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yes, I want you to add three more pages please, within 24 hours (expand on management commitment and motivation, and add explosive challenger as an example to effective communication)

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Running head: SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE Employees Perception about Safety Training and Safety Culture Name Institution 1 SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 2 Employees Perception about Safety Training and Safety Culture Safety in the workplace has always taken the center-stage mainly due to its paramount role in productivity. Other than productivity, the value of human life, especially that of employees who are at risk of injury or even death, beats the profits that the company makes. Safety first, therefore, has been the principle adopted by many industries and regulatory authorities also focus on making it the priority of all companies. The perception of safety by employees is a crucial aspect of driving the practices in an organization since safety measures are best implemented if they integrate it into their culture. This paper looks into factors affecting safety and seeks to answer the question of whether safety training success depends on the effectiveness of communication of safety measures and the importance (or not) of subsequent training when employees have not fully implemented previous training. The institution of a safety culture in an organization requires effective employee training and safety motivation. Safety Culture Safety culture can be defined as an organizational culture that emphasizes the place of safety in the organization. It places a high level of importance in not only safety practices but also values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by the majority of people in the workplace. Generally, a safety culture is the influence of safety on the workplace attitudes, practices, and routines (Khubrani, Bagherzadeh, & Meshkati, 2017). This definition shows that a culture is deeply entrenched in the beliefs and attitudes and thus includes a strong belief in the safety practices and how they affect the people in the organization. Overall, safety culture is based on the cultivation of values that are brought forth by the organizational administration and passed on to employees. A safety culture is essential in promoting behaviors reducing illnesses and injury. The primary role of safety in the organization is to ensure that people in it reduce the risk of work- SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 3 related injury and illnesses by taking a proactive approach to preventing the same. According to Amposah-Tawiah and Mensa (2015), employees first expect the management to implement sound policies before adhering to a culture of safety. This finding shows that the management of an organization has the central role of setting down the required safety steps and measures and showing employees how to adhere to them. The management, therefore, is responsible for setting up the foundation of safety culture and grooming employees to follow and own it in their activities. As part of the management leading the culture, they must implement it at the preoperational stage for it to impact the operational practices. The preoperational stages include all process not involved in the actual interaction with machines and other sources of danger. Implementing safety at the preoperational stages simply means training employees to gain a clear sense of importance of safety and how to uphold it and also protect themselves from hazards. As Kubrani et al. (2017) explain, an organization must start with awareness in the process of building safety culture and build on this awareness by bringing in the relevant knowledge. Therefore, the best way of ensuring awareness is adopting employee training. Training has closely been coupled with safety and has such been shown as one of the biggest boosters of employee safety culture (Pinion et al., 2017). Adequate Training The adequate training of employees is based on the observation of benefits that employees gain from safety training. First, according to Taylor (2015), The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provides minimum mandatory safety training requirements. OSHA mainly guides employers to train their employees to a certain minimum level of safety and further requires them to provide employees with the relevant safety gear to prevent them SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 4 from sustaining injury. Primarily, the organization provides a basis for employee safety which is based on the requirement that the employer does their best to ensure that employees are under safe conditions by training them on specific work. Although there are bare minimum training requirements on safety, not all states welcome the mandatory training and this provides employers with the flexibility of how much employee training they implement in their workplace. Mandatory training has proved to be effective for organizations safety culture and as such have increased the benefits that the employees and organizations gain from it. States implementing mandatory training have lower fatality rates than others (Taylor, 2015). This is an indicator that employee mandatory training plays a role in improving overall safety which is indicated by the reduction of fatal workplace accidents. Although mandatory training cannot be taken to be adequate training, it plays a huge role in ensuring a significant level of training is achieved and the safety culture maintained in the workplace. From these results, therefore, there is a need to understand adequate training and how it affects employees’ perceptions of safety as well as the communication of safety measures. The adequacy of training in safety is mainly based on the effectiveness of the training method. According to Laberge, MacEachen, & Calvet (2014), younger workers were more prone to injury in the workplace mainly due to the training approaches used. The researchers found that training for safety in the actual working space was ineffective because it did not create optimum working and learning conditions. Instead, younger workers were likely to sidestep safety measures due to work demands. This information sheds some light into the training environment as one of the main aspects of effective training in the workplace. The training environment has to be designed for optimum learning rather than the teaching activity itself. The importance of this SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 5 training environment is to take into consideration the learning approaches of the employees and hence including the same for employee learning. Additionally, other than implementing