Differences of Posada's art and Machado de Assis Comparison Paper

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Down below I have attached the posada's art powerpoint and Machado de assis (alienist). only use the material provided. no outside sources. please answer the question completely

Question: Write a paper comparing Posada's art to Machado de Assis'. Do they both satirize elites in the Americas (in Mexico and Brazil) and their fascination with ideas from European in the same way or are they different?

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José-Guadalupe Posada (1852–1913) • Some basic facts: • Posada was a Mexican printmaker, who had shown an early aptitude for drawing. He had some schooling in the city of Aguascalientes and studied printmaking in the workshop of José Trinidad Pedroza and publishing in his magazine El Jicote (The Hornet). Political pressure forced both Pedroza and Posada to León, Guanajuato where Posada began wood-engraving. Posada moved to Mexico city in 1888 and began to work for a printing house moving from lithography towards cheaper printmaking on zinc, wood and type metal. • Posada and his employer Antonio Vanegas Arroya printed flyers with Posada’s prints and verses for the illiterate public. Posada also illustrated sensational stories in the paper Ejemplos, using the figure of the devil to represent the temptation to commit serious crimes. He drew scenes from daily life, festivities, brawls and traditional customs, and later portraits of well known figures such as political hero Emiliano Zapata. He was occasionally jailed for his work. • Posada’s fictional character Don Chepito was a way to criticize a social type (Don Chepito was also a heavy Marijuana smoker – check out the eyes) but he is perhaps best known for his skeletons - the calaveras. Calavera epitomize Posada’s originality. They draw on Mexican folk traditions and anticipate Mexican mural painting of the 1920s and 1930s. They were skillfully executed, with eloquent use of black and white as well as middle tones; proportion and disproportion were more effectively used in his work on zinc, wood and type metal than in his lithographs. • This was an edited version of Eisa García Barragán’s introduction to Posada, From Grove Art Online • SOURCE: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009 http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4707 • I include Posada and his work in this course first because the art is great. His unique prints capture a Mexican cultural sensibility, even as they contributed to the development of that sensibility. His calaveras are eye catching and somehow irreverent. Though we often see his art as isolated images (especially now where they are reproduced on everything) in practice his art – woodcuts and prints – were part of a single sheet publication (an inexpensive flyer or broadsheet that would be widely read) that included written verse – a popular poem - about the topic. The poem might be turned into a song. In this way the images became part of popular culture. Part of what makes these images interesting is that they were produced for widespread public consumption and disseminated in an inexpensive • A few other points. Posada’s work – woodcuts – were not “tradition” in the sense that he was doing something that had always been around. Instead, he was producing art in a new style that felt old and traditional to a Mexican public audience at the time. A way for Mexicans to enjoy something that was at once contemporary – offering comments on life in the moment – but felt traditional. • On another note – this powerpoint does not have my voice over. It does have three youtube videos in slides – so you have to run it in slideshow mode. It takes time but it should work. Video on Posada – Official from State of Aguascalientes. Has imperfections but fun. You have to be in slide show mode for this to work. José-Guadalupe Posada (1852–1913) • Some basic facts: • Posada was a Mexican printmaker, who had shown an early aptitude for drawing. He had some schooling in the city of Aguascalientes and studied printmaking in the workshop of José Trinidad Pedroza and publishing in his magazine El Jicote (The Hornet). Political pressure forced both Pedroza and Posada to León, Guanajuato where Posada began wood-engraving. Posada moved to Mexico city in 1888 and began to work for a printing house moving from lithography towards cheaper printmaking on zinc, wood and type metal. • Posada and his employer Antonio Vanegas Arroya printed flyers with Posada’s prints and verses for the illiterate public. Posada also illustrated sensational stories in the paper Ejemplos, using the figure of the devil to represent the temptation to commit serious crimes. He drew scenes from daily life, festivities, brawls and traditional customs, and later portraits of well known figures such as political hero Emiliano Zapata. He was occasionally jailed for his work. • Posada’s fictional character Don Chepito was a way to criticize a social type (Don Chepito was also a heavy Marijuana smoker – check out the eyes) but he is perhaps best known for his skeletons - the calaveras. Calavera epitomize Posada’s originality. They draw on Mexican folk traditions and anticipate Mexican mural painting of the 1920s and 1930s. They were skillfully executed, with eloquent use of black and white as well as middle tones; proportion and disproportion were more effectively used in his work on zinc, wood and type metal than in his lithographs. • This was an edited version of Eisa García Barragán’s introduction to Posada, From Grove Art Online • SOURCE: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009 http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4707 • I include Posada and his work in this course first because the art is great. His unique prints capture a Mexican cultural sensibility, even as they contributed to the development of that sensibility. His calaveras are eye catching and somehow irreverent. Though we often see his art as isolated images (especially now where they are reproduced on everything) in practice his art – woodcuts and prints – were part of a single sheet publication (an inexpensive flyer or broadsheet that would be widely read) that included written verse – a popular poem - about the topic. The poem might be turned into a song. In this way the images became part of