Petroleum 303 Chemical Analysis PH - Lab Report

Anonymous
timer Asked: Mar 25th, 2019
account_balance_wallet $35

Question Description

Please complete the missing data in the data section and type a sample calculation for each. Write a proper discussion and conclusion.

all equations are provided in the power point slides.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Petroleum 303 Drilling Fluids Lab Spring 2019 Name: Lab Partner(s) name(s): Date performed: Title: Chemical Analysis. Purpose: The purpose of the lab was to determine pH which is the hydrogen ions concentration in a solution. Also, determining clay’s capacity to absorb cations in a solution by conducting a methylene blue dye test. Also, determining the solution’s reaction with acid. Lastly, determining the amount of chloride content in the fluid by conducting a chloride test, determining the calcium content in the solution, and determining the total hardness of the solution. Procedure: Do the following tests: 1.Measure the mud pH using the color-matching strips. 2.Determine the methylene blue capacity for the mud. 3.Perform the alkalinity tests on the mud (Pm) and on filtrate #1 (Pf and Mf) 4.On filtrate #2, perform the following: 5.Chloride test 6.Total hardness test 7.Calcium test Data Evaluation and Calculations: 1. Report mud pH, methylene blue capacity, titration concentration and volume for chloride, total hardness and calcium. 2.Calculate the bentonite equivalent, hydroxyl, carbonate, bicarbonate and lime content of the mud. 3.Calculate total hardness as calcium and magnesium. 1. Measure the mud pH using the color matching strip. 2. Determine the methylene blue capacity for the mud. a. Measure 10 cc of DI water b. Add 2 cc of drilling fluid c. Add 15 cc of 3% hydrogen peroxide. d. Add 0.5 cc of sulfuric acid. e. Boil gently for 10 minutes (do not boil to dryness). f. Dilute to about 50 cc. g. Add methylene blue to the flash in increments of 0.5 cc, until dye appears as a blue or turquoise ring surrounding the dyed solids 3. Perform the alkalinity test on the mud (Pm) and on filtrate #1 (Pf and Mf). a. On the Mud (Pm). i. Measure 1 cc of mud into the titration vessel. ii. Dilute with 25-50 cc of DI water iii. Add 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. iv. Titrate with 0.02 N standard sulfuric acid solution, until the pink color disappears. b. On the filtrate (Pf). i. Measure 1 cc of filtrate into the titration vessel. ii. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. iii. If the indicator turns pink add a 0.02 N (N/50) standard sulfuric acid solution, drop by drop until the pink color disappears. c. On the filtrate (Mf). i. To the last sample add 2 or 3 drops of methyl orange indicator solution. ii. Add a 0.02 normal (N/50) standard sulfuric acid solution, drop by drop until the color of the indicator changes from yellow to pink. iii. The end point can also be taken when the pH of the sample drops to 4.3 as measured by pH meter. 4. On filtrate #2, perform the following: a. Chloride test i. Measure 1 or more cm3 of filtrate into the titration vessel. ii. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. iii. If the indicator turns pink, add a 0.02 normal (N/50) standard sulfuric acid solution, drop by drop until the pink color is discharged. iv. Add 25-50 cm3 of deionized water. v. Add 5-10 drops of potassium chromate. vi. Titrate with Silver Nitrate solution (0.0282N or 0.282N AgNO3) b. Total Hardness test i. ii. iii. iv. Measure 1 or more cm3 of filtrate into a 150-cm3 beaker. Add about 2 cm3 of hardness buffer and swirl to mix. Add sufficient hardness indicator (2-6 drops) and mix. A wine-color a will develop if calcium and/or magnesium are present. While stirring, titrate with EDTA solution (Standard Versenate) until EDTA produces no further red to blue color change. c. Calcium test i. ii. iii. iv. v. Measure 1 or more cm3 of filtrate into a 150 cm3 beaker. Dilute the sample to 5.0 cm3 with deionized water. Add sufficient NaOH buffer to produce a pH of 12-13. Add sufficient calcium indicator to produce a pink to wine-red color if calcium is present. Too much indicator will obscure the endpoint. ( The addition of several drops of methyl orange along with the calcium indicator may improve the visibility of the endpoint.) While stirring, titrate with standard EDTA solution (Standard Versenate) until EDTA produces no further red to blue color change. Data: 5. Measure the mud pH using the color matching strip. pH= 11 - 12 6. Determine the methylene blue capacity for the mud. Methylene Blue (cc) = 6 Bentonite equivalent (lb/bbl) = 7. Perform the alkalinity test on the mud (Pm) and on filtrate #1 (Pf and Mf). a. On the Mud (Pm). H2SO4 [0.02 N ], (cm3) = 0.95 b. On the filtrate (Pf). H2SO4 [0.02 N ], (cm3) = 0.45 Free lime equivalent (lbm/bbl) = c. On the filtrate (Mf). H2SO4[0.02N], (cm3) = 0.3 last point (Pf)) (include the amount from the 4. On filtrate #2 perform the following tests: a. Chloride test H2SO4[0.02N], (cm3) = did not turn to pink AgNO3[0.28N], (cm3) = 1.3 Chloride concentration (mg/L) = b. Total Hardness test EDTA Volume (cm3) = 0.9 Hardness (mg/L) = c. Calcium test EDTA Volume (cm3) = 1.8 Calcium content (mg/L) = Calculations: Discussion: Conclusion: Lab Report Grading Guideline • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • No Title on first page of report Missing cover page Missing purpose section Missing procedure Procedure not complete or well explained Data section missing Data section handwritten and not in tables Missing sample calculations Missing units in calculations and tables Calculations done incorrectly Graphs done incorrectly (missing axis