BME 306 Use of Animal Subjects in Behavioral Biomedical Testing Paper

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Pick either Topic I or Topic II or Topic III to write a 2 page summary (double-spaced) of the issue, answering the questions if some were given for that topic.

Ethics HW. You may write in the first person - saying "I think such & such" - in this assignment, since it asks about your personal viewpoints.

TELL ME WHAT TOPIC YOU WILL PICK

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Biomedical Engineering Laboratory II (BME 306) Spring 2019 Ethics Homework Instructions: Pick either Topic I or Topic II or Topic III to write a 2 page summary (double-spaced) of the issue, answering the questions if some were given for that topic. Topic I: The Technological Revolution Considering the EMF Scientist Appeal, signed by 247 of the world’s experts in electromagnetic field study, write a short summary of the ethical issues surrounding the deployment of wireless technology. Then answer these questions. 1. How should educated engineers and scientists respond to the planned rollout of 5G, knowing there has been a significant amount of scientific and medical research demonstrating harmful biological effects from this technology? 2. What steps can informed citizens take to reduce their exposures in their homes and bring awareness to the issue in their communities? 3. Suppose you worked for Verizon as a design engineer, and you were making design improvements on a 5G telephone pole antenna. During your research, you learned that many installers of rooftop, cellular repeater antennas were developing higher-than-normal rates of cancer. What responsibilities do you have to speak up about your findings and inform your Verizon managers – and inform the rooftop & pole installers? Some references: https://www.emfscientist.org/ - EMF Scientist Appeal https://bioinitiative.org/ - The Bioinitiative Report, prepared by 29 authors holding 10 MDs and 21 PhDs, specializing in EMF research http://www.justproveit.net/studies research articles on the topic - Just Prove It website offers 5000+ scientific see back → Topic II: Humans as Research Subjects Based on today’s discussions and any other relevant material you wish to use, give a short summary of the issue of Humans as Research Subjects & answer the following questions. 1. Do you believe Barney Clark’s rights were violated? 2. Did he give “informed consent?” 3. Why do you believe he agreed to be the first recipient of an artificial heart? What was he hoping for? 4. Do you feel the surgery was successful? Some references: http://hnn.us/articles/44902.html - what historical researchers say about the surgery https://www.jarvikheart.com/history/robert-jarvik-on-the-jarvik-7/ says about the surgery - what Dr. Jarvik Topic III: Animal Care and Use as Research Subjects See the website link below for the National Research Council “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.” Write a summary of the issues and considerations involved in using animals as research subjects. Consider institutional responsibilities, animal care and maintenance, veterinary care, and facilities planning. Use the links at the left side of the webpage to find the relevant topics. {This document is 124 pages – just scan the chapter titles & a bit of the summaries to understand the important points.} http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5140&page=1 GUIDE LABORATORY ANIMALS FOR THE CARE AND USE OF Eighth Edition Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the Office of Extramural Research, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services under Contract Number N01-OD-4-2139 Task Order #188; the Office of Research Integrity, Department of Health and Human Services; the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International; American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; Abbott Fund; Pfizer; American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine; American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners; Association of Primate Veternarians. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Institutes of Health, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15400-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15400-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15401-7 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15401-4 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2010940400 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org COMMITTEE FOR THE UPDATE OF THE GUIDE FOR THE CARE AND USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Members Janet C. Garber (Chair), Garber Consulting R. Wayne barbee, Virginia Commonwealth University Joseph T. bielitzki, University of Central Florida Leigh Ann Clayton, National Aquarium, Baltimore John C. Donovan, BioResources, Inc. Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen, Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (until March 2009) Dennis F. Kohn, Columbia University (retired) Neil S. Lipman, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College Paul A. Locke, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health John Melcher, U.S. Senate (retired) Fred W. Quimby, Rockefeller University (retired) Patricia V. Turner, University of Guelph, Canada Geoffrey A. Wood, University of Guelph, Canada Hanno Würbel, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Staff Lida Anestidou, Study Director Frances Sharples, Acting Director Kathleen beil, Administrative Coordinator Cameron H. Fletcher, Senior Editor Ruth Crossgrove, Senior Editor Radiah Rose, Manager of Editorial Projects Rhonda Haycraft, Senior Project Assistant Joanne Zurlo, Director (until April 2010)  INSTITUTE FOR LAbORATORy ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Members Stephen W. barthold (Chair), Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California-Davis Kathryn A. bayne, Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, Frederick, Maryland Myrtle A. Davis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Jeffrey I. Everitt, Comparative Medicine and Investigator Support, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (until June 2010) James G. Fox, Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Nelson L. Garnett, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Programs, Dickerson, MD Estelle b. Gauda, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (until June 2010) Joseph W. Kemnitz, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Judy A. MacArthur Clark, Animals in Scientific Procedures Inspectorate, Home Office, London, United Kingdom Martha K. McClintock, Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois Leticia V. Medina, Animal Welfare and Compliance, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois Timo Olavi Nevalainen, National Laboratory Animal Center, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland bernard E. Rollin, Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Abigail L. Smith, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (until June 2010) Stephen A. Smith, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg James E. Womack, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Texas A&M University, College Station (until June 2010) i Staff Frances Sharples, Acting Director Lida Anestidou, Senior Program Officer Kathleen beil, Administrative Coordinator Cameron H. Fletcher, Managing Editor, ILAR Journal Rhonda Haycraft, Program Associate Joanne Zurlo, Director (until April 2010) ii INSTITUTE FOR LAbORATORy ANIMAL RESEARCH PUbLICATIONS Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals (2009) Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research (2009) Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals (2008) Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models (2006) Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals (2006) Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher’s Guide (2005) Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report (2005) Science, Medicine, and Animals (2004) The Development of Science-based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop (2004) Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report (2004) National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research (2004) Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research (2003) International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources, Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002 (2003) Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates (2003) Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000 (2000) Strategies That Influence Cost Containment in Animal Research Facilities (2000) Microbial Status and Genetic Evaluation of Mice and Rats: Proceedings of the 1999 US/Japan Conference (2000) Microbial and Phenotypic Definition of Rats and Mice: Proceedings of the 1998 US/Japan Conference (1999) Monoclonal Antibody Production (1999) The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (1998) Biomedical Models and Resources: Current Needs and Future Opportunities (1998) Approaches to Cost Recovery for Animal Research: Implications for Science, Animals, Research Competitiveness and Regulatory Compliance (1998) Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use (1997) iii Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) Rodents (1996) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition (1995) Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994) Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals (1992) Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs (1991) Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use (1989) Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1988) Animals for Research: A Directory of Sources, Tenth Edition and Supplement (1979) Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (1974) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu ix Reviewers T his eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the Committee in making its published report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberation process. The Committee thanks the following individuals for their review of the draft report: Michael B. Ballinger, Amgen Philippe J.R. Baneux, PreLabs Stephen W. Barthold, University of California-Davis Linda C. Cork, Stanford University Jann Hau, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Michael J. Huerkamp, Emory University Michael D. Kastello, sanofi-aventis Arthur L. Lage, Harvard Medical School Christian Lawrence, Children’s Hospital Boston Randall J. Nelson, University of Tennessee College of MedicineMemphis Steven M. Niemi, Massachusetts General Hospital Melinda A. Novak, University of Massachusetts-Amherst xi xii REVIEWERS Gemma Perretta, National Research Council, Italy Marky E. Pitts, IACUC Consultant George E. Sanders, University of Washington Allen W. Singer, Battelle Memorial Institute William J. White, Charles River Laboratories Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Dowling, Harvard University, and John Vandenbergh, North Carolina State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Preface T he purpose of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide), as expressed in the charge to the Committee for the Update of the Guide, is to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The Guide is also intended to assist investigators in fulfilling their obligation to plan and conduct animal experiments in accord with the highest scientific, humane, and ethical principles. Recommendations in the Guide are based on published data, scientific principles, expert opinion, and experience with methods and practices that have proved to be consistent with both high-quality research and humane animal care and use. These recommendations should be used as a foundation for the development of a comprehensive animal care and use program, recognizing that the concept and application of performance standards, in accordance with goals, outcomes, and considerations defined in the Guide, is essential to this process. The Guide is an internationally accepted primary reference on animal care and use, and its use is required in the United States by the Public Health Service Policy. It was first published in 1963, under the title Guide for Laboratory Animal Facilities and Care, and was revised in 1965, 1968, 1972, 1978, 1985, and 1996. More than 550,000 copies have been printed since its first publication. In 2006 an ad hoc committee appointed by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research recommended that the Guide be updated. The Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals was appointed in 2008 by the National Research Council; its 13 members xiii xi PREFACE included research scientists, veterinarians, and nonscientists representing biomedical ethics and the public’s interest in animal welfare. The Committee widely solicited written and oral comments on the update of the Guide from the scientific community and the general public; comments at open meetings (on September 26, 2008, in Washington, DC; October 16, 2008, in Irvine, California; and November 14, 2008, in Chicago) as well as written comments submitted to or requested by the Committee were considered. In addition, the Committee studied the materials submitted to NIH in response to its 2005 Request for Information (NOT-OD-06-011). All comments contributed substantially to this eighth edition of the Guide. In approaching its task, the Committee carried forward the balance between ethical and science-based practice that has always been the basis of the Guide, and fulfilled its role to provide an updated resource that enables the research community to proceed responsibly and in a self-regulatory manner with animal experimentation. The Guide is predicated on the understanding that the exercise of professional judgment both upholds the central notion of performance standards and obviates the need for more stringent regulations. Laboratory animal science is a rapidly evolving field and the Committee identified a number of areas in which current available scientific information is insufficient; additional objective information and assessment are needed to provide a scientific basis for recommendations in future editions of the Guide. Although pursuing these concepts was beyond this Committee’s charge, the following two topics merit further study: (1) space and housing needs of laboratory species and (2) the need and best meth ...
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MercyK254
School: Duke University

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The Use of Animal Subjects in Behavioral and Biomedical Testing
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The Use of Animal Subjects in Behavioral and Biomedical Testing
The use of animal subjects in behavioral and biomedical testing, research and teaching is a
common practice in our societies. It contributes to essential advances in both medical and scientific
knowledge. The responsibility of any investigator using animal subjects should be to enhance the
well-being of these subjects.
The goal of Care and Use of Laboratory Animals guide is to foster humane care of animals
used as subjects during experiments. It provides information to help investigators promote the wellbeing of animals, development of biological knowledge and high quality of biomedical research
which is significant to either humans or animals. I think any vertebrate animal can be used for
laboratory testing, research or teaching. Ethical and feder...

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