Finding the Evidence Week Four - Stress and Job Satisfaction

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Format your paper using the table below in which you will identify the participants, primary measurable variables, summarize the findings, and how the information could be useful for your research topic.

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Finding the Evidence  

Week Four Individual Assignment (15 points)

•Evidence that supports a conclusion is part of the research process. Literature reviews usually accompany research papers in the form of a summary and synthesis of published research (secondary sources) about the research topic. Although this week's assignment is not a literature review, it is designed to familiarize you with the practice of finding appropriate sources with information about a topic.

Find two published quantitative nursing focused research studies that apply to your research topic. The two studies must be:
• Scholarly (peer reviewed) that is published in a nursing journal
• Current (published within 5 years)
• Primary research studies, rather than meta-analysis or systematic reviews
• Attached as a PDF (portable document format) that you have saved to upload.

Tutor Answer

Kishnewt2017
School: Cornell University

Attached.

www.sciedu.ca/jnep

Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 12

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Job satisfaction, burnout, and stress among pediatric
nurses in various specialty units at an acute care
hospital
Michi A. Sekol1, Son Chae Kim2
1. Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, United States. 2. St. David’s School of Nursing, Texas State University, Round
Rock, Texas, United States.
Correspondence: Son Chae Kim. Address: St. David's School of Nursing, Texas State University, 1555 University Blvd,
Round Rock, Texas 78665, United States. Email: sck30@txstate.edu
Received: August 8, 2014
DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v4n12p115

Accepted: September 23, 2014
Online Published: October 14, 2014
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v4n12p115

Abstract
Aims: The aims of the study were to: assess job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress
among pediatric nurses at surgical, medical, critical care, and hematology/oncology units in a tertiary acute care hospital;
and identify the predictors of job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a children’s hospital in southern California from February 2013 to
March 2013. A convenience sample of registered nurses working in four different units (N = 240) completed the
Professional Quality of Life, Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction, and demographic questionnaire. One-way Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) and simultaneous multiple regression procedures were performed.
Results: Nurses in the hematology/oncology unit reported the lowest level of burnout and highest levels of job satisfaction
and compassion satisfaction. In contrast, nurses in the surgical unit reported the opposite. Among surgical unit nurses,
those with 5-9 years of RN experience reported highest burnout as well as lowest job satisfaction and compassion
satisfaction. The combination of demographic variables explained a large fraction of the variance in job satisfaction (R2 =
0.251) and positive predictors were white ethnicity (β = 0.33) and hematology/oncology unit (β = 0.16), whereas negative
predictors were surgical unit (β = -0.32) and critical care unit (β = -0.20).
Conclusions: Nurses in the hematology/oncology unit reported lowest burnout and highest job satisfaction, which may be
due to the educational and mentoring support from a unit-based end-of-life care program. A focused strategy targeting a
specific group of nurses in a unit may help to reduce work-related stress and burnout.

Key words
Job satisfaction, Compassion satisfaction, Burnout, Stress, Pediatric nurses

1 Introduction
In spite of the numerous initiatives and programs to improve the quality of healthcare and minimize the preventable
adverse outcomes, only a limited progress has been made [1]. Nursing shortage may have also exacerbated the quality
problem and the shortage is likely to get worse with an estimated deficit of 260,000 nurses in the United States alone by
Published by Sciedu Press

115

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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 12