labels, units, etc) Missing discussion section Missing sources of error Missing conclusion Weak conclusion or discussion Missing questions at the end of the report Questions answered incorrectly Late labs -1 -3 -3 -10 -5 -20 -10 -3 per calculation Max= -15 -2 per missing unit Max= -20 -2 per calculation Max= -10 -3 per graph -10 -5 -10 -5 -5 per question -3 per question -10 per day late Lab #5 pH determination - The term pH is used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution. pH is defined by: pH = - log[H+] where [H+] is the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter. At room temperature, the ion product constant of water, Kw , has a value of 1.0 x 10-14 mole/L. For pure water, [H+] = [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-7, and the pH is equal to 7. The pH of a fluid can be determined using either a special ph paper or a pH meter. The pH paper is impregnated with dyes that exhibit different colors when exposed to solutions of varying pH. The pH meter is an instrument that determines the pH of an aqueous solution by measuring the electropotential generated between a special glass electrode and a reference electrode. The methylene blue dye test is especially designed to determine the capacity of a clay to adsorb cations from solution. The method is particularly applicable to drilling muds, but it can be effectively applied to aqueous dispersions of powdered clay, cores, and drilled cuttings. Like all cation exchange methods, the methylene blue test measures the total exchange capacity of the clay system, and is dependent upon the type and content of clay mineral present. Only the reactive portions of the clay are involved and such materials as finely ground limestone, sand, or barite do not adsorb methylene blue. Since the methylene blue test measures a fundamental clay property with ease and accuracy, it can be used as a novel analytical tool in many industrial clay applications. Where only a single clay type is involved, an accurate estimate of the active clay content can be made. Methylene blue Capacity = Methylene blue (ml)/Drilling fluid (ml) Bentonite Equivalent: =5 x Vmethylene blue/Vdrilling fluid = lb/bbl ➢ Alkalinity refers to the ability of a solution or mixture to react with an acid. The phenolphthalein alkalinity refers to the amount of acid required to reduce the pH to 8.3, the phenolphthalein endpoint. The phenolphthalein alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Pm and Pf , respectively. The Pf test includes the effect of only dissolved bases and salts while the Pm test includes the effect of both dissolved and suspended bases and salts. At a pH of 8.3, the conversion of hydroxides to water and carbonates to bicarbonates is essentially complete. Pm = V0.02N H2SO4/Vsample Pf = V0.02N H2SO4/Vsample The methyl orange alkalinity refers to the amount of acid required to reduce the pH to 4.3, the methyl orange endpoint. The methyl orange alkalinity of the mud and mud filtrate is called the Mm and Mf , respectively. All values are reported cubic centimeters (cc) of 0.02 N (normality = 0.02) sulfuric acid per cubic centimeter (cc) of sample. As the pH is further reduced to 4.3, the acid then reacts with the bicarbonate ions to form carbon dioxide and water. Mf = V0.02N H2SO4/Vsample The Pf and Mf tests are designed to establish the concentration of hydroxyl, bicarbonate, and carbonate ions in the aqueous phase of the mud. At a pH of 8.3, the conversion of hydroxides to water and carbonates to bicarbonates is essentially complete. The carbonates originally present in solution do not enter the reactions. As the pH is further reduced to 4.3, the acid then reacts with the bicarbonate ions to form carbon dioxide and water. Unfortunately, in many mud filtrates, other ions and organic acids are present that affect the Mf test. The Pf and Pm test results indicate the reserve alkalinity of the suspended solids. As the [OH-] in solution is reduced, the lime and limestone suspended in the mud will go into solution and tend to stabilize the pH. This reserve alkalinity generally is expressed as an equivalent lime concentration. Converting the Ca(OH)2 concentration from 0.02N to field units of lbm/bbl yields 0.26 lbm/bbl. Thus the free lime is given by: .26(Pm-(fw x Pf)) , where fw is the volume fraction of water in the mud. Lime content = .26(Pm-fw Pf) = lb/bbl Assume fw = 1.0 To determine the chloride content of a drilling fluid filtrate sample, the sample is titrated with a standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator. The silver nitrate precipitates the chloride ion producing a red color silver chromate, which is taken as the endpoint.  Report the chloride-ion concentration of the filtrate in mg/L ml of 0.0282 AgNO3 x (1000) = Mg/l Cl-  ml of 0.282 AgNO3 x (10,000) = Mg/l Cl-  Water containing large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions is known as hard water. These contaminants are often present in the water available for use in the drilling fluid. In addition, Ca2+ can enter the mud when anhydrite (CaSO4) or gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) formations are drilled. Cement also contains calcium and can contaminate the mud. The total Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration is determined by titration with a standard (0.02N) Versenate (EDTA) solution. The Versenate, an organic compound capable of forming a chelate with Ca++ and Mg++. Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions. The hardness test is sometimes performed on the mud as well as the filtrate. The mud hardness indicates the amount of calcium suspended in the mud as well as the calcium in solution. This test usually is made on gypsum-treated muds to indicate the amount of excess CaSO4 present in suspension. Total Hardness as Calcium = (400 x VEDTA(ml))/Vsample(ml) = mg/L Total Hardness as CaCO3(mg/L) = Ca (mg/L) x 2.5 General Lab Report Format Think of the lab report as a scientific essay. It will contain the following sections: TITLE: The title should summarize, as specifically as possible, the subject of the lab. PURPOSE: A single, concise statement of the major objective(s) of the lab that answers one of the following: What question or questions is this lab exercise designed to answer? OR What is this lab exercise designed to show or prove? OR What hypotheses is this lab exercise trying to prove or disprove? Note: To make a hypothesis, you must be able to provide support for that hypothesis, based upon your knowledge or literature research. A hypothesis should be an EDUCATED prediction!) PROCEDURE: You should include the information necessary to allow someone to repeat what you did, such as: -What data was used? Include information about the data such as the data source (i.e. Internet, observations, models) -Include definitions of key terms and anything else necessary to understand exactly what was done. DATA & RESULTS ( combine into one section) DATA: This is a record of all measurements and other observations encountered during the lab exercise. Record data carefully and immediately. Do not rely on your memory! The most carefully made observations are not useful if you do not record them accurately. Always include the units of physical quantities. You and your lab partner(s) should complete all the work and make all of the observations together. It is very difficult to write a good lab report if you have not done some part of the experiment! Do not copy the results of other groups unless instructed to do so: To do so will be considered plagiarism! If you and your lab partner(s) disagree about an observation, record your own. Present the data in a way that makes it easy to discuss and to infer conclusions (Tables or graphs are often helpful!) Do not describe the procedure or discuss the data in this section -- just present your data! Graphs will sometimes be required or helpful. These should be drawn on graph paper or with a computer. The horizontal axis should contain the independent variable (the one that is known), and the vertical axis should contain the dependent variable (the one that you are observing or measuring). Each axis must be labeled. The graph must be titled. The intervals on each axis must be consistent. RESULTS: Separate from your lab notes, this section should contain a summary of the final data, presented in a form that is most useful for interpreting the results. A short paragraph should be sufficient, along with any relevant charts and graphs labeled will. Remember to title and provide legends for all graphs and tables. The graphs and tables should be comprehendible independently of their association with the text. Results are usually dominated by calculations, tables and figures; however, you still need to state all significant results explicitly in verbal form, (i.e. Using the formula for slope, the rate of change of the data is V = 1.8m/s). Graphics need to be clear, easily read, and well labeled. Number and Title tables and graphs. An important strategy for making your results effective is to draw the reader's attention to them with a sentence or two, so the reader has a focus when reading the graph. In most cases, providing a sample calculation of each type is sufficient in the lab report. Be sure to point out trends and identify any special features. State your key result in sentence form. DISCUSSION: This is the most important part of the lab, as it is where you interpret your observations and results. For each conclusion you should discuss its significance and whether or not it seems reasonable. In addition, be sure that you answer any questions that were asked in the laboratory instructions. You should infer conclusions from your data. For each conclusion, you should provide evidence from your data. Be sure to include a sample calculation of each type used. Give explanations for and implications of any relationships observed. (When interpreting a graph, infer conclusions based upon the slope of the line or lines. Support your ideas with specific, quantitative references to the results of your analyses. How do your observations lead to the conclusions you reached? Were the relationships what you expected from the underlying physical principles? If a conclusion does not seem reasonable, can you find any error in your procedure which could have affected your results? For each conclusion you should discuss its significance. Address any interesting questions you may have had as you were working through the lab exercises. In addition, be sure that you answer any questions that were asked in the laboratory instructions. Can you make any generalizations? Why or why not? CONCLUSION: Summarize your results, the main points of your discussion, and how they relate to your stated purpose of the lab. You are to restate all the conclusions that were made in the discussion section. No discussion or explanation or speculation should occur in this section! (Do not use the words "because" or "since" or "therefore".) It is a good idea to include how the main points of your discussion are connected in order to demonstrate the overall significance of your findings and the concepts you learned. Please do not tell me how much you enjoyed this experiment or how much you learned from it. Just give me your conclusions! ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

