Each organization is made up of people who exercise lesser or greater degrees of power. Other leaders tend to exercise power through interpersonal relationships or through their personality’s force. Still others get influence through the capability to grant access to useful resources.
Legitimate power; is as a result of having a position of leadership in an organization. The power comes about when the workers in a firm recognize the authority of the person. A CEO of company, for instance has a legitimate power. Rewarding and punishing workers is a legitimate part of the official leadership role. Most leaders in a firm practice a certain degree of punishment and reward. Legitimate power can easily be overcome when someone loses their position.
Reward power; involves rewarding people for compliance with their wishes. The rewards may be given through promotions, bonuses as well as extra off times. A supervisor who gives the workers comp time when they achieve a goal that is set for a project practices reward power. This type of power argues on the idea that people are made to believe that they can only do something well when they get rewarded. The limitation of this type of power is that if the reward is not considered valuable or satisfying, the power becomes weak. In most cases, rewards need to be bigger that the last time if they are to be effective. Still rewards can lose their effectiveness when they are regularly given.
Coercive power; this involves an individual achieving compliance from other people through threat of punishment. Here, an individual is forced to do something against their will. A military dictator, for instance has coercive power. This form of power normally leads to problems. The power is abused in many cases resulting to unhealthy behavior dissatisfaction at workplaces. Managers who use this power use a lot of threats in their leadership. These threats in many cases lead to demotions or dismissal. There are four different forms of power (Raven, 2017).
Referent power; Involves an individual being strongly admired and liked because of their charming influence. This type of power is always seen as a role model and in most cases it is treated with adoration, respect and charm. The person must be highly liked and people identify with them in some specific ways. The responsibility here is too much and it is very easy for people to lose themselves. This form of power is very common in celebrities.
Expert power; involves an individual who has knowledge and skills to outperform others. The person’s judgment is not only relied on but also respected. Such leaders are highly intelligent and believe in their power to accomplish various organizational responsibilities and goals.
Probably, expert power is one of the most important types of power. Expert power is achieved through extensive knowledge on a given subject. Expert power is not necessarily relegated to a higher rank individual. A coworker can have more knowledge on a given subject and would have the expert power on this regard. Expert power is a significant asset to have and according to researchers, it is more important that all the other forms of power. Expert power gives managers a robust power base which they can confidently manage.
Police officers are in a position of power. They influence other people in different ways;
Expert power is essential for police officers since they need to have knowledge concerning the law. They should become experts at recognizing a liar and a honest person.
Still, they need legitimate power when it comes to enforcing the law. While they do not have the power to assign tasks, they have an official authority to punish to some extent. Despite not having the power to give financial rewards, they may let someone free with a warning (Williams, 2015). It is essential for law enforcement officers to have power and influence people using expert power and legitimate power in their jobs to do all they can to manage lawbreakers.
The Big five personality traits include (Soto & John, 2017);
Neuroticism; this involves the tendency to easily encounter unpleasant emotions like depression, anger and anxiety.
Extroversion; tendency and energy to find stimulation and other people’s company
Agreeableness; the tendency to be cooperative and compassionate and not antagonistic and suspicious towards other people
Conscientiousness; tendency to portray self-discipline, be responsible and aim for success
Openness to experience; involves the tendency to appreciate art, adventure, emotion and uncommon ideas. They are curious and imaginative.
There is a direct link between the Big Five personality traits and power. According to studies and researches, legitimate reward, referent and expert power are relatively to agreeableness while neuroticism is negatively linked to referent power and positively linked to coercive power.
An individual’ referent power is enhanced by characters that develop the individual’s appreciation and promotes individual desirability when relating with other people. This involves agreeable character and satisfying individual characters. Expert and personal powers are personal powers which arise from personal features of the individual and do not depend on the person’s position. Still referent and expert power positively correlate with an individual’s organizational commitment (Soto & John, 2017). Therefore it is viable to reason that the higher the agreeableness character, the higher the expert and referent powers.
This is a management style in which the leaders walk around in an unplanned and unstructured manner among the workers with an objective of interacting with the workers as well as supervise them as they perform their duties. The process of management by walking around involves, the setting goals, analyzing the goals, forming strategies, implementing the strategies and lastly monitoring the strategies (Tucker & Singer, 2015). This style can be carried out in criminal justice systems by using the patrol deployment method. Foot patrols can be used in several neighborhoods.
Participative leadership is very unique in that everyone who participated in coming up with decisions have a say in the nature of the decisions and how it is executed. Hence it is a fair style of leadership. Most people become more dedicated and attached to the task once they participate in its formulation (White, 2018). The leadership style motivates each group to make their voice be heard and to express their views. The final decision is however, only made by the Chief.
The limitation of this approach is that it is not really ‘leadership’ in any given sense as it includes collaboration. The individual leading is like a facilitator who just takes opinions. The person is behaving in such a way that their leadership is not required anymore.
The criminal justice manager permits everyone to perform a positive function in the group. The recognition of the mandate of other community organizations is allowed to be part of the decision making. Each member is given power to support and participate in achieving the voluntary goals. The convicted criminal are however, not allowed to take part in the decision making processes.
Raven, B. H. (2017). The comparative analysis of power and power preference. In Social power and political influence (pp. 172-198). Routledge.
Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). The next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power. Journal of personality and social psychology, 113(1), 117.
Tucker, A. L., & Singer, S. J. (2015). The effectiveness of management?by?walking?around: A randomized field study. Production and Operations Management, 24(2), 253-271.
White, K. A. (2018). Integrated Community Leadership Program Formation to Reduce Adolescent Criminal Activity: A Participative Action Research (Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix).
illiams, K. (2015). Our enemies in blue: Police and power in America. AK Press.