Need help writing a Scientific report.


Question Description

I am putting the instructions here and uploading my few surveys that I did. My subject is: Electronic records vs. Paper records. I am uploading a couple examples of a paper someone did and the format it needs to be as. 

Connection to Student Learning Outcomes: This assignment allows you to demonstrate an ability to conduct research following formal academic formats. It also affords you another opportunity to use writing strategies appropriate for identified audiences. In this assignment, you will have to analyze information and ideas, applying them while creating the Scientific Report by incorporating research findings and discussion the meaning of your findings. You will synthesize information using the IMRAD approach. Your sources of information will be primary.

The Scientific Report's Purpose: The Scientific Report is an assignment requiring you to make connections between your research findings and your initial hypothesis. The Scientific Report is a paper following the IMRAD format, a common format used in most sciences to report one's findings on some research question. Read the links to find out more, and once you have chosen a research question that can be answered through primary research, let me know before beginning by sending me your research question and your hypothesis by e-mail. This is an assignment you CANNOT wait until the last minute to begin, as it is a series of efforts that cannot be completed in one or two days. If you have specific questions about this assignment, send me an e-mail.

Your hypothesis can be supported or negated. It doesn't matter. If you find your hypothesis is negated by your research findings, that's fine! You should discuss what led you to believe your hypothesis would be correct and why it was not. If your hypothesis turns out to be supported by your research findings, that's fine, too. Discussion of findings is extremely important in this assignment, so do not neglect it.

You do not have to include an Abstract.

Scientific Report-example.docx student-example.docx SURVEY-Fast food.docx SURVEY-Home health.docx SURVEY-Mental Health.docx SURVEY-Nursing home.docx 

You must write complete sentences in Standard written English. Spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors will cause you to lose points.