training in methods and environment that employees can optimize their understanding, there is also the issue of content of training and what employees gain from it. According to Oah, Na, and Moon (2018), the areas of safety that the management should focus on for safety training involve but are not limited to safety climate, leadership, risk, risk avoidance, and response to accidents in the organization. Adequacy in training revolves around the thorough tackling of these elements of safety and safety culture. Generally, however, according to OSHA, adequate training should focus on the principles of adult education, program design, delivery, and evaluation options available for the organization. The design and delivery of an adequate training program enhances the employee perceptions of safety by improving their awareness of the topic and highlighting the importance of the aspect in their work. In general, adequate training improves the employee perceptions of safety by: (i) Increasing the knowledge and awareness that employees have on matters safety and how it is implemented in the workplace (ii) Providing employees with the image of management commitment to worker safety hence more appreciation for the safety culture (Taylor, 2015) (iii)Identification of the gaps and drifts in employee safety culture and addressing it to ensure a culture change Adequate training in the workplace has been portrayed as the first step towards establishing a safety culture (Taylor, 2015). Therefore, training comes in as the first and essential stage in affecting the perceptions of employees and also effectiveness of the culture of safety. SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 6 The effectiveness of this training is further seen through a closer study of the communication process and how it assists in developing the employees’ culture of safety and knowledge in the topic as well. Effective Communication Training for safety is primarily based on effective communication and that has been shown by various researchers, including OSHA. Safety measures communication to the employees is a major part of employee training that capitalizes on effective training models to enhance performance in the workplace. As an important aspect of the workplace, safety communication can be defined as the process of passing information and ensuring that the audience appreciates the themes being discussed. Workplace communication, therefore, is one part of the safety culture enhancement in organizations. Safety communication in an organization can take several forms which have been shown as ideal for effectiveness in any workplace. First, trainers may communicate the information they wish to pass down verbally and allow trainees to appreciate the relevance of that information and its place in their safety. The main advantage of simple and direct verbal communication is that it provides a personal and emphasized appeal to the trainee (Kines et al., 2010). However, the method is limited in that it may reduce the effectiveness of transmitting and retaining information. Therefore, although basic verbal communication may be the primary method of passing safety knowledge to the trainees, it is limited in producing results that benefit the workplace towards a culture change. Additionally, more innovative and effective communication strategies are often applied to provide training. During training sessions, mainly, audio-visual presentations should be used due to their ability to combine the advantages of both media to enhance understanding. Basically, SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 7 presentations are provided in charts or computer devices such as PowerPoint. Other visual approaches may include posters or noticeboards. Basically, the approach to communication must consider the unique characteristics of employees in the different organizations and also the organizational level of technology. Effective communication in any organization highly depends on the factors that identify that company as unique and also the effectiveness of the different approaches on different audiences in that organization. For communication to be effective and hence influence the level of safety in the workplace there are several issues that should be considered and one of them is the direction of communication in the culture of safety. One misguided assumption made in theory is that communication will mainly be from the trainers or management to the trainees or employees. While that may be the common case, it is not the only one and as (0 explains, there is an increased need to improve two-way communication with specific focus being on getting feedback from employees. Feedback includes complaints or suggestions, reports on safety, and even error and accident reporting to the management. Effective communication, therefore, depends on the effectiveness of the two-way channel of communication between employees and management or trainers. One of the primary issues connected to communication and safety practices is the correlational relationship that the two have and hence the answer to the research question. According to Lundgren and McMakin (2018), training in safety is enhanced by effective communication between the trainer and the employees. This correlation between communication and safety effectiveness is based on the fact that training mainly relies on communication and a safety culture is a result of effective training and presentation of the basic safety issues that SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 8 matter in that organization or industry. Generally, therefore, providing effective communication between trainees and the management is essential for a culture of safety. Communication barriers, moreover, present a topic of interest when it comes to understanding the role of communication in the workplace safety. Primarily, the most common communication barriers as lack of information or knowledge, failure to be keen on details, failure to explain details clearly, selective listening, prejudice, poor judgment, among others (VecchioSadus, 2007). One of the biggest barriers is the failure to have a consistent communication strategy that addresses the needs of not only the employees but also the management and the organization as a whole. Communication strategies, therefore, are seen as the basic approaches to ensuring that information is effectively disseminated and also absorbed by trainees who require it for the implementation of the culture of safety. Effective communication, therefore, relies on the effectiveness of implementing a strategy that is not only focused on increasing safety but also tailored to satisfy the unique needs of the organizational safety climate. Since it has been established that effective communication enhances