes, and this is often facilitated with the
training and experience factor (O'Mahony, 2017). In other words, this type of analytical testing
calls for the description of the flavors and odors resulting from the experiment. The discriminative
approach also measures a tester’s ability to detect flavors or odors. It focuses on sensitivity tests
based on dilution or threshold to train and select panelists for the experiments.
There are many features of the discriminative approach to sensory analysis. They include
the measuring of the similarities and differences between two or more samples of food or
beverages. Consequently, the primary objective of the discriminative sensory analysis test is based
on one premise which is to detect sample variations with reference to one attribute such as flavor
or odor. Also, the test only requires the panelists’ ability to determine the flavor element only.
Hence, their ability to determine differences in other sensory characteristics such as
temperature, texture, or color become invalid. Thus, the method mainly uses the triangle test
approach where the tester’s only responsibility is to determine two out of three identical samples
and one different one. The experiment can often use both experienced and inexperienced panelists.

4
SENSORY ANALYSIS TEST

However, it mainly uses discrimination as its method of determining preferences hence is
s...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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