popular culture. Part of what makes these images interesting is that they were produced for widespread public consumption and disseminated in an inexpensive • A few other points. Posada’s work – woodcuts – were not “tradition” in the sense that he was doing something that had always been around. Instead, he was producing art in a new style that felt old and traditional to a Mexican public audience at the time. A way for Mexicans to enjoy something that was at once contemporary – offering comments on life in the moment – but felt traditional. • On another note – this powerpoint does not have my voice over. It does have three youtube videos in slides – so you have to run it in slideshow mode. It takes time but it should work. Video on Posada – Official from State of Aguascalientes. Has imperfections but fun. You have to be in slide show mode for this to work. Some simple examples: Conversation of the Good Calaveras & The Couple Street Cleaning Calaveras José-Guadalupe Posada (1852–1913) • Some basic facts: • Posada was a Mexican printmaker, who had shown an early aptitude for drawing. He had some schooling in the city of Aguascalientes and studied printmaking in the workshop of José Trinidad Pedroza and publishing in his magazine El Jicote (The Hornet). Political pressure forced both Pedroza and Posada to León, Guanajuato where Posada began wood-engraving. Posada moved to Mexico city in 1888 and began to work for a printing house moving from lithography towards cheaper printmaking on zinc, wood and type metal. • Posada and his employer Antonio Vanegas Arroya printed flyers with Posada’s prints and verses for the illiterate public. Posada also illustrated sensational stories in the paper Ejemplos, using the figure of the devil to represent the temptation to commit serious crimes. He drew scenes from daily life, festivities, brawls and traditional customs, and later portraits of well known figures such as political hero Emiliano Zapata. He was occasionally jailed for his work. • Posada’s fictional character Don Chepito was a way to criticize a social type (Don Chepito was also a heavy Marijuana smoker – check out the eyes) but he is perhaps best known for his skeletons - the calaveras. Calavera epitomize Posada’s originality. They draw on Mexican folk traditions and anticipate Mexican mural painting of the 1920s and 1930s. They were skillfully executed, with eloquent use of black and white as well as middle tones; proportion and disproportion were more effectively used in his work on zinc, wood and type metal than in his lithographs. • This was an edited version of Eisa García Barragán’s introduction to Posada, From Grove Art Online • SOURCE: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009 http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4707 • I include Posada and his work in this course first because the art is great. His unique prints capture a Mexican cultural sensibility, even as they contributed to the development of that sensibility. His calaveras are eye catching and somehow irreverent. Though we often see his art as isolated images (especially now where they are reproduced on everything) in practice his art – woodcuts and prints – were part of a single sheet publication (an inexpensive flyer or broadsheet that would be widely read) that included written verse – a popular poem - about the topic. The poem might be turned into a song. In this way the images became part of popular culture. Part of what makes these images interesting is that they were produced for widespread public consumption and disseminated in an inexpensive • A few other points. Posada’s work – woodcuts – were not “tradition” in the sense that he was doing something that had always been around. Instead, he was producing art in a new style that felt old and traditional to a Mexican public audience at the time. A way for Mexicans to enjoy something that was at once contemporary – offering comments on life in the moment – but felt traditional. • On another note – this powerpoint does not have my voice over. It does have three youtube videos in slides – so you have to run it in slideshow mode. It takes time but it should work. Video on Posada – Official from State of Aguascalientes. Has imperfections but fun. You have to be in slide show mode for this to work. Some simple examples: Conversation of the Good Calaveras & The Couple Street Cleaning Calaveras One of Posada’s most famous works. Intended as a satirical presentation of the middle class of the era, and their fascination with European fashion, after his death it became associated with the Mexican Day of the Dead. Now such images – sugar skulls etc – are quite common. In part, the ubiquity of this image comes from Posada. Found as part of the (Aztec) Templo Mayor in Mexico City – maybe this is a stretch but it illustrates that depictions of skulls and skeletons had been a part of Mexican cultural production for a long time. There were other skeletons in popular culture – even other artists who drew calaveras – but Posada remains the most important example. Here is an example of one of the broadsides – a publication looking like it would when it was printed and sold. Here is Posada’s version of Don Quijote – the most famous literary figure in the world of Spanish literature. Notice the difference between Posada’s famous print (above) and the one below (not sure of the artist there). On the bottom “Whoever wants to read this loose sheet. Five centavos is what it cost.” That is a bad translation that doesn’t catch the rhyme. José-Guadalupe Posada (1852–1913) • Some basic facts: • Posada was a Mexican printmaker, who had shown an early aptitude for drawing. He had some schooling in the city of Aguascalientes and studied printmaking in the workshop of José Trinidad Pedroza and publishing in his magazine El Jicote (The Hornet). Political pressure forced both Pedroza and Posada to León, Guanajuato where Posada began wood-engraving. Posada moved to Mexico city in 1888 and began to work for a printing house moving from lithography towards cheaper printmaking on zinc, wood and type metal. • Posada and his employer Antonio Vanegas Arroya printed flyers with Posada’s prints and verses for the illiterate public. Posada also illustrated sensational stories in the paper Ejemplos, using the figure of the devil to represent the temptation to commit serious crimes. He drew scenes from