safety and there is need for effective communication strategies, a communication plan is paramount in the organization to ensure that communication goes as planned and is indeed effective in ensuring safety is upheld. Effective safety leadership involves an effective communication plan. Communication plans are implemented to direct communication in the workplace and effectively communicate any risks to safety (Lundgren and MacMakin, 2018). In a communication plan, the management starts by addressing the current communications and their effectiveness in producing results from that organization. Additionally, an analysis of the communication needs for the organizational employees is performed to ensure that the definite channels as well as the necessary approaches are utilized in defining the approach to communication. The management SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 9 should then come up with a definite communication plan for ensuring that employees are effectively trained for safety and feedback touching on the level of safety and reporting risks as well as accidents is properly provided to the management. Management Commitment While training and communication may be essential for safety culture, the commitment of the organization’s management is required in all this to ensure that the culture is implemented and maintained in that organization. Fruhen, Griffin, and Andrei (2019) define management commitment as “the extent to which management is perceived to place a high priority on safety and communicate and act on safety issues effectively” (p. 203). Management commitment, therefore, is seen as the dedication of management resources to ensuring safety is upheld in the workplace and hence maintaining the safety culture and climate in that company. Management commitment cannot be measured since it is a qualitative element but must be viewed from different approaches such as the employees’ the owners’, and the regulators’. Employee perception of management commitment has been mentioned as a paramount issue when it comes to using management commitment as the basis for enhancing safety. According to Fruhen et al. (2019), high employee perceptions of management commitment have been reported as indicators of a strong safety climate in an organization. This research provides insight that management commitment must be viewed as evident by employees and these views will enhance the climate of safety among the employees while motivating them to perform according to the set levels. Moreover, it presents the need to focus on perceptions as paramount. Therefore, for the management to appear as committed to the employees, it needs to dedicate efforts towards improving safety measures, training, and implementing an effective safety SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 10 communication plan for the success of the safety culture as a whole and the welfare of employees. Understanding management commitment to safety enhances an understanding of the overall safety climate and employee commitment to the same. One of the basics of management commitment is the involvement of management in following up and monitoring safety practices and measures. Safety monitoring by leaders is positively related to employee compliance (Griffin and Hu, 2013). Safety monitoring and commitment to look into the safety measure that the company has put in place not only increases the perceptions of employees on management commitment but also ensures the management of effectively monitoring employees to enhance compliance. Other than monitoring, employees need guidance in the way that safety should work through effective communication as earlier mentioned and an overview of the efficiency in implementing the same. Other than encouraging employee compliance through monitoring, management commitment also works to boost employee commitment because the management directs employee perceptions. According to Zou and Sunindijo (2013), employee commitment helps in creating a safety climate which is essential in enhancing safety. Management commitment if usually the first step towards enhancing a safety climate in the workplace as earlier mentioned. If management commitment is secured, it means that employees will also be motivated to commit to safety as well. This commitment means that employees will work to create a culture of safety and enhance the same through proper communication of goals and any safety issues to other employees and management. Therefore, there is an increased connection between management commitment and employee commitment and securing both means that a culture of safety is encouraged and indeed practiced in that workplace. SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE 11 Management commitment is further seen as crucial in enhancing safety because the management is the leadership of the organization and provides directives which are achievable if commitment is established. Manuele (2015) explains that to increase safety in the workplace, the organization management should focus on overcoming management deficiencies by focusing on changing how things are done thus presenting the role of the management as culture change agents. The commitment of the organization’s management, therefore, is effective in initiating a culture change and implementing a culture that is not only effective in promoting safety but also insistent on employee appreciation of the same. Other than culture change and organizational direction, there is also a close focus on how the management maintains the culture under control by encouraging employees to act in a certain way. Pinion et al. (2017) discuss the place of job control in ensuring safety and relate the aspect to improved safety in any workplace. Job control refers to employees’ abilities to command their work and hence control the different parameters that enhance effectiveness and productivity. Moreover, management commitment to safety scores has been positively correlated to job control (Pinion et al., 2017). Safety scores and the commitment of the management to the same show how the company could be focused on promoting an environment of safety and empowering employees to focus on the same. This commitment includes the provision of a communication plan that is efficient and effective while also ensuring effective training for employees to understand and retain safety practices. Safety Motivation A major question that arises is why employees may be trained in safety and fail to effectively implement the training. One of the straightforward explanations comes from the effectiveness of the training and the communication process as well. However, a more complex SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFE ...
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Attached.

