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attached is the discussion instructions and the chapter text reading (Chapters 1, 2, and 3). please respond substantively to the discussion questions using the chapter reading to support claims.

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Planning for Implementation: Read "Case Study: Vignette Revisited," and the section titled, “New Information for the Case: Part 1,” from Chapter 3, Summary and Resources. • • • • Describe the concerns you would discuss with the SVP of HR. You realize the project is going to impact a lot of departments and people. Identify the different customers who would be logical members of the implementation team and explain why. Think through an HR process; describe the data you would want to collect. Describe the pros and cons of investing in computer hardware and housing the network internally or using a cloud based architecture. Why? Support your claims with examples from required material and properly cite any references. Print 1 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... Systems Considerations in the Design of a Human Resource Information System Planning for Implementation Michael D. Bedell and Michael L. Canniff EDITORS’ NOTE This chapter covers the information necessary to understand the system development process for HRIS in more depth in order to improve the design of the HRIS. As mentioned in Chapter 1 (ch0001.xlink.html) , the system development process involves multiple stages from initial design to implementation and evaluation. Failure to follow these steps or rushing through them will result in a poorly designed system that will ultimately fail when it is implemented. Thus, this chapter begins to identify some of the information that is critical for the eventual implementation and evaluation of an HRIS. The authors start with a focus on the users of the system to help the system development and design process in its beginning steps. The types of information about the users or customers of the HRIS, the sorting of HRIS data into categories of human capital, and the main concepts of hardware and database security are covered. CHAPTER Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to • Understand the different types of users or customers of the implemented HRIS and their different data needs 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 2 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... • Discuss the differences between the ive general hardware architectures that are presented, from “dinosaur” to “cloud computing” to “bring your own device” • Discuss, very generally, the main concepts of hardware and database security • Discuss the “best of breed” approach to HRIS acquisition and the various options available for each functional area of HR • Develop an understanding of the general steps and factors that affect system implementation • Understand the pros and cons of implementing a changeover from one software system to another HRIS IN ACTION A billion-dollar retailer with 4,000+ stores inds that it cannot move fast enough to beat out the competition. The organization’s senior management arrives at the conclusion that it would be easier to achieve the strategic goals enumerated by the board of directors if the various organizational functions would share information. Shared information would enable them to develop and deploy new actions and tactics more quickly. The CEO and president have therefore ordered the major functions to update their information systems immediately so that data sharing is possible. The senior vice presidents (SVPs) of accounting and human resources immediately conclude that the only solution is to decide jointly on an enterprise resource planning (ERP) product. An ERP software application is a set of integrated database applications or modules that carry out the most common business functions, including human resources, general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, order management, inventory control, and customer relationship management (see www.erpsupersite.com (http://www.erpsupersite.com) ). To speed the installation along, the SVPs decide on a rapid-implementation methodology that a company down the street used. The goal is to have the new systems operational in nine months. Shortly after this decision has been made, the SVP of HR calls you into his of ice and tells you that you will be management sponsor for this project. You have to decide on everything. You sit back in your nice of ice and think: What’s the problem with this scenario? It shouldn’t be dif icult to select a vendor and then borrow the methodology from down the street. It worked for them; it should work for us! We’ll call a few vendors in the morning and ind out about cost, time frame, and implementation methods. In the meantime, I should ind out a little more about how to do this and who will be using the ERP. I remember from my information systems class in college that this is a reasonable irst step when it comes to buying software. What do you think your response would be to this inquiry? As you go through this chapter’s material, keep this vignette in mind, and see if your answer changes. 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 3 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... Introduction Successful implementation is the central goal of every HRIS project, and it begins with a comprehensive design for the system. As the steps in the system development process are covered in this chapter, the foundation knowledge that is critical to the implementation process will be emphasized. Only by understanding the users/customers of the HRIS, the technical possibilities, the software solution parameters, and the systems implementation process can we increase the probability that the completed software installation will adequately meet the needs of the human resource management (HRM) (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections/nav_140#glo114) function and the organization. The chapter will begin by identifying the potential users and the kind of information that the HRIS will be managing and storing to facilitate decision making. The chapter will next discuss the technical infrastructure, how the technical infrastructure has evolved, and the many choices that the organization must make. After the technology is discussed, the systems implementation process will be presented. Those who have participated in a system implementation will tell you that success is the result of careful planning, a dedicated team, top-management support, and an awareness of potential pitfalls. These same people will also tell you that the implementation process provides a host of opportunities to reengineer and systematically improve nonsoftware processes to re lect best practices in HRM. These opportunities should not be ignored, as they can bene it the organization as much as implementing the software will. Finally, the implementation team (http://content.thuzelearning.com /books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections/nav_140#glo119) members will tell you that getting the system up and running was the most intense six months, year, or two years of their work life but that they learned a lot and every moment of the experience was worth the time. There are four things that should be remembered throughout the chapter: 1. It is important to keep in mind the customer of the data, the process, and the decisions that will be made. 2. Everything about HRM is a system of processes designed to support the achievement of strategic organizational goals. The HRIS, in turn, supports and helps manage these HR processes. 