LAB EXPERIMENT 5. Crystals

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I will upload the lab report sample and the pages that you can cite from the book and the results.

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LAB EXPERIMENT 5. Crystals Purpose(s): • The purpose of this lab experience is to investigate factors related to formation of salt, sugar and water crystals Principle(s): • • • • • • • The boiling point of a solution is raised in direct proportion to the number of particles in the solution. The freezing point of a solution is lowered in direct proportion to the number of particles in the solution. The solubility of sugar and salt vary greatly and influence the number of particles able to be dissolved in a water solution. End products of sugar cookery are dependent upon relationships among sugar, water, interfering agents, temperature, and agitation. Interfering agents and agitation can prevent sugar crystals formation or reduce the size of crystals. As temperature of sugar-water mixture rises, the viscosity increases and moisture content of the end product decreases. Ice crystal formation is dependent upon interfering agents and temperature. Lab Experiment D: Ice Crystals and Interfering Agents (in bold) Objective(s): • To evaluate the effect of interfering agents on ice crystal size and freezing temperature. Material(s): On the food cart/fridge: • Half & Half Milk • Egg Substitute • Vanilla Extract • Rock Salt • Ice from Ice Machine • Gelatin • Sugar • Whole milk • Corn starch • • • • • • • • • • In your kitchen: • 2-Ice Cream Makers Recipe 1: Custard Ice Cream with Gelatin (New Machine) 118 ml Half & Half Milk 1 1-2qt Saucepan 1 Wooden Spoon Liquid Measuring Cups Nesting Measuring Cups Calibrated Measuring Spoons Mixing Bowl Display Bowls Dietetic scale Cold and warm water Thermometer 236 ml ¼c 67. g 2 tsp ½ tbsp 1 tbsp Whole Milk Egg Substitute Sugar Vanilla Extract Gelatin Cold Water Procedure(s): 1. Wash the drum, dasher and lid from the ice cream machine with hot, soapy water. 2. Rinse first with hot water to remove soap. 3. Wipe dry the outside of the drum to prevent the water on the outside to freeze making the drum stuck on the ice cream maker. 4. Allow the inside of the drum, dasher and lid to air dry for a few minutes. 5. Soften gelatin in water. 6. Follow the formula above; mix the first 5 ingredients in mixing bowl. 7. Add gelatin mix and mix together all the ingredients in a saucepan. Cook gently until mixture thickens enough to coat a wooden spoon. 8. Allow mixture to cool to at least 85 °F. Put it on a tray with ice to accelerate the cooling process. 9. Put the mixture in the drum. 10. Do not fill more than 2/3 to 3/4 full. 11. Put lid on drum and assemble the ice cream freezer. 12. Set up the timer and start churning (it may take 30 – 45 min) 13. Once mix is not runny, place ice cream in bowls, nestled in crushed ice. Serve enough samples for everyone to taste. Label and display samples 14. Based on the table in the results section, instruct 5 students to evaluate your product. Register and discuss their answers on the results section. Recipe 2: Cooked Custard Ice Cream with Cornstarch (New Machine) 118 ml 236 ml ¼c 67 g 2 tsp ½ tbsp 1 tbsp 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Half & Half Milk Whole Milk Egg Substitute Sugar Vanilla Extract Cornstarch Warm Water Wash the drum, dasher and lid from the ice cream machine with hot, soapy water. Rinse first with hot water to remove soap. Rinse again with boiling water. Allow a few minutes to air dry. Place a three ice cream machine parts in the freezer until you are ready for their use. Soften cornstarch in water. Follow the formula above; mix the first 5 ingredients in mixing bowl. Add cornstarch mix and mix together all the ingredients in a saucepan. Cook gently until mixture thickens enough to coat a wooden spoon. Allow mixture to cool to at least 85 °F. Put it on a tray with ice to accelerate the cooling process. Put the mixture in the drum. Do not fill more than 2/3 to 3/4 full. Put lid on drum and assemble the ice cream freezer. Set up the timer and start churning (it may take 30 – 45 min) Once mix is not runny, place ice cream in bowls, nestled in crushed ice. Serve enough samples for everyone to taste. Label and display samples Based on the table in the results section, instruct 5 students to evaluate your product. Register 1 and discuss their answers on the results section. Result(s) Table: Evaluation of Food Product Describe appearance, mouthfeel and flavor using descriptive words from the table at the end of the lab handout. Sample Appearance mouthfeel Flavor Rate of Melting (1 = melts fastest; 5 = melts slowest 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 2: Cooked custard 1 with cornstarch + new 2 machine 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 1: Cooked custard with gelatin+ new machine Question(s) 1. Define emulsifier in your own words. Provide a discussion of two examples of emulsifiers that are often used in ice cream production. 