Employees Perception about Safety Training and Safety culture- Outline
I. Safety culture
A. A safety culture is the influence of safety on the workplace attitudes, practices,
and routines (Khubrani, Bagherzadeh, & Meshkati, 2017).
B. A safety culture must be implemented at the preoperational stage for it to impact
the operational practices
C. A safety culture is essential in promoting behaviors reducing illnesses and injury
D. An organization must start with awareness in the process of building safety
culture (Khubrani et al., 2017)
II. Adequate training
A. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provides minimum
mandatory safety training requirements (Taylor, 2015)
B. States implementing mandatory training have lower fatality rates than others
C. Organizations should focus on making training effective
D. Safety training is the first step towards establishing a safety culture (Taylor, 2015)
III. Effective communication
A. Effective communication is the process of passing information and ensuring that
the audience appreciates the themes being discussed
B. Training in safety is enhanced by effective communication between the trainer
and the employees (Lundgren and McMakin, 2018)
C. Effective safety leadership involves effective communication plan
D. Communication plans are implemented to direct communication in the workplace
and effectively communicate any risks to safety (Lundgren and MacMakin, 2018)

E. 1986 Challenger explosion was due to incomplete data, lack of consideration in
communication, and poor decision-making (Hall, 2003)
IV. Management commitment
A. Safety monitoring by leaders is positively related to employee compliance
(Griffin and Xiaowen, 2013)
B. Employee commitment helps in creating a safety climate which is essential in
enhancing safety (Zou and Sunindijo, 2013)
C. The management is the leadership of the organization and provides directives
which are achievable if commitment is established
D. Management commitment to safety scores has been positively correlated to job
control (Pinion et al., 2017)
E. Other than training, employees must see how fast the management responds to
concerns of safety.
V. Safety motivation
A. Safety management practices positively influence employee attitudes towards
safety (Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010)
B. Safety knowledge and motivation are the key mediators between management
practices and safety behavior (Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010)
C. Leaders have a role to provide motivation based on safety and rewards for
implementing safety practices
D. Effective training is necessary to improve safety practices and culture
E. McFadden, Stock, and Gowen III, 2015) explains continuous improvement as a system
which focuses on a cycle of improvements in an organization based on small but measurable

milestones.