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Scientific Report 1 Scientific Report The INTRODUCTION should include: The Topic: You must choose your own topic by thinking of a question you would like answered. The Purpose and Research Question: There must be a purpose driving your experiment. What do you want to find out, and why? What do you want to do with the results? The research question is a single sentence. For instance, you might ask: What percentage of students at the College want more water in the vending machines? You should be able to explain why you want this information and what you plan to do with it once you have it. Maybe you think more water needs to be sold in the vending machines, so you are collecting information about student habits in order to put more water in the vending machines. Maybe there is a drink few students purchase, so you might suggest getting rid of that drink and replacing it with water. Maybe you want to find out if students want a coffee vending machine on campus. You would have to write a research question and figure out a way to poll students who are on campus to find out how many of them would buy coffee if a vending machine with coffee was available. The Hypothesis: You might hypothesize that 80% of students want more water in the vending machines – or 50% of students want a coffee vending machine. Whether your hypothesis is right or wrong is not important in the end; the results of your experiment are important. Sometimes hypotheses are proven wrong, which is fine. Sometimes they are proven right, and that’s fine, too. It is no reflection on your success. The important thing to remember is that the hypothesis is kind of like a scientific thesis statement: it directs your paper. Explain why you think your hypothesis might be right. The METHOD: The method you use to find what you want to know is detailed in the methods section of the Scientific Report. For example, you might create a survey and distribute it among students at the College to find out how many of them drink water from the vending machines. You might put a stack of surveys by the vending machines, along with a pencil, asking students to fill out a survey and put it in a box you place by the surveys. There are several ways to collect the necessary information. Whatever you decide to do has to be written in the methods section. For example: How many surveys are you going to put out? How are you going to manage them? How long are you going to collect data? How do you decide what to ask and how to ask it? How are you going to make sure one student does not fill out 20 surveys in order to skew your results in his or her favor (margin of error)? These are sample questions that can help you explain your methods. Scientific Report 2 For the coffee vending machine experiment, you might create a simple questionnaire or ask students directly by stopping them in the halls, recording their answers anonymously. The more you ask, the better your results will be (i.e. you cannot conduct a survey of two people and get reliable results). However you decide to go about collecting data must be explained in detail in the report. You have to explain your methodology in writing. The RESULTS: The results represent the information you collect. For instance, after you tabulate the information provided by your surveys, you might find only 20% of students at the College want more water in the vending machines. This would disprove your hypothesis, but the data would still be important. If only 20% of students drink water, would that be a high enough percentage to justify adding more water to the vending machines – or not? You’d have to discuss this in the Discussion part of the Scientific Report. For example, if you collect 60 surveys, you must say so in this section. The DISCUSSION: This is where you discuss what you have found and determine whether the data you collected warrants doing whatever it is you wanted to do in the first place. This entails explaining – through writing - something meaningful about your results. Do not write about what the results were – you did that already in the Results section. Many students fail to discuss their results in meaningful ways; instead, they just report the results in different words, hoping that will suffice. It does not. A student in the past actually conducted this experiment. She placed surveys and survey boxes at each of the drink vending machines on campus. After two weeks, she collected over 120 surveys and analyzed the results on several levels. Among other things, she found that a majority of students wanted more water because the water slots were empty much of the time. Her Scientific Report was presented to the Administration of the College. As a result, the least popular drinks were replaced with water in the campus vending machines, and students were happy because more water was available. This made her Scientific Report meaningful in real time and real life. And yes, she earned an A. NOTES:  If you use a survey or questionnaire (the “instrument” through which you collect data), it must be attached as an appendix to the Scientific Report. If you conduct personal interviews, the interview questions must be attached likewise. In essence, anything you use should be attached to the report – at the end, labeled Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.  Once you have a research question and hypothesis, send them to be by e-mail. Do not procrastinate on this assignment. Doing so will compromise your demonstration of meeting student learning outcomes.  Pictures, graphs or charts of results should be added to the Results section as visual aids. Student 1 1 Student 1 Mr. Miller ENG 112, Sec. 06C 6 October 2014 The Acidity of Common Apple Varieties Introduction There are 7,500 different apple varieties grown throughout the world, in which 2,500 of those varieties are grown in the United States (Wolford and Banks). Apples contain a variety of vitamins and nutrients highly beneficial to a person’s health. Apple varieties can differ in taste, color, texture and amount of acidity. Apples are typically high in acidic content. The pH scale is used to determine whether a substance is acidic or alkaline or neutral. The pH scale ranges from one to fourteen. A pH between one and six is considered acidic. The pH of one indicates a strong acid. A pH between eight and fourteen is alkaline or basic. A pH of fourteen indicates a strong base. A pH of seven is considered neutral. Acids typically taste sour. Two benefits of eating apples include consumption of ascorbic acid and malic acid. Apples contain a large amount of ascorbic acid, commonly referred as vitamin C. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that regenerates other vitamins and minerals in the body and fights radicals which can cause cancer (Chandler). Vitamin C allows tissues to grow and repair which assists the body in healing wounds and repairing bones (“Vitamin C”). Malic acid found in apples, promotes healthy muscle function and growth (“Alpha Hydroxy Acids”). Although these fruit acids are beneficial to people, there may be conditions in which consumers may want to limit acid intake. Consuming large amounts of acidic foods can potentially have negative effects on consumers with possible enamel loss and poor dental health (“Food Friends”). The acids found in apples are possible sources for heartburn. Consumption of apples that contain more acidic content could cause these effects to be more severe. The purpose of this experiment is to determine which common apple variety is most acidic. Whether one is looking to increase or decrease acid from their diet, the results produced from this experiment will provide information on acid levels in the different apple varieties tested. Hypothesis I believe the Granny Smith apple variety will be the most acidic variety in the test group, because it is normally very sour tasting and used primarily for cooking. Student 1 2 Method This hypothesis was tested through an experimental process using nine varieties of apples found at a local grocery store in Tyrrell County, North Carolina. The apple varieties tested for pH level were Pink Lady, Fuji, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Gala, Swee Tango, Honeycrisp, Braeburn, and