Malware and Ransomware Literature Review

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i need a literature review of 6 papers i will attached later on ransomware and malware

the literature review must be 9 to 10 pages single space not including the reference paper. Also, if possible to highlight the paragraph you quoting from the papers.


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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review
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LITERATURE REVIEW

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Literature review
Malware is one of the fastest rising cybersecurity threats in the world. As explained by
Zakaria. Abdollah, Mohd and Arrifin, malware is a portmanteau of malicious and software,
which is a set of computer programs that are designed with ill intents and to harm other
computers, systems, and data that stored in these systems. This means that any kind of
application program whose purpose that causes harm than benefits to any user qualifies to the
wide class of malware. Malware threats have changed considerably in the recent past. At the
beginning of the technological revolution, little was known about these threats partly due to
the poor penetration of technological devices and also due to the lack of interest from
malicious people. However, this changed considerably from the beginning of the 21st century.
While malicious programs were seldom spread in the early phases of the technological
revolution era due to the limitation of technological devices and lack of connectivity
infrastructure, Shijo and Salim (2015) report that the beginning of the 21st century sharp rise
in these threats. This came as a major setback to technology and other sectors that rely on it.
Shijo and Salim (2015) further argue that, with malware threats currently advancing at a faster
pace than cybersecurity, and with cybersecurity relying heavily on the evolution of malware
threats in order to take appropriate responses, this comes as a major setback to industries that
rely on technology for their operations and success. As such, malware is a field that has taken
the world by storm and one that does not seem to end in the foreseeable future
The technological revolution era came with a revolution in the types of malware, their
sophistication, and the means in which they are spread from one device or system to another.
As reported by Shijo and Salim (2015), some of the most common malware threats include
viruses, trojans, worms, rootkits, spyware, ransomware, and malware. Each of these threats
has its unique way of affecting a computer, a user, data, and data as well as a means of
replication. While all these threats have a major impact on technology and its reliability, Shijo
and Salim (2015) insist that the internet has necessitated their spread from one node to
another. Viruses, for instance, have the potential to attach themselves in other files and
replicate themselves once they find their way in a computer or a system either through
physical means or through the internet (Zakaria et al., 2017). These authors differentiate
viruses from rootkits and Trojans by reporting that rootkits operate stealthily while enabling
the user to gain a system’s root access while a Trojan tricks the user or system into thinking
that it is legitimate software. On the other hand, spy-ware constitutes programs that are used
to gather information and transmit the information to the intruder without the consent of the
user or owner of the data. With these different types of malware, user data continues to be at
great risk.
Ransomware is a type of malware that is relatively new in the industry. In this case,
ransomware is threats that are unique and different from other malware threats in design, the
way that is carried out, and the motives. As defined by Zakaria et al. (2017), ransomware is a
type of malicious programs that enable remote intruders to steal data, gain control of the
system, and lock down the system on the basis that the intruder would erase or distribute data,
or even damage the system should the victim fail to meet the demands of the intruder. These
threats are the most difficult to manage. This comes as a result of the ability of the
ransomware programs to masquerade as legitimate programs, operate stealthily, and lockout
the users and security programs such as antiviruses and antimalware. The reason that this
threat has become a major concern is that it targets some of the most vital industries as this
allows the intruders to easily influence and control the helpless victims. For instance, Scafe et
al. (2017) report that, following the 2017 targeted attacks towards the British National
Healthcare System (NHS), more than 50,000 devices were affected. Since these devices are
vital for the life of citizens, the affected entities had no otherwise but to bow to the demands
of the intruders. Unlike other common malware threats, ransomware attacks target different

LITERATURE REVIEW

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parties including individuals, corporates, and governments. This is perhaps a wake-up call to
individuals, corporates, cybersecurity firms, and governments to work collaboratively in
bolstering the security of their systems, identifying new threats, and developing solutions to
these threats.
Recent trends show a sharp rise in the number of malware programs affecting
computers all other the world. While cybersecurity threats have generally been on the rise, the
rate in which malware threats are increasing is even alarming. According to Scaife, Traynor
and Butler (2017), enhanced connectivity of the internet of things (IoT), connectivity of
systems and devices into a larger system, and interest from a larger number of malicious
people, among others, are to blame for this rise. While Kharraz, Robertson and Kirda (2018)
report that malware programs that affected systems were in their thousands barely two
decades ago, they are quick to add that these threats have risen exponentially in the recent
past. In fact, the trajectory that these threats have taken is alarming and creates a major
concern to the future of cybersecurity. While many companies have stepped up to provide
cybersecurity and means other means of combating these threats, their efforts do not seem to
the completely effective either. For instance, McAfee, which is among the leading
cybersecurity companies in the world, has been reporting a rising prevalence of malware, and
with the company intercepting a total of 319,000 unique threats in just the first half of 2017
(Moussaileb, Bouget, Palisse, Bouder, Cuppens and Lanet, 2018). This should be alarming to
both individual users and corporates. Of these threats, at least 700 types of ransomware were
identified to be active in the same year. Similar to data provided by other research reports, the
number of threats that Moussaileb et al. (2018) could be highly understated. While these
researchers cited MacAfee reports for the year 2017 as their source of information, past
research shows even larger values. For instance, Shijo and Salim cite the data provided by the
same cybersecurity firm for the year 2012 as showing that at least 75 million malware
programs were identified in the year 2012, which was an average of at least 55,000 malware
threats each and every day. With more threats emerging each day and year, this number is
expected to continue rising in the foreseeable future. Surprisingly, the rate at which new
threats are emerging could prove difficult for tech security firms to keep up with. As reported
by Kamali (2016), at least 390,000 malware threats are created each and every day. Thi...


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