2025 [2]. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) [3] has promoted the positive practice environment, linked to job
satisfaction and good patient outcomes, as one of the top priorities to stem the global nursing shortage. Threats to the
positive healthy work environment include work-related stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction, which are not uncommon
hazards for nurses and can result in high turnover [4-6]. These can add significant hidden costs to organizations, as one nurse
turnover can cost $12,000 to $ 67,000 [7].
The work-related stress arises from the high patient acuity, insufficient staffing, perceived lack of managerial support, lack
of autonomy, and negative relationships with co-workers [6, 8, 9]. As a consequence, a nurse may experience burnout, which
includes feeling emotionally exhausted, detached from the job, and underachieved. This can lead to job dissatisfaction and
intent to leave the profession [5, 6, 10]. Nurses’ job satisfaction has been used as a strong predictor of retention within an
organization and has been directly linked to turnover rates. Stordeur and associates [11] found that nurses working in
hospitals with a turnover rate less than 3.1% in one year had lower levels of burnout, higher levels of job satisfaction, and
greater commitment to the organization compared to those in organizations with much higher turnover rates. Negative
outcomes related to job dissatisfaction include decreased patient satisfaction and decreased quality of care provided [4, 12].
As a buffer against burnout, compassion satisfaction refers to the feelings of satisfaction and achievement from helping
patients in need that can sustain a nurse through difficult and emotionally painful situations [13, 14]. Nurses reporting high
levels of compassion satisfaction can handle suffering and pain many times over and still can be empathetic [7].
Pediatric hospitals are known to be high-stress workplace environments as the emotional impacts of seeing sick or dying
children are often intensified. As nurses may experience overwhelming emotional stress, helplessness, pain, and sadness
while working with sick or dying children and their families, they also need to develop specialized skills, qualities arising
from compassion and professional commitment, and abilities to handle the stressful situations. Nurses can experience a
greater level of burnout than even trauma workers in a children’s hospital setting [15]. A majority of novice pediatric nurses
experience stressful events during their first three months of employment and about one-fifth have displayed symptoms of
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after the first three months at bedside [16]. The pediatric nurses working in certain
specialty areas, such as the critical care unit or hematology/oncology unit are thought to be more susceptible to burnout.
The pediatric oncology nurses reported to have significantly lower level of personal accomplishment in burnout scale
compared to adult oncology nurses and one- third of nurses in neonatal intensive care unit reported symptoms of
burnout [17-19].
Previous reports have shown that effective personal coping strategies and healthy workplaces can reduce burnout and
improve job satisfaction. After an implementation of nursing support program, the turnover rate among new pediatric
nurses declined [19]. The pediatric critical care nurses who perceived themselves as well-prepared and had the ability to
care for dying patients reported higher compassion satisfaction and lower burnout [20]. Various strategies of improving
self-care, counselling, enhancing group cohesion, and working in magnet hospitals have shown to improve nurses’ job
satisfaction and reduce burnout among pediatric nurses [5, 16, 21-24]. Most of the pediatric nurses reported that they were able
to apply the self-care practices and became better in handling life and work stress after attending a series of educational
programs [5]. Higher organizational support was reported by pediatric nurses in magnet hospitals compared to those in
non-magnet hospitals [21]. Although a randomized control study among pediatric oncology nurses showed no significant
improvement in their perceived stress or burnout after 8 weekly sessions of a mindfulness training program, they reported
less stress, improved compassion, and better self-awareness in qualitative analysis [23].
To minimize burnout from working with sick or dying children and their families, pediatric nurses need to develop coping
skills that can be facilitated by professional and organizational supports. Although studies have reported on the workrelated stress, burnout, and job satisfaction, most of these reports have focused on nurses in hematology/oncology or
critical care units, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding those working in medical or surgical units. Furthermore, little is
known about the extent to which demographic variables such as the unit location or years of work experience impact their
perception of job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress among pediatric nurses.
116

ISSN 1925-4040 E-ISSN 1925-4059

www.sciedu.ca/jnep

Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 12

Study aims
The aims of the study were to: assess job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress among
pediatric nurses at surgical, medical, critical care, and hematology/oncology units in a tertiary acute care hospital; and
identify the predictors of job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress.

2 Methods
2.1 Design and participants
A cross-sectional study was conducted at a children’s hospital in southern California from February 2013 to March 2013.
The hospital is a non-profit, 520-bed pediatric care facility which is also designated as a pediatric trauma center. As a
tertiary acute care pediatric hospital, it provides acute inpatient and outpatient care services, including cancer treatments,
peripheral blood and bone marrow transplants, heart surgeries, orthopedics, emergency, and trauma care. A convenience
sample of registered nurses working in surgical, medical, critical care, and hematology/oncology units was invited to
participate in the study. The inclusion criteria were full-time, part-time, or per diem registered nurses employed at these
four units.

2.2 Instruments
To assess job satisfaction, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and work-related stress, three instruments were used in the
current study: Professional Quality of Life scale, version 5 (ProQOL-V) [24], Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction
(BIAJS) [25], and a demographics questionnaire. The 30-item ProQOL-V is a valid and reliable instrument that measures
the positive and negative quality of life in relation to the professional work as a helper [24]. This instrument consists of three
subscales, including Compassion Satisfaction, Burnout, and Secondary Traumatic Stress on 5-point Likert-type response
ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). The 10-item Compassion Satisfaction subscale refers to a positive aspect of
helping others through one’s work and higher scores indicate a greater satisfaction with one’s professional role. The
10-item Burnout subscale measures the negative feelings regarding lack of personal accompli...

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