daily life, festivities, brawls and traditional customs, and later portraits of well known figures such as political hero Emiliano Zapata. He was occasionally jailed for his work. • Posada’s fictional character Don Chepito was a way to criticize a social type (Don Chepito was also a heavy Marijuana smoker – check out the eyes) but he is perhaps best known for his skeletons - the calaveras. Calavera epitomize Posada’s originality. They draw on Mexican folk traditions and anticipate Mexican mural painting of the 1920s and 1930s. They were skillfully executed, with eloquent use of black and white as well as middle tones; proportion and disproportion were more effectively used in his work on zinc, wood and type metal than in his lithographs. • This was an edited version of Eisa García Barragán’s introduction to Posada, From Grove Art Online • SOURCE: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009 http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4707 • I include Posada and his work in this course first because the art is great. His unique prints capture a Mexican cultural sensibility, even as they contributed to the development of that sensibility. His calaveras are eye catching and somehow irreverent. Though we often see his art as isolated images (especially now where they are reproduced on everything) in practice his art – woodcuts and prints – were part of a single sheet publication (an inexpensive flyer or broadsheet that would be widely read) that included written verse – a popular poem - about the topic. The poem might be turned into a song. In this way the images became part of popular culture. Part of what makes these images interesting is that they were produced for widespread public consumption and disseminated in an inexpensive • A few other points. Posada’s work – woodcuts – were not “tradition” in the sense that he was doing something that had always been around. Instead, he was producing art in a new style that felt old and traditional to a Mexican public audience at the time. A way for Mexicans to enjoy something that was at once contemporary – offering comments on life in the moment – but felt traditional. • On another note – this powerpoint does not have my voice over. It does have three youtube videos in slides – so you have to run it in slideshow mode. It takes time but it should work. Video on Posada – Official from State of Aguascalientes. Has imperfections but fun. You have to be in slide show mode for this to work. Some simple examples: Conversation of the Good Calaveras & The Couple Street Cleaning Calaveras One of Posada’s most famous works. Intended as a satirical presentation of the middle class of the era, and their fascination with European fashion, after his death it became associated with the Mexican Day of the Dead. Now such images – sugar skulls etc – are quite common. In part, the ubiquity of this image comes from Posada. Found as part of the (Aztec) Templo Mayor in Mexico City – maybe this is a stretch but it illustrates that depictions of skulls and skeletons had been a part of Mexican cultural production for a long time. There were other skeletons in popular culture – even other artists who drew calaveras – but Posada remains the most important example. Here is an example of one of the broadsides – a publication looking like it would when it was printed and sold. Here is Posada’s version of Don Quijote – the most famous literary figure in the world of Spanish literature. Notice the difference between Posada’s famous print (above) and the one below (not sure of the artist there). On the bottom “Whoever wants to read this loose sheet. Five centavos is what it cost.” That is a bad translation that doesn’t catch the rhyme. Detail of the Don Quijote print. A Jig Beyond the Grave (El Jarabe en Ultratumba) Calavera of the Cyclists (Calavera las biciletas) One of Posada’s common themes was a satirical look at the Mexican upper and middle class and their. This is a send up on the craze for bicycles as something modern and novel. Gran calavera eléctrica Another take on modernity and modern fascinations. This time it is electricity and the trolley car. Some less famous images. Another Posada character was - Don Chepito. Don Chepito was a pothead, smoked too much weed. I’m not making this up. Below he is dancing like an idiot – notice the crazy eyes. To the right he is jumping into a bullfight - with predictable results. Cogida de Don Chapito Toréro The Disappointment Suffered by Don Chepito Marijuana – below right. Looks about the way people do at parties after smoking too much. Again, compare Posada’s print to the one on the left. Here are some other examples of Posada’s work. Formidable Explosion en Tacubaya D.F. … “More than 400 dead and a great number of wounded.” Posada lived into the age of the Mexican revolution, an important historical development politically and in terms of national public culture. The headline, “Assault on the Cuernavaca Train by those awful Zapatisa Bandits. 82 dead and 17 wounded!” “Hand me down dandies” This might be a stretch but these illustrations remind me of the Capoeira gangsters shown in drawings of the Capoeira presentation. The drawings were produced more or less at the same time. “The calavera of the morbid cholera” An attempt at a transition • Though it was not immediate, decades after his death Calaveras – skeletons – inspired by Posada (and existing traditions) became ubiquitous. We know them as sugar skulls, the emblems of the Mexican Dia de los Muertos. I don’t know the whole story but part of this process was influenced by a government sponsorship of traditional “folk” culture after the Mexican Revolution. Something we will cover in the weeks to come. • In the slides that follow I have put examples of these images that are widespread in popular culture in the U.S. to demonstrate how far they have spread. Also to point out the way that Latin American culture gets reimagined, for good or for ill. So here is a relatively recent move … … and more recently there is this. Which is a great movie. Or if you are into more adult pastimes – there is this product. Of course – there are more adult adaptations of Posada’s approach to images. Notice this is basically the Don Quijote illustration with a rooster instead of the horse (Rocinante). ...
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paula9
School: Purdue University