References
Griffin, M. A., & Hu, X. (2013). How leaders differentially motivate safety compliance and
safety participation: The role of monitoring, inspiring, and learning. Safety Science, 60,
196-202.
Khubrani, F., Bagherzadeh, N., & Meshkati, N. (2017). Importance of Safety Culture at PreOperational Phase to Prevent Nuclear Plant Accidents. International Journal of Atomic
and Nuclear Physics, 2(1).
Lundgren, R. E., & McMakin, A. H. (2018). Risk communication: A handbook for
communicating environmental, safety, and health risks. John Wiley & Sons.
Pinion, C., Brewer, S., Douphrate, D., Whitehead, L., DelliFraine, J., Taylor, W. C., & Klyza, J.
(2017). The impact of job control on employee perception of management commitment
to safety. Safety Science, 93, 70-75.
Taylor, E. L. (2015). Safety benefits of mandatory OSHA 10 h training. Safety Science, 77, 6671.
Vinodkumar, M. N., & Bhasi, M. (2010). Safety management practices and safety behaviour:
Assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation. Accident Analysis &
Prevention, 42(6), 2082-2093.
Zou, P. X., & Sunindijo, R. Y. (2013). Skills for managing safety risk, implementing safety task,
and developing positive safety climate in construction project. Automation in
Construction, 34, 92-100.
Laberge, M., MacEachen, E., & Calvet, B. (2014). Why are occupational health and safety training
approaches not effective? Understanding young worker learning processes using an ergonomic
lens. Safety Science, 68, 250-257.


Running head: SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

Employees Perception about Safety Training and Safety Culture
Name
Institution

1

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

2

Employees Perception about Safety Training and Safety Culture
Safety in the workplace has always taken the center-stage mainly due to its paramount
role in productivity. Other than productivity, the value of human life, especially that of
employees who are at risk of injury or even death, beats the profits that the company makes.
Safety first, therefore, has been the principle adopted by many industries and regulatory
authorities also focus on making it the priority of all companies. The perception of safety by
employees is a crucial aspect of driving the practices in an organization since safety measures are
best implemented if they integrate it into their culture. This paper looks into factors affecting
safety and seeks to answer the question of whether safety training success depends on the
effectiveness of communication of safety measures and the importance (or not) of subsequent
training when employees have not fully implemented previous training. The institution of a
safety culture in an organization requires effective employee training and safety motivation.
Safety Culture
Safety culture can be defined as an organizational culture that emphasizes the place of
safety in the organization. It places a high level of importance in not only safety practices but
also values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by the majority of people in the workplace. Generally, a
safety culture is the influence of safety on the workplace attitudes, practices, and routines
(Khubrani, Bagherzadeh, & Meshkati, 2017). This definition shows that a culture is deeply
entrenched in the beliefs and attitudes and thus includes a strong belief in the safety practices and
how they affect the people in the organization. Overall, safety culture is based on the cultivation
of values that are brought forth by the organizational administration and passed on to employees.
A safety culture is essential in promoting behaviors reducing illnesses and injury. The
primary role of safety in the organization is to ensure that people in it reduce the risk of work-

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

3

related injury and illnesses by taking a proactive approach to preventing the same. According to
Amposah-Tawiah and Mensa (2015), employees first expect the management to implement
sound policies before adhering to a culture of safety. This finding shows that the management of
an organization has the central role of setting down the required safety steps and measures and
showing employees how to adhere to them. The management, therefore, is responsible for setting
up the foundation of safety culture and grooming employees to follow and own it in their
activities.
As part of the management leading the culture, they must implement it at the
preoperational stage for it to impact the operational practices. The preoperational stages include
all process not involved in the actual interaction with machines and other sources of danger.
Implementing safety at the preoperational stages simply means training employees to gain a clear
sense of importance of safety and how to uphold it and also protect themselves from hazards. As
Kubrani et al. (2017) explain, an organization must start with awareness in the process of
building safety culture and build on this awareness by bringing in the relevant knowledge.
Therefore, the best way of ensuring awareness is adopting employee training. Training has
closely been coupled with safety and has such been shown as one of the biggest boosters of
employee safety culture (Pinion et al., 2017).
Adequate Training
The adequate training of employees is based on the observation of benefits that
employees gain from safety training. First, according to Taylor (2015), The Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) provides minimum mandatory safety training requirements.
OSHA mainly guides employers to train their employees to a certain minimum level of safety
and further requires them to provide employees with the relevant safety gear to prevent them

