Decide which of
the following concepts are most applicable to each scenario: differential reinforcement of other
behavior, avoidance contingency, punishment by prevention of reinforcer, punishment
by loss of reinforcer, or avoidance
answer in 2–3 sentences each, using citations as needed.
Sally, a 13-year-old
teenager, is tired of having her mom nag her about her bedroom. Her mom nags
about the clothes on the floor, the bed being unmade, and the trashcan spilling
over in her bathroom. Sally comes
home from school in a bad mood and the last thing she wants to hear is her
mom’s nagging voice. To get around the expected response from her mom, she
cleans her room, makes her bed, and empties her trashcan.
Sally makes the 7th-grade
track team by finishing before another girl by less than 0.05 seconds in
her event—the 400 meter relay. Sally is proud of making the team but needs
to work harder in the practices that follow. The first track meet does not
go well. Out of the four girls on the relay team, she has the slowest time,
so her track coach removes her from the team, and makes her sit as an
In the weeks that follow
being pulled from the track team, Sally listens to her coach’s direction
and works hard to qualify for the next meet. Running her fastest time
ever, Sally is excited when she qualifies to run the relay for the third track
meet. Now that she has earned her spot on the team, she continues to work
hard every week to keep her place.
Chad is a 45-year-old man
going back to school while working full time. A self-proclaimed
procrastinator, his job as a computer programmer can handle his laid back
style and ever-changing deadlines. In school, however, he is having difficulty
turning his homework in on time. The teacher has told him that success is
impossible if he does not turn his papers in on time, yet he fails to do
so week after week.
Chad continues to stay in
school and is a B-minus student due to the procrastination aspect of his
work ethic. He has been complaining lately about school and thinking about
withdrawing. His comments about the teacher, the class, the work and his
grades are starting to get annoying so his mom decides to only reinforce
his verbal behavior every 5 minutes he talks to her without making a
negative comment about school.