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Running head: POSADA'S ART AND MACHADO DE ASSIS'

Posada's art and Machado de Assis'
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Comparing Posada's art to Machado de Assis'

1

POSADA'S ART AND MACHADO DE ASSIS'
2
Posada was a Mexican political printmaker and an engraver whose work had
influenced many artists in Latin America. His arts interests were mainly on the unsavory and
fantastic aspects of life which included illicit love affairs, political scandals, murders and
robbery. The political aspect was the most notable and in some instance caused him to be
jailed. The most important aspect is that his artwork captured the culture of Mexico very
well. On the other hand, Machado de Assis (alienist) was a Brazilian writer who was a
prolific novelist, poet, essayist, short story writer and playwright (Assis, 2013). In his work,
he used irony to influence the society positively; hence it must be read in the context for it to
be understood correctly. To a great extent, both satirize elites in the Americas (in Mexico and
Brazil) and their fascination with ideas from European in the same way.
To start with, Posada uses artwork to make graphics which he would use to mobilize
the Mexicans. He made skeletons and some attractive images to depict the political scandals
of his time and this helped to swing the elites Mexicans to action. His art was so political in
some cases such that it put him into direct collision with the political leaders leading to his
arrest. He lived in a very interesting time when the revolution took place in Mexico. Posada
in his wo...

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