Difference Of HRIS System From E-HRM Management Discussion Help

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attached is the discussion instructions and the chapter text reading (Chapters 1, 2, and 3). please respond substantively to the discussion questions using the chapter reading to support claims.

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 Hirs Systems:

In At Least 250 Words, Define Hris And Explain How It Differs From E-hrm. Describe A Relational Database And Its Importance To Hris. Support Your Claims With Examples From Required Material And Properly Cite Any References

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HIRS Systems: In at least 250 words, define HRIS and explain how it differs from e-HRM. Describe a relational database and its importance to HRIS. Support your claims with examples from required material and properly cite any references. Reference for book: Kavanagh, M. J., Thite, M., & Johnson, R. D. (Eds.). (2015). Human resource information systems: Basics, applications, and future directions (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Print 1 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... Evolution of Human Resource Management and Human Resource Information Systems The Role of Information Technology Michael J. Kavanagh and Richard D. Johnson EDITORS’ NOTE The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the ields of human resource (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections management (HRM) /nav_140#glo114) and information technology (IT), and the combination of these two ields into human resource information systems (HRIS). The history of the ield of HRM and the impact of computer technology on HRM will be covered, as well as the advent of using a human resource information system and the subsequent effects on both HR and IT professionals. The different types of HR activities will be discussed as well as the different types of information systems used in HRIS. A central focus of this chapter is the use of data from the HRIS in support of managerial decision making. The development of the ield of HRIS has had a signi icant impact on the emergence of strategic human resource management (strategic HRM (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1 /sections/nav_140#glo242) ), as is discussed in this chapter. This irst chapter will lay the groundwork for the remainder of this book, and, consequently, it is important to understand thoroughly the concepts and ideas presented. This chapter contains de initions for a number of terms in common use in the HRM, IT, and HRIS ields. (Note that a glossary de ining these terms is also provided at the back of this book.) The central themes of this book in terms of the development, implementation, and use of an HRIS will also be discussed. The chapter also presents a model of organizational functioning that provides an overview of an HRIS embedded within an organizational and global business environment, with a speci ic emphasis on its relationship to HR management and the strategic planning of an organization. A brief overview of the major sections of the book will be presented here as well; one discussing how 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 2 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... each chapter is an integral part of the entire ield of HRIS. Finally, you should note that the “Key Terms” used in this chapter are in bold and contained in a section after the chapter “Summary.” The pattern of sections for this chapter will be consistent for all chapters of this book. CHAPTER Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to • Describe the historical evolution of HRM, including the changing role of the human resources (HR) professional • Discuss the impact of the development of computer technology on the evolution of HRM and HRIS • Describe the three types of HR activities • Explain the purpose and nature of an HRIS as well as the differences between the types of information systems functionality in an HRIS • Discuss how the information from an HRIS can assist in decision making in organizations • Discuss how the developments in HRIS have led to HRM becoming a strategic partner in organizations and to the emergence of the ield of strategic human resource management (strategic HRM) • Be able to de ine Six Sigma, balanced scorecard, and the contingency perspective and it model of HRM • Describe the differences between e-HRM and HRIS • Understand how HRM and HRIS it within a comprehensive model of organizational functioning in global business environments HRIS IN ACTION Situation Description To illustrate the importance and use of HRIS in contemporary HR departments, this vignette examines the typical memoranda that may appear in the in-box of HR professionals and managers. Assume you are the HR director of a medium-size organization that primarily maintains and uses manual HR records and systems. This morning, your in-box contains the following memos that require action today. Memo 1: A note from the legal department indicates that some female staff members have iled an employment discrimination complaint with the local government agency responsible for the enforcement of equal opportunity employment. The female staff members allege that, for the past 10 years, they have been passed over for promotion because they are women. In order to respond to this allegation, the legal department requires historical data on the promotions of both males and females for the past 10 years for all jobs in the company broken down by department. It also 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 3 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... needs the training records for all managers involved in personnel actions, such as promotions, to ascertain whether or not they have received training in equal employment provisions, especially in terms of unfair gender discrimination. Memo 2: The second item is a complaint from employees working in a remote location of the company, about 150 miles away. The employees are complaining that their pay slips are not reaching them on time and that they are inding it dif icult to get timely and accurate information on the most recent leave and bene its policies of the company. Memo 3: A letter from the marketing manager states that he has not received any updated information on the status of his request, made three months ago, to recruit a new salesperson. The failure to recruit and hire a new salesperson has had a negative effect on the overall sales of the company’s products over the past quarter. Memo 4: A letter from the HR professional in charge of the southwest regional of ice says that she is swamped with HR administrative work, particularly personnel transactions on employees. As a result, she has not been able to meet employees in her region to describe and begin to implement the recent Employee Engagement Initiative as required by corporate headquarters. Memo 5: A note from one of the production managers indicates that he has received a resignation letter from a highly regarded production engineer. She is resigning because she has not received the training on new technology that she was promised when hired. She notes that most of the other production engineers have attended this training program and have had very positive reactions to it. Memo 6: A strongly worded note from the director of inance asks the HR department to justify the increasing costs associated with its operation. The note indicates that the HR director needs to develop a business plan for the overall operation of the HR department to include business plans for all of the HR programs, such as recruiting and training. Further, the inance director indicates that unless the business cases can demonstrate a positive cost-bene it ratio, the budget for the HR department will be reduced, which will lead to reductions in the HR department professional staff. As the HR director, your irst thought may be to resign since searching for the information required by these memos in the manual records on employees will require several days if not weeks to complete. However, you have just returned from a professional conference sponsored by the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and remember how an HRIS may be what you need! As this chapter and the ones that follow will illustrate, an HRIS enables an HR department to streamline its activities and the demands placed on it by automating the HR data and processes necessary for the management of the human capital of the organization. This automation helps develop the capabilities to produce information and reports on the requests contained in the memos in the vignette, and these reports will facilitate ef icient and effective managerial decision making. While an HRIS cannot make the judgment calls in terms of whom to recruit or promote, it can certainly facilitate better inputting, integration, and use of employee data, which will reduce the administrative burden of keeping detailed records and should aid and enhance decisions about strategic directions. Need for an HRIS in Decision Situations If you read the above memos again, you will recognize that each one has a request for HRM information that will be used in a decision situation. The information requested in Memo 1 will 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 4 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... help the legal department determine the company’s potential liability in a workplace gender discrimination situation. This information may help to determine whether the company should decide to rectify the situation in terms of an informal settlement with the female staff members or to defend the company’s promotion procedures as valid—in court if necessary. The information required in Memo 2 may help the HR department decide to change its payroll procedures as well as its distribution of bene its information to remote company locations. The information needed to respond to Memo 3 will impact decisions by the HR department to change recruitment and selection programs. Obviously, the response to Memo 4 would greatly support the need for the acquisition of an HRIS. The information required to answer Memo 5 may help in decisions regarding the revision of recruiting and training procedures, especially for new engineers. The information that would be provided in response to Memo 6 will help decide the future of the HR department. As you go through this book, look at information on the capabilities of various human resource information systems, trying to ind an HRIS that would allow you (as the HR director) to respond to each of the six memos in one day. 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 5 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... Introduction Leading management thinkers suggest that “it is not technology, but the art of human- and humanemanagement” that is the continuing challenge for executives in the 21st century (Drucker, Dyson, Handy, Saffo, & Senge, 1997). Similarly, Smith and Kelly (1997) believe that “future economic and strategic advantage will rest with the organizations that can most effectively attract, develop and retain a diverse group of the best and the brightest human talent in the market place” (p. 200). To maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace, irms need to balance the resources available to the irm to achieve the desired results of pro itability and survival. The resources that are available to the irm fall into three general categories: physical, organizational, and human. In discussing how to gain a competitive advantage in the global market, Porter (1990) notes that management of the human resources in the global economy is the most critical of the three. The idea of treating human resources as a means of gaining a competitive advantage in both the domestic and the global marketplace has been echoed by other authors as well. As Greer (1995) states, In a growing number of organizations human resources are now viewed as a source of competitive advantage. There is greater recognition that distinctive competencies are obtained through highly developed employee skills, distinctive organizational cultures, management processes, and systems. This is in contrast to the traditional emphasis on transferable resources such as equipment. … Increasingly, it is being recognized that competitive advantage can be obtained with a high quality work force that enables organizations to compete on the basis of market responsiveness, product and service quality, differentiated products, and technological innovation. (p. 105) The effective management of human resources in a irm to gain a competitive advantage requires timely and accurate information on current employees and potential employees in the labor market. With the evolution of computer technology, meeting this information requirement has been greatly enhanced through the creation of HRIS. A basic assumption behind this book is that the effective management of employee information for decision makers will be the critical process that helps a irm maximize the use of its human resources and maintain competitiveness in its market. The irst purpose of this book is to provide information on the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HRIS. The second purpose is to demonstrate how an HRIS can be used to support HRM functions, such as in selecting and training employees, to make them more ef icient and effective. The inal purpose is to emphasize how an HRIS can provide timely and accurate employee information to assist decision makers at both the strategic and operational levels in an organization. As a consequence, the quality of employee information will have a strong effect on the overall effectiveness of the organization. 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 6 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... 