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

4

from sustaining injury. Primarily, the organization provides a basis for employee safety which is
based on the requirement that the employer does their best to ensure that employees are under
safe conditions by training them on specific work. Although there are bare minimum training
requirements on safety, not all states welcome the mandatory training and this provides
employers with the flexibility of how much employee training they implement in their
workplace.
Mandatory training has proved to be effective for organizations safety culture and as such
have increased the benefits that the employees and organizations gain from it. States
implementing mandatory training have lower fatality rates than others (Taylor, 2015). This is an
indicator that employee mandatory training plays a role in improving overall safety which is
indicated by the reduction of fatal workplace accidents. Although mandatory training cannot be
taken to be adequate training, it plays a huge role in ensuring a significant level of training is
achieved and the safety culture maintained in the workplace. From these results, therefore, there
is a need to understand adequate training and how it affects employees’ perceptions of safety as
well as the communication of safety measures.
The adequacy of training in safety is mainly based on the effectiveness of the training
method. According to Laberge, MacEachen, & Calvet (2014), younger workers were more prone
to injury in the workplace mainly due to the training approaches used. The researchers found that
training for safety in the actual working space was ineffective because it did not create optimum
working and learning conditions. Instead, younger workers were likely to sidestep safety
measures due to work demands. This information sheds some light into the training environment
as one of the main aspects of effective training in the workplace. The training environment has to
be designed for optimum learning rather than the teaching activity itself. The importance of this

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

5

training environment is to take into consideration the learning approaches of the employees and
hence including the same for employee learning.
Additionally, other than implementing training in methods and environment that
employees can optimize their understanding, there is also the issue of content of training and
what employees gain from it. According to Oah, Na, and Moon (2018), the areas of safety that
the management should focus on for safety training involve but are not limited to safety climate,
leadership, risk, risk avoidance, and response to accidents in the organization. Adequacy in
training revolves around the thorough tackling of these elements of safety and safety culture.
Generally, however, according to OSHA, adequate training should focus on the principles of
adult education, program design, delivery, and evaluation options available for the organization.
The design and delivery of an adequate training program enhances the employee perceptions of
safety by improving their awareness of the topic and highlighting the importance of the aspect in
their work.
In general, adequate training improves the employee perceptions of safety by:
(i) Increasing the knowledge and awareness that employees have on matters safety and how
it is implemented in the workplace
(ii) Providing employees with the image of management commitment to worker safety hence
more appreciation for the safety culture (Taylor, 2015)
(iii)Identification of the gaps and drifts in employee safety culture and addressing it to ensure
a culture change
Adequate training in the workplace has been portrayed as the first step towards
establishing a safety culture (Taylor, 2015). Therefore, training comes in as the first and essential
stage in affecting the perceptions of employees and also effectiveness of the culture of safety.

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

6

The effectiveness of this training is further seen through a closer study of the communication
process and how it assists in developing the employees’ culture of safety and knowledge in the
topic as well.
Effective Communication
Training for safety is primarily based on effective communication and that has been
shown by various researchers, including OSHA. Safety measures communication to the
employees is a major part of employee training that capitalizes on effective training models to
enhance performance in the workplace. As an important aspect of the workplace, safety
communication can be defined as the process of passing information and ensuring that the
audience appreciates the themes being discussed. Workplace communication, therefore, is one
part of the safety culture enhancement in organizations.
Safety communication in an organization can take several forms which have been shown
as ideal for effectiveness in any workplace. First, trainers may communicate the information they
wish to pass down verbally and allow trainees to appreciate the relevance of that information and
its place in their safety. The main advantage of simple and direct verbal communication is that it
provides a personal and emphasized appeal to the trainee (Kines et al., 2010). However, the
method is limited in that it may reduce the effectiveness of transmitting and retaining
information. Therefore, although basic verbal communication may be the primary method of
passing safety knowledge to the trainees, it is limited in producing results that benefit the
workplace towards a culture change.
Additionally, more innovative and effective communication strategies are often applied
to provide training. During training sessions, mainly, audio-visual presentations should be used
due to their ability to combine the advantages of both media to enhance understanding. Basically,

