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cause and effect essay

the essay is about breast cancer and the question for the essay is " what causes breast cancer?

Oct 4th, 2015

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BRAC1, breast cancer [1], is a gene that has been associated with breast cancer. It is expressed in breast tissue, where it is involved in DNA damage repair. A mutation in BRAC1 increases the chances of breast cancer [2].  BRAC1 is "a tumor suppressor gene,"  or antioncogene [1][3]. Patents on the medical diagnostic of the probability of breast cancer of BRAC1 and BRAC2 are owned by Myriad genetics [1][4][5]. There is a landmark lawsuit that challenges the validity of gene patents against Myriad genetics [1][6].


[1] BRAC. In Wikipedia. Retrieved on October 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRCA1

[2 ] Friedenson B (2007). "The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers". BMC Cancer 7: 152.

[3] Duncan JA, Reeves JR, Cooke TG (October 1998). "BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins: roles in health and disease". Molecular pathology : MP 51 (5): 237–47

[4] US patent 5747282, Skolnick HS, Goldgar DE, Miki Y, Swenson J, Kamb A, Harshman KD, Shattuck-Eidens DM, Tavtigian SV, Wiseman RW, Futreal PA, "7Q-linked breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-05-05, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and University of Utah Research Foundation

[5] US patent 5837492, Tavtigian SV, Kamb A, Simard J, Couch F, Rommens JM, Weber BL, "Chromosome 13-linked breast cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-11-17, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania

[6] Schwartz J (2009-05-12). "Cancer Patients Challenge the Patenting of a Gene". Health. New York Times.

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