3. An HRIS implementation done poorly will result in an HRIS that fails to meet the needs of the HR function. 4. Successful implementation requires careful attention to every step in the system design process. However, done well, the implementation process is full of opportunities to improve the organization and processes. More consistent processes will contribute to enhanced organizational performance. 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 4 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... 3.1 HRIS Customers/Users: Data Importance Individuals who will be using the HRIS can be split into two general groups: employees and nonemployees. The employee category includes • managers who rely on the HRIS and the data analyzed by the analyst or power user to make decisions; • analysts or power users who use the HRIS to evaluate potential decision choices and opportunities; • technical staff who are responsible for providing a system that is usable and up to date for each user, or clerical employees who largely engage in data entry; and • employees who use the HRIS on a self-service basis to obtain personal information, for example, to look up paycheck information, to make choices about bene its during open enrollment, or to see how much vacation time they have available. The nonemployee group includes potential employees, suppliers, and partners. Potential employees are those who might log in via a Web portal to search for and apply for a position. Suppliers and partners are organizations that interface with the HR function for a variety of purposes, from recruiting to bene its administration and payroll. Employees Managers The managers referred to within this section may have a variety of titles: manager, director, vice president, and even CEO. What they all have in common is that their primary HRIS need is to have realtime access to accurate data that facilitate decision making with regard to their people (Miller, 1998). The HRIS provides the manager with data for performance management, recruiting and retention, team management, project management, and employee development (Fein, 2001). The HRIS must also provide the information necessary to help the functional manager make decisions that will contribute to the achievement of the unit’s strategic goals and objectives (Hendrickson, 2003). Easy access to accurate employee data enables the manager for each employee to view and engage in employee life cycle changes such as salary decisions, job requisitions, hiring, disciplinary action, promotions, and training program enrollment (Walker, 2001; Zampetti & Adamson, 2001). Many HRIS products provide real-time reporting and screen-based historical information that can provide managers with information about their employees or their functional units. There are also several third-party software products available that provide managers with almost continuous data about the status of their unit and the organization—much as a dashboard on a car provides immediate information. The analysis of more complex situations is beyond the capabilities of many of these reporting and query tools. To facilitate decision making on complex issues, the manager, before making a decision, usually relies on the analyst or power user to complete some type of analysis. Analysts (Power Users) The analysts or power users is perhaps the most demanding user of the HRIS. The primary role of the analyst is to acquire as much relevant data as possible, examine it, and provide reasonable alternatives 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 5 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... with appropriate supporting information to facilitate the decision process of the manager. The analyst is referred to as a power user because this person accesses more areas of the HRIS than almost any other user. Analysts must be pro icient with reporting and query tools. Analysts must also understand the process used to collect the data, how new data are veri ied, and how the HRIS and the employee life cycle interact. They also need to understand the data de initions in terms of what data exist, the structure of the data, and what data ields are up to date and complete. Some HRISs also provide tools that the analyst can use to model scenarios or perform “what-if” analyses on questions of interest. As an example, a recruiting analyst might be asked to provide a short list of potential internal candidates for a position that opened in the marketing function of a large retailer. The potential candidates’ characteristics of interest are queried and may include (1) when they were last promoted, (2) whether they have engaged in continuous personal-skills development, (3) what their undergraduate degrees were, and (4) whether they have ever expressed any interest in marketing. The analyst would query appropriate tables and develop a list of internal candidates. Another example might have the HR analyst completing an analysis of corporate headquarters turnover to determine if a particular function or salary issue is the cause of the problem. This information would be drawn from existing reports, ad hoc queries, and available salary information. Data could be compiled into categories by salary, function, gender, or organizational level and examined to determine if the cause of the turnover can be pinpointed and then countered. Technicians (HRIS Experts) Technicians (HRIS experts) straddle the boundary of two functions. Their role is to ensure that appropriate HR staff members have all the access, information, and tools necessary to do their jobs. HRIS experts do this by understanding what is needed from an HR-process standpoint and then translating that into technical language, so the technical employees—programmers, database administrators, and application administrators—know exactly what to do. When the technical staff is planning to install the latest update and one of the results will be a change in functionality, the HRIS expert must take what the technical staff provides and translate that into language HR users understand, so as to indicate how processes and activities might change. For example, if an HR professional required that a new report be generated every other Tuesday, the HRIS expert would learn what data the report requires—perhaps mock the report up with the user—and then explain to the technical people how to make sure that this report is automatically generated on the time schedule. Clerical Employees Much like power users, clerical employees also spend a signi icant portion of their day interacting with the HRIS. The difference is one of depth. The clerical employee must understand the process required to enter information into the HRIS and may also need to start the process or generate periodic reports. While clerical staff members in the HR employment department do not generally provide input about whether to hire an individual to a particular position, they bear considerable responsibility for seeing that the new employee gets paid properly. Hiring a new employee requires that someone, for example, a clerical employee, enter the appropriate information into the HRIS—such as the reporting relationship of the new employee as well as his or her bene its, salary, and direct deposit information. Organizational Employees Organizational employees are essentially all the other employees throughout the organization who 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 6 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... interact with the HRIS. These employees serve in roles such as bank teller, nurse, machinist, salesperson, and accountant. These employees are not involved in human resources and are not likely to make decisions with HR data, but they may utilize the HRIS to help manage their personal information. Typically, all the employees in the organization may interface with the HRIS through a selfservice Web portal or secure employee kiosk, removing the necessity of an HR clerk or staff member assisting with many routine HR record modi ications (Walker, 2001). Self-service capabilities encourage employees to manage their personal HR pro iles with respect to a variety of functions, such as bene it and retirement plan monitoring or computerized training, in addition to using HRIS-based systems to complete numerous personnel forms (Adamson & Zampetti, 2001; Zampetti & Adamson, 2001). Typical self-service applications are accessible most of the day throughout the week. Employees log on to the system, where their identity is authenticated and veri ied. Then appropriate change options are offered to the employee based on certain parameters that control the areas where the employee is allowed to make valid alterations to the HRIS—such as personnel data updates, job postings, or desired training enrollments (Adamson & Zampetti, 2001; Zampetti & Adamson, 2001). One fairly large inancial-services organization noted that self-service options signi icantly enabled them to reduce the annual bene its open-enrollment process by reducing the paper documents generated, reducing necessary mailings, and reducing the data that had to be read and entered into the HRIS. Data entry time alone was reduced from six to two weeks (Bedell, 2003b). Nonemployees Job Seekers It is estimated that 70% to 90% of large organizations use online recruitment, and that number continues to increase (Stone, Lukaszewski, & Isenhour, 2005). Online recruiting tends to attract individuals who are well educated, Internet savvy, and searching for higher-level positions (McManus & Ferguson, 2003). Online recruitment also attracts people born since 1980, who have grown up with computers and are therefore comfortable with obtaining information on the Internet (Zusman & Landis, 2002). A successful recruitment website needs to be user-friendly and easy to navigate, while attracting candidates to apply to an organization by clearly communicating the bene its of joining it. Typical job seekers have little or no prior information about how to interface with the HRIS and have had nearly zero training opportunities with it. Therefore, the recruiting portal needs to provide ease of use and ease of access to up-to-date job information. The Web form that is used to collect applicant data must also be reliably entered into the appropriate ields within the company’s HRIS database. This online recruiting activity will facilitate searches for new employees to ill existing and future positions. Sourcing Partner Organizations The partner organizations to HR functions require certain information to complete their tasks. Sourcing partner organizations (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections /nav_140#glo237) such as Monster.com (http://Monster.com) , Adecco, and most executive recruiting irms require information about vacant positions, including a position description, job speci ications, desired candidate competencies, potential salary range, and contact information. The information provided is limited to speci ic searches for open jobs and is updated as needed. Business partners that are the recipients of decisions to outsource portions of the HR function (e.g., bene it management irms) or that facilitate process completion on behalf of the employee (e.g., banks) require information that is related to current employees. This requirement increases the need for 3/8/2019, 3:48 PM Print 7 of 23 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_24,... accurate data, training, and specialized security assurances, as employee information is leaving the organization. Important Data As is evident in the previous sections, each customer or user of the HRIS has slightly different needs with regard to what information he or she will be using. Some users simply input data and information, a few simply look at data and information provided in the form of reports, while a few others analyze the data and information to make decisions. What these users all have in common is that all the information is about potential and current employees with a focus on managing the organization’s human capital to improve decision making and help to achieve strategic organizational goals. Speci ic data from the HRIS database it into three categories: 1. Information about people, such as biographical information and competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities, and other factors) 2. Informa ...
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John_Best
School: Duke University

Attached.

The main concerns for this case would be security, privacy and time. For a step to seek
information from customers and departments in the organization, data integrity will play a significant role
in the overall goals of the strategy (Kavanagh, Thite & Johnson, 2015, chapter 3, pg. 17). Therefore,
choosing the right time frame to implement the improved data management system is crucial to the way
that the strategy is designed. A right time frame should, therefore, allow for essential...

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