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

7

presentations are provided in charts or computer devices such as PowerPoint. Other visual
approaches may include posters or noticeboards. Basically, the approach to communication must
consider the unique characteristics of employees in the different organizations and also the
organizational level of technology. Effective communication in any organization highly depends
on the factors that identify that company as unique and also the effectiveness of the different
approaches on different audiences in that organization.
For communication to be effective and hence influence the level of safety in the
workplace there are several issues that should be considered and one of them is the direction of
communication in the culture of safety. One misguided assumption made in theory is that
communication will mainly be from the trainers or management to the trainees or employees.
While that may be the common case, it is not the only one and as (0 explains, there is an
increased need to improve two-way communication with specific focus being on getting
feedback from employees. Feedback includes complaints or suggestions, reports on safety, and
even error and accident reporting to the management. Effective communication, therefore,
depends on the effectiveness of the two-way channel of communication between employees and
management or trainers.
One of the primary issues connected to communication and safety practices is the
correlational relationship that the two have and hence the answer to the research question.
According to Lundgren and McMakin (2018), training in safety is enhanced by effective
communication between the trainer and the employees. This correlation between communication
and safety effectiveness is based on the fact that training mainly relies on communication and a
safety culture is a result of effective training and presentation of the basic safety issues that

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

8

matter in that organization or industry. Generally, therefore, providing effective communication
between trainees and the management is essential for a culture of safety.
Communication barriers, moreover, present a topic of interest when it comes to
understanding the role of communication in the workplace safety. Primarily, the most common
communication barriers as lack of information or knowledge, failure to be keen on details, failure
to explain details clearly, selective listening, prejudice, poor judgment, among others (VecchioSadus, 2007).

One of the biggest barriers is the failure to have a consistent communication

strategy that addresses the needs of not only the employees but also the management and the
organization as a whole. Communication strategies, therefore, are seen as the basic approaches to
ensuring that information is effectively disseminated and also absorbed by trainees who require it
for the implementation of the culture of safety. Effective communication, therefore, relies on the
effectiveness of implementing a strategy that is not only focused on increasing safety but also
tailored to satisfy the unique needs of the organizational safety climate.
Since it has been established that effective communication enhances safety and there is
need for effective communication strategies, a communication plan is paramount in the
organization to ensure that communication goes as planned and is indeed effective in ensuring
safety is upheld. Effective safety leadership involves an effective communication plan.
Communication plans are implemented to direct communication in the workplace and effectively
communicate any risks to safety (Lundgren and MacMakin, 2018). In a communication plan, the
management starts by addressing the current communications and their effectiveness in
producing results from that organization. Additionally, an analysis of the communication needs
for the organizational employees is performed to ensure that the definite channels as well as the
necessary approaches are utilized in defining the approach to communication. The management

SAFETY TRAINING AND SAFETY CULTURE

9

should then come up with a definite communication plan for ensuring that employees are
effectively trained for safety and feedback touching on the level of safety and reporting risks as
well as accidents is properly provided to the management.
As earlier mentioned, effective training works hand in hand with effective
communication and the 1986 space shuttle Challenger explosion provides a perfect example.
From the first days of space exploration, the engineering industry well understood that the
success of such missions was based on how well engineers could work together and as for
anyone who has organized a technical team, communication plays a huge role in this. Failure
crept in and the results were fatal. To understand the nature of the failure, it is crucial to
understand the background information on the failure. According to Hall (2003), the program
was under pressure from different directions, mainly the government to launch the shuttle and
decisions were made hastily. The main problem was the failure of an O-ring seal on the rocket
boosters which led to the leakage of superheated gases hence the explosion (Hall, 2003). Other
t...

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