1.1 Historical Evolution of HRM and HRIS One can analyze the historical trends of the HR function from different viewpoints: the evolution of HRM (human resource management) as a professional and scienti ic discipline, as an aid to management, as a political and economic con lict between management and employees, and as a growing movement of employee involvement in luenced by developments in industrial, organizational, and social psychology. The historical analysis that follows will demonstrate the growing importance of employees from being just one of the replaceable parts in organizations in the 20th century industrial economy to being a key source of sustainable competitive advantage in the 21st century knowledge economy. Since this is a book on HRIS, we will examine the development of the ields of both human resources and information technology in terms of their evolution since the early 20th century. This means examining the evolution of HRM intertwined with developments in IT and describing how IT has played an increasing role in the HRM function. This historical analysis will show how the role of HRM in the irm has changed over time from primarily being concerned with routine transactional and traditional HR activities to dealing with complex transformational ones. Transactional activities are the routine bookkeeping tasks—for example, changing an employee’s home address or health care provider. Traditional HR activities are focused on HR programs like selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. However, transformational HR activities (http://content.thuzelearning.com /books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections/nav_140#glo257) are those actions of an organization that “add value” to the consumption of the irm’s product or service. An example of a transformational HR activity would be a training program for retail clerks to improve customer service behavior, which has been identi ied as a strategic goal for the organization. Thus, transformational activities increase the strategic importance and visibility of the HR function in the irm. This general change over time is illustrated in Figure 1.1 (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections /nav_9# ig1.1) and will become evident as we trace the historical evolution of HRM in terms of ive broad phases of the historical development of industry in the United States. For more information on this historical development, you should consult Kavanagh, Gueutal, and Tannenbaum (1990) or Walker (1982). Pre–World War II In the early 20th century and prior to World War II, the personnel function (the precursor of human resources management) was primarily involved in clerical record keeping of employee information; in other words, it ful illed a “caretaker” function (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books /Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections/nav_140#glo30) . During this period, the prevailing management philosophy was called scienti ic management. The central thrust of scienti ic management was to maximize employee productivity. It was thought that there was one best way to do any work, and this best way was determined through time and motion studies that investigated the most ef icient use of human capabilities in the production process. Then, the work could be divided into pieces, and the number of tasks to be completed by a worker during an average workday could be computed. These indings formed the basis of piece-rate pay systems, which were seen as the most ef icient way to motivate employees at that time. Figure 1.1 Historical Evolution of HRM and HRIS 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 7 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... At this point in history, there were very few government in luences in employment relations; consequently, employment terms, practices, and conditions were left to the owners of the irm. As a result, abuses such as child labor and unsafe working conditions were common. Some employers set up labor welfare and administration departments to look after the interests of workers by maintaining records on health and safety as well as recording hours worked and payroll. It is interesting to note that record keeping is one of the major functions built into the design of an HRIS today; however, there simply was no computer technology to automate the records at this time in history. Of course, paper records were kept, and we can still see paper record HR systems in many smaller irms today. Post–World War II (1945–1960) The mobilization and utilization of labor during the war had a great impact on the development of the personnel function. Managers realized that employee productivity and motivation had a signi icant impact on the pro itability of the irm. The human relations movement after the war emphasized that employees were motivated not just by money but also by social and psychological factors, such as receiving recognition for work accomplished or for the achievement of work norms. Due to the need for the classi ication of large numbers of individuals in military service during the war, systematic efforts began to classify workers around occupational categories in order to improve recruitment and selection procedures. The central aspect of these classi ication systems was the job description (http://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Kavanagh.5623.17.1/sections/nav_140#glo134) , which listed the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of any individual who held the job in question. These job description classi ication systems could also be used to design appropriate compensation programs, evaluate individual employee performance, and provide a basis for termination. Because of the abusive worker practices prior to the war, employees started forming trade unions, which played an important role in bargaining for better employment terms and conditions. There were signi icant numbers of employment laws enacted in the United States that allowed the establishment of labor unions and de ined their scope in relationship with management. Thus, personnel 3/8/2019, 3:45 PM Print 8 of 30 https://content.ashford.edu/print/Kavanagh.5623.17.1?sections=nav_7,n... departments had to assume considerably more record keeping and reporting to governmental agencies. Because of these trends, the personnel department had to establish specialist divisions, such as recruitment, labor relations, training and bene its, and government relations. With its changing and expanding role, the typical personnel department started keeping increasi ...
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School: University of Virginia


A Human resource information system is a software that stores, processes and controls employee
data. This system is affiliated to data that relates to employee names, national Id, visas, work permits,
social security numbers and information about dependants. Its functions include recruiting, performance
appraisals, benefits administration and application tracking (Kananagh & Johns...

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