evelynexquisitewriter
School: UCLA

Attached.

1

Chemical Analysis

Student name:
Institutional affiliation:

2

Chemical Analysis
The attached document addresses the question “calculate data, type calculations, type discussion
and conclusion” by answering the following:


Calculate data



Perform calculations



Type discussion



Type conclusion


1

Running Head: Chemical Analysis

Chemical Analysis

Student name:
Institutional affiliation:

2

Chemical Analysis
Purpose:
The purpose of the lab was to determine pH which is the hydrogen ions concentration in a
solution. Also, determining clay’s capacity to absorb cations in a solution by conducting a
methylene blue dye test. Also, determining the solution’s reaction with acid. Lastly, determining
the amount of chloride content in the fluid by conducting a chloride test, determining the calcium
content in the solution, and determining the total hardness of the solution.
Procedure:
Do the following tests:
1.Measure the mud pH using the color-matching strips.
2.Determine the methylene blue capacity for the mud.
3.Perform the alkalinity tests on the mud (Pm) and on filtrate #1 (Pf and Mf)
4.On filtrate #2, perform the following:
5.Chloride test
6.Total hardness test
7.Calcium test

Data Evaluation and Calculations:
1. Report mud pH, methylene blue capacity, titration concentration and volume for
chloride, total hardness and calcium.
2.Calculate the bentonite equivalent, hydroxyl, carbonate, bicarbonate and lime content of
the mud.
...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Thank you! Reasonably priced given the quality not just of the tutors but the moderators too. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Similar Questions
Related Tags

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors