UWF impact of Information Technology In governing bodies Literature Review

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This assignment will be one of several throughout your PhD program that we use to help you prepare for the dissertation process. One of the core competencies necessary to succeed in a doctoral program is the ability to identify other research that pertains to your own. This means you'll have to identify similar research, read the papers, and assimilate prior work into your own research. A literature review helps you develop and hone these research skills.

This assignment is listed on the syllabus as "Literature Review" and is worth 25% of your grade. Your paper will be a Literature Review, specifically focusing on the impact IT has had on policy making. The question you'll address is: "How has Information Technology impacted governing bodies’ ability to align public policy with stakeholder needs?" I want to see your literature review include different models, how they are used in specific situations, and their impact on policy making.

The question you'll address is: " How has Information Technology impacted governing bodies’ ability to align public policy with stakeholder needs? "

I want to see ORIGINAL WORK (ie. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE!) If you use another author's work, you MUST properly quote AND cite it. (See APA format.) Review the literature - don't just copy what someone else said.

Your paper must be in correct APA format, use correct grammar, consist of a minimum of 750 words, and will need to include at least ten (10) resources, ALL of which must:

1) Be current. Published within the last few years. (i.e. since 2014)

2) Be peer-reviewed.

3) Relate directly to the question posed above.

Additionally, you MUST upload a pdf of EVERY paper that appears in your reference list.

Remember that a literature review is not the same as an abstract. Abstracts are descriptive. A literature review tells the reader what other researchers have written about a topic. You must find pertinent and relevant resources, group them into logical "collections", and the organize your review into a logical presentation of other research.Your literature review should be descriptive and representative of the work other researchers have done in your area.

Here are a few resources that describe literature reviews:

https://libguides.uwf.edu/c.php?g=215199&p=1420828

http://www.duluth.umn.edu/~hrallis/guides/researching/litreview.html

https://library.ithaca.edu/sp/assets/users/_lchabot/sample_apa_style_litreview.pdf

Every resource you choose must be peer reviewed. That means the paper must have undergone a formal peer review before being published in a journal or presented at a conference. You must ensure that your resources have undergone rigorous reviews. In most cases, you can find out the review process for a conference or journal by visiting the appropriate web site. Do not simply assume that a resource is peer reviewed - check it out.

If you are not sure how to identify peer reviewed papers or articles, please visit the following resources:

http://diy.library.oregonstate.edu/using-google-sc...

http://libguides.gwu.edu/education/peer-reviewed-a...

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Public Administration and Information Technology Volume 10 Series Editor Christopher G. Reddick San Antonio, Texas, USA w.jager@rug.nl More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10796 w.jager@rug.nl Marijn Janssen • Maria A. Wimmer Ameneh Deljoo Editors Policy Practice and Digital Science Integrating Complex Systems, Social Simulation and Public Administration in Policy Research 2123 w.jager@rug.nl Editors Marijn Janssen Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management Delft University of Technology Delft The Netherlands Ameneh Deljoo Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management Delft University of Technology Delft The Netherlands Maria A. Wimmer Institute for Information Systems Research University of Koblenz-Landau Koblenz Germany ISBN 978-3-319-12783-5 ISBN 978-3-319-12784-2 (eBook) Public Administration and Information Technology DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2014956771 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York London © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) w.jager@rug.nl Preface The last economic and financial crisis has heavily threatened European and other economies around the globe. Also, the Eurozone crisis, the energy and climate change crises, challenges of demographic change with high unemployment rates, and the most recent conflicts in the Ukraine and the near East or the Ebola virus disease in Africa threaten the wealth of our societies in different ways. The inability to predict or rapidly deal with dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies and societies can seriously hamper the wealth and prosperity of the European Union and its Member States as well as the global networks. These societal and economic challenges demonstrate an urgent need for more effective and efficient processes of governance and policymaking, therewith specifically addressing crisis management and economic/welfare impact reduction. Therefore, investing in the exploitation of innovative information and communication technology (ICT) in the support of good governance and policy modeling has become a major effort of the European Union to position itself and its Member States well in the global digital economy. In this realm, the European Union has laid out clear strategic policy objectives for 2020 in the Europe 2020 strategy1 : In a changing world, we want the EU to become a smart, sustainable, and inclusive economy. These three mutually reinforcing priorities should help the EU and the Member States deliver high levels of employment, productivity, and social cohesion. Concretely, the Union has set five ambitious objectives—on employment, innovation, education, social inclusion, and climate/energy—to be reached by 2020. Along with this, Europe 2020 has established four priority areas—smart growth, sustainable growth, inclusive growth, and later added: A strong and effective system of economic governance—designed to help Europe emerge from the crisis stronger and to coordinate policy actions between the EU and national levels. To specifically support European research in strengthening capacities, in overcoming fragmented research in the field of policymaking, and in advancing solutions for 1 Europe 2020 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm v w.jager@rug.nl vi Preface ICT supported governance and policy modeling, the European Commission has cofunded an international support action called eGovPoliNet2 . The overall objective of eGovPoliNet was to create an international, cross-disciplinary community of researchers working on ICT solutions for governance and policy modeling. In turn, the aim of this community was to advance and sustain research and to share the insights gleaned from experiences in Europe and globally. To achieve this, eGovPoliNet established a dialogue, brought together experts from distinct disciplines, and collected and analyzed knowledge assets (i.e., theories, concepts, solutions, findings, and lessons on ICT solutions in the field) from different research disciplines. It built on case material accumulated by leading actors coming from distinct disciplinary backgrounds and brought together the innovative knowledge in the field. Tools, methods, and cases were drawn from the academic community, the ICT sector, specialized policy consulting firms as well as from policymakers and governance experts. These results were assembled in a knowledge base and analyzed in order to produce comparative analyses and descriptions of cases, tools, and scientific approaches to enrich a common knowledge base accessible via www.policy-community.eu. This book, entitled “Policy Practice and Digital Science—Integrating Complex Systems, Social Simulation, and Public Administration in Policy Research,” is one of the exciting results of the activities of eGovPoliNet—fusing community building activities and activities of knowledge analysis. It documents findings of comparative analyses and brings in experiences of experts from academia and from case descriptions from all over the globe. Specifically, it demonstrates how the explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for policymaking and research. The book provides a first comprehensive look on how to take advantage of the development in the digital world with new approaches, concepts, instruments, and methods to deal with societal and computational complexity. This requires the knowledge traditionally found in different disciplines including public administration, policy analyses, information systems, complex systems, and computer science to work together in a multidisciplinary fashion and to share approaches. This book provides the foundation for strongly multidisciplinary research, in which the various developments and disciplines work together from a comprehensive and holistic policymaking perspective. A wide range of aspects for social and professional networking and multidisciplinary constituency building along the axes of technology, participative processes, governance, policy modeling, social simulation, and visualization are tackled in the 19 papers. With this book, the project makes an effective contribution to the overall objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy by providing a better understanding of different approaches to ICT enabled governance and policy modeling, and by overcoming the fragmented research of the past. This book provides impressive insights into various theories, concepts, and solutions of ICT supported policy modeling and how stakeholders can be more actively engaged in public policymaking. It draws conclusions 2 eGovPoliNet is cofunded under FP 7, Call identifier FP7-ICT-2011-7, URL: www.policycommunity.eu w.jager@rug.nl Preface vii of how joint multidisciplinary research can bring more effective and resilient findings for better predicting dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies and societies. It is my great pleasure to provide the preface to the book resulting from the eGovPoliNet project. This book presents stimulating research by researchers coming from all over Europe and beyond. Congratulations to the project partners and to the authors!—Enjoy reading! Thanassis Chrissafis Project officer of eGovPoliNet European Commission DG CNECT, Excellence in Science, Digital Science w.jager@rug.nl Contents 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer 2 Educating Public Managers and Policy Analysts in an Era of Informatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christopher Koliba and Asim Zia 15 The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research Policy Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert 35 3 1 4 Policy Making and Modelling in a Complex World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wander Jager and Bruce Edmonds 5 From Building a Model to Adaptive Robust Decision Making Using Systems Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erik Pruyt 75 Features and Added Value of Simulation Models Using Different Modelling Approaches Supporting Policy-Making: A Comparative Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dragana Majstorovic, Maria A.Wimmer, Roy Lay-Yee, Peter Davis and Petra Ahrweiler 95 6 57 7 A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Technologies for Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Eleni Kamateri, Eleni Panopoulou, Efthimios Tambouris, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Adegboyega Ojo, Deirdre Lee and David Price 8 Value Sensitive Design of Complex Product Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Andreas Ligtvoet, Geerten van de Kaa, Theo Fens, Cees van Beers, Paulier Herder and Jeroen van den Hoven ix w.jager@rug.nl x Contents 9 Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations and Lessons from International Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Natalie Helbig, Sharon Dawes, Zamira Dzhusupova, Bram Klievink and Catherine Gerald Mkude 10 Values in Computational Models Revalued . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Rebecca Moody and Lasse Gerrits 11 The Psychological Drivers of Bureaucracy: Protecting the Societal Goals of an Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Tjeerd C. Andringa 12 Active and Passive Crowdsourcing in Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Euripidis Loukis and Yannis Charalabidis 13 Management of Complex Systems: Toward Agent-Based Gaming for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Wander Jager and Gerben van der Vegt 14 The Role of Microsimulation in the Development of Public Policy . . . 305 Roy Lay-Yee and Gerry Cotterell 15 Visual Decision Support for Policy Making: Advancing Policy Analysis with Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Tobias Ruppert, Jens Dambruch, Michel Krämer, Tina Balke, Marco Gavanelli, Stefano Bragaglia, Federico Chesani, Michela Milano and Jörn Kohlhammer 16 Analysis of Five Policy Cases in the Field of Energy Policy . . . . . . . . . 355 Dominik Bär, Maria A.Wimmer, Jozef Glova, Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou and Laurence Brooks 17 Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments: Experiences from Saint Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Dmitrii Trutnev, Lyudmila Vidyasova and Andrei Chugunov 18 Sustainable Urban Development, Governance and Policy: A Comparative Overview of EU Policies and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Diego Navarra and Simona Milio 19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria: Bridging the Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Tanko Ahmed w.jager@rug.nl Contributors Tanko Ahmed National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Jos, Nigeria Petra Ahrweiler EA European Academy of Technology and Innovation Assessment GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany Tjeerd C. Andringa University College Groningen, Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering (ALICE), University of Groningen, AB, Groningen, the Netherlands Tina Balke University of Surrey, Surrey, UK Dominik Bär University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Cees van Beers Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Stefano Bragaglia University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Laurence Brooks Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK Yannis Charalabidis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece Federico Chesani University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Andrei Chugunov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Gerry Cotterell Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Jens Dambruch Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany Peter Davis Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Sharon Dawes Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA xi w.jager@rug.nl xii Contributors Zamira Dzhusupova Department of Public Administration and Development Management, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), NewYork, USA Bruce Edmonds Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK Theo Fens Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Marco Gavanelli University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Lasse Gerrits Department of Public Administration, Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Erasmus University Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Jozef Glova Technical University Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia Natalie Helbig Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA Paulier Herder Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Jeroen van den Hoven Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Wander Jager Groningen Center of Social Complexity Studies, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Marijn Janssen Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Geerten van de Kaa Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Eleni Kamateri Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece Bram Klievink Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Jörn Kohlhammer GRIS, TU Darmstadt & Fraunhofer IGD, Darmstadt, Germany Christopher Koliba University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Michel Krämer Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany Roy Lay-Yee Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Deirdre Lee INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland w.jager@rug.nl Contributors xiii Andreas Ligtvoet Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Euripidis Loukis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece Dragana Majstorovic University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Michela Milano University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Simona Milio London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, UK Catherine Gerald Mkude Institute for IS Research, University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Rebecca Moody Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Diego Navarra Studio Navarra, London, UK Adegboyega Ojo INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland Eleni Panopoulou Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK David Price Thoughtgraph Ltd, Somerset, UK Erik Pruyt Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Wassenaar, The Netherlands Tobias Ruppert Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany Efthimios Tambouris Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Konstantinos Tarabanis Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Dmitrii Trutnev ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Gerben van der Vegt Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Lyudmila Vidyasova ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Maria A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany Asim Zia University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA w.jager@rug.nl Chapter 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer We are running the 21st century using 20th century systems on top of 19th century political structures. . . . John Pollock, contributing editor MIT technology review Abstract The explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for innovating governance and policy-making. These information and communications technology (ICT) developments affect all parts of the policy-making cycle and result in drastic changes in the way policies are developed. To take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new approaches, concepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to deal with societal complexity and uncertainty. This field of research is sometimes depicted as e-government policy, e-policy, policy informatics, or data science. Advancing our knowledge demands that different scientific communities collaborate to create practice-driven knowledge. For policy-making in the digital age disciplines such as complex systems, social simulation, and public administration need to be combined. 1.1 Introduction Policy-making and its subsequent implementation is necessary to deal with societal problems. Policy interventions can be costly, have long-term implications, affect groups of citizens or even the whole country and cannot be easily undone or are even irreversible. New information and communications technology (ICT) and models can help to improve the quality of policy-makers. In particular, the explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for innovating the processes and solutions of ICT-based policy-making and research. To M. Janssen () Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands e-mail: m.f.w.h.a.janssen@tudelft.nl M. A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 M. Janssen et al. (eds.), Policy Practice and Digital Science, Public Administration and Information Technology 10, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2_1 w.jager@rug.nl 1 2 M. Janssen and M. A. Wimmer take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new approaches, concepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to ...
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Running head: THE IMPACT OF IT ON POLICY MAKING