Granny Smith. One of each of the nine varieties of apples were labeled and cut in half to expose the flesh of the apple. The acidity of each variety was tested by using pH test strips. Each apple received a clean pH test strip applied to the juices of the inner flesh. The test strips were applied to each apple until moistened. The pH level was then determined based on the pH strip’s reaction color. This color was compared to the reaction color key enclosed with the pH test strips after thirty seconds of application to each apple, as instructed on the pH test strip package. After the application and observation of the pH test strips of all testing apple varieties, results were recorded in order to determine which common apple variety is highest in acidic content. Each apple was tested under the same testing conditions with regards to room temperature and conditions, as well as test strip application and reading time. Each apple was tasted in order to determine if sour or sweetness was an indicator of acidity in the apple varieties. Results The experiment results indicated that all nine varieties tested on the pH scale between the levels of one through four. The apple variety with the lowest pH level was the Swee Tango variety. Braeburn and Granny Smith test results indicated a pH of two. Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Gala and Honeycrisp varieties each resulted in a pH level of three. The Fuji and Red Delicious varieties resulted in pH levels of four. Apple pH Levels Data Collected Apple pH Pink Lady 3 Fuji 4 Golden Delicious 3 Gala 3 SweeTango 1 Honeycrisp 3 Braeburn 2 Granny Smith 2 Red Delicious 4 Student 1 3 Apple pH Levels Test Results 4 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 Pink Lady Fuji Golden Delicious Gala SweeTango Honeycrisp Braeburn Granny Smith Red Delicious Discussion All of the apples have a pH of four or less and therefore are acidic. The lower the pH value, the more acidic the apple is. The Swee Tango apple is the most acidic of the test group, with a pH of one. The data did not support my hypothesis, but instead proved my hypothesis incorrect. However, the Granny Smith apple tested to be one of the more acidic varieties, with a pH of two. Braeburn shares the same acidic level as the Granny Smith, also with a pH of two. The Honeycrisp, Gala, Pink Lady and Golden Delicious are less acidic, sharing a pH of three. The least acidic apples of this test group were the Fuji and Red Delicious, sharing a pH of four. The Swee Tango variety possesses the most acid. Therefore, The Swee Tango is the best source of vitamin C and malic acid than any other tested apple variety. However, the Swee Tango’s high acidic content could potentially cause more enamel loss and heartburn than the other tested varieties. If an individual desired a diet that contained more vitamin C and malic acid, consuming Swee Tango apples would benefit their goal. In contrast, if a person desired a diet with less acidity, they should avoid eating highly acidic apples such as the Swee Tango. Less acidic apples such as the Fuji and Red Delicious will not provide as much vitamin C and malic acid compared to the other apple varieties tested. By knowing the acidity of common apple varieties, consumers can be aware of which apple varieties are the most beneficial or detrimental to consume based on their individual health conditions and needs. In comparison of acidity and taste, the Fuji apple is a sweet apple with a lower acidic level in regards to the test group. The Red Delicious is not a comparably sweet apple to the Fuji, with the same acidic level as the Fuji. On the other end of the spectrum, the most acidic apple in the test Student 1 4 group, the Swee Tango, has a unique taste of sweet and sour. The sweetest tasting apple of the test group is the Honeycrisp, with a pH of three. Taste is not an indicating factor of acidity of the apples in the test group. Throughout this experiment, some limitations were discovered. For instance, only one apple from each variety was tested for acidity. This was a limitation in which a different apple from the same variety could have a different acidity or pH test result. Testing more apples in each variety would eliminate this limitation. Another limitation that was encountered was the apple peels were not tested for acidic level. The apple peel contains acid, just as the apple flesh does and could alter the overall pH level and acidity of each apple variety tested. Only nine apple varieties out of a possible 7,500 were tested. This creates a limitation of overall apple comparisons by not testing all possible varieties. Works Cited Student 1 5 “Alpha Hydroxy Acids.” WebMD. WebMD, LLC., 2014. Web. 23 September 2014 . Chandler, Brynne. “Do Apples Have Acid in Them?” Demand Media, Inc., 3 September 2011. Web. 23 September 2014 . “Food Friends and Foes for Your Teeth.” Delta Dental. Delta Dental, February 2012. Web. 26 September 2014 . “Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid).” University of Maryland Medical Center. University of Maryland Medical Center, 20 June 2013. Web. 26 September 2104 . Wolford, Ron, and Drusilla Banks. “Apple Facts.” University of Illinois Extension. University of Illinois Board of Trustees, 2014. Web. 30 September 2014 . (The in-text citations and the full citations on the Works Cited page are formatted according to MLA standards, but the bold headings and line-spacing in the paper are APA. This mixup should be avoided.) SURVEY ELECTRONIC RECORDS VS. PAPER RECORDS 1. What type of office? Fast Food 2. Do you use electronic records, paper, or both? Both 3. Which method do you prefer? Electronic 4. If you use paper records, how do you store your records? The only paper records we keep are the employee files, so I just shred them when they are fired or quit. 5. If you use electronic records, do you have a way to back up your records? I am not sure. 6. Do you think electronic or paper records is more economical or cheaper? I am not really sure because the corporate takes care of these issues, but I think electronic records are more economical. We don’t have much to keep track of and all the sales are electronic. SURVEY ELECTRONIC RECORDS VS. PAPER RECORDS 1. What type of office? Home Health 2. Do you use electronic records, paper, or both? Both 3. Which method do you prefer? Electronic 4. If you use paper records, how do you store your records? We are a small facility so it easy to store them. We have been in business for 15 years, and still haven’t filled up the records room. 5. If you use electronic records, do you have a way to back up your records? We just store everything on the cloud besides our electronic setup. 6. Do you think electronic or paper records is more economical or cheaper? I think paper records are more economical because our electronic system is expensive. SURVEY ELECTRONIC RECORDS VS. PAPER RECORDS 1. What type of office? Mental Health Office 2. Do you use electronic records, paper, or both? Both 3. Which method do you prefer? Electronic 4. If you use paper records, how do you store your records? We store them in the records room in notebooks until the client discharges. 5. If you use electronic records, do you have a way to back up your records? Yes, we actually have a system called Alpha Flex and they back everything up for us. 6. Do you think electronic or paper records is more economical or cheaper? I think electronic records is cheaper because we are not wasting paper all the time to print everything off. SURVEY ELECTRONIC RECORDS VS. PAPER RECORDS 1. What type of office? Nursing Home 2. Do you use electronic records, paper, or both? paper 3. Which method do you prefer? Electronic 4. If you use paper records, how do you store your records? We have a huge room for nothing but records. They are stored for 7 years and then shredded. 5. If you use electronic records, do you have a way to back up your records? We don’t use electronic records, but are looking into it. 6. Do you think electronic or paper records is more economical or cheaper? I think paper records are more efficient because they are easy to find especially for someone that might not know much about computers, and they are not easy to loose. ...
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