The Impact of it on Policy Making
Name
University

1

THE IMPACT OF IT ON POLICY MAKING

2

The Impact of it on Policy Making
How has Information Technology impacted governing bodies’ ability to align public policy
with stakeholder needs?
Introduction
The importance of information technology in the present era cannot be underestimated
with large corporation investing billions of money into upgraded systems of IT so they can get
the best outcome of company operations (Emin & Aferdita, 2018). Government bodies, on the
other hand, have not realized the importance of fully automated systems and also the inclusion of
IT infrastructure. The importance of IT when it comes to decision making and the evaluation of
occurrences is something that cannot be undervalued and this is why governing bodies are
slowing easing in the use of IT structures and the difference has been noted (Farva, 2019). Each
governing body that comes to be has a core function to perform and there are a number of
stakeholders involved that would want to see the governing bodies operating on the optimum
level.
Body
The policies that are put in place are usually the driving factors behind the infrastructure
available to achieve the set goals and with that in mind it is crucial to realize the importance of
having IT structures and the influence they can have in the development of policies that are not
only effective but also long-lasting (Encyclopedia Britannica,2012). Governing bodies are
entitled to the responsibilities of conducting their operations in line with public policies and
thereafter eventual needs of the stakeholders. It is difficult to have such operations aligning and
that is why the existence of modern IT tools has been found to link various facets of company
operations and ensure that. Through this analysis, we will be able to get a realistic picture of

THE IMPACT OF IT ON POLICY MAKING

3

what is needed within various governing body and the happenings in relation to the existence of
IT and the impact it has in operations in relation to public policy
IT structures can bring about both positive and negative implication in relation to a
number of factors that relate to public policy (Agwu et al, 2014). One thing that should be noted
is that the inclusion of IT structures in a governing body does not mean that there will be a
positive outcome. Implementation of IT structures is costly and thus it is crucial that the decision
to bring in modern IT structures should be guided by the goals of the company, if the systems
that are put in place actually complement the operations of the company and is functioning
within the public policy set, the requirements of stakeholders will be met effectiv...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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