2. Define stabilizer in your own words. Provide a discussion of two examples of stabilizers that are often used in ice cream production. 1 Descriptive Words for Appearance, Texture, Tenderness and Flavor of Foods Appearance Texture/Mouthfeel Tenderness 1 Flavo r Clear Limp Flat Heig ht Appealin g Appetizin g Color Shape Cloudy Opaque Shiny Dull Sheen Gloss y Roug h Bruise d Pitted Spotty Bright Asymmetric al Burnt Creamy Curdled Dry Fine Frothy Grainy Level Luminesce nt Moist Pale Pebble d Rounde d Size Shape Sparkin g Sticky Symmetric Brittle Crisp Coarse Chew y Curdle d Firm Frothy Grainy Gumm y Lump y Moist Mushy Creamy Rubbery Slimy Syrupy Soft Smooth Spongy Springy Melted Viscous Thick Hard Stringy Adhesive Velvety Body Brittle Chewy Compact Consistent Crusty Elastic Flaky Gritty Limp Mealy Moist Mushy Pastry Porous Al dente Crisp Crunch y Firm Stringy Tender Tough Chewy 1 Acid Aroma Astringe nt Balance d Bitter Bland Bold Burnt Concentrate d Dull Earthy Eggy Fishy Flat Foul Fragra nt Fresh Fruity Harsh Offflavor Insipid Mild Nutty Pasty Rancid Salty Sharp Soapy Sour Spicy Stale Strong Sweet Tart Tasteles s Yeasty Watery Weak Putrid Group Members Names Topic: Sensory Evaluation Lab Experiment C: Dairy and Non-Dairy Frozen Desserts Introduction: Sensory evaluation of food is a test method used by the food industry to evaluate food quality, compare the company products with competitors, evaluate the acceptability of new products or verify that reformulated products are as acceptable as the previous formulas. On sensory analysis, people evaluate food based on their senses and personal preference (Brown, 2019). Frozen desserts have traditionally being dairy or water based but recently more plant based, nondairy frozen desserts have become more and more popular with big names on the frozen dessert arena creating non-dairy frozen desserts which taste is well liked by consumers. Objectives: To determine the difference between dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts and see which type of frozen dessert is the best. Materials: • • • • • • • 5 spoons for serving 16 x 5 Dixie cups 1 qt. vanilla reduced fat ice cream 1 qt. French vanilla premium ice cream 1 qt. no sugar added vanilla ice cream 1 qt. soy milk ice cream 1 qt. vanilla non-dairy (almond) ice cream Methods: We made a list of the ingredients that were available for our sensory test based on dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts. The list of ingredients was displayed so that the students were able to see what desserts that they tasted. Each member of our kitchen tasted each frozen dessert that we had so that we were familiar with how each one tasted before we tested the other students from other kitchens. We prepared the samples by spooning each of the frozen desserts in separate Dixie cups and organized them in our freezer based on their type. As each student came to test the different types of frozen desserts, one of us recorded the data from each participant and another person gave the participants the prepared samples, which were placed in our kitchen’s freezer in order to prevent the desserts from melting. Once all tests were finished, we put away the frozen desserts and cleaned our kitchen. Results/Calculations: Table 1. Summary of the evaluation of dairy and non-dairy ice cream* Product Reduced fat vanilla ice cream Premium French Vanilla ice cream Flavor Mouthfeel Temperature (perceived by the tongue) Sweet, Creamy, Cold vanilla, milky thick Sweet, Heavy, Cold French creamy vanilla, vanilla Non-dairy (almond) Nutty, Watery , Cold vanilla ice cream almond, thick, light walnut No sugar added Vanilla Very thick, Cold vanilla ice cream (unsweet) thick Soy milk vanilla ice Sweet Grainy, Cold cream (not vanilla creamy, light tasting), dough, vanilla *This table includes results from our kitchen and 5 taste testers Preference (1 lowest-5 highest) + SD 3.8 + 1.5 3-digit code 051 4.8 + 0.4 478 3.2 + 1.2 269 3.0 + 1.1 927 2.5 + 1.5 024 Discussion: According to our results, vanilla reduced fat ice cream, premium French vanilla ice creams were the most preferred, and subjects claimed they were the sweetest. While on the other hand, the non-dairy soy ice cream was the least preferred. We think many people such as our group preferred the vanilla reduced fat ice cream just because it was so sweet and creamy. We were expecting the reduced fat ice cream to be plain and the least sweet but it was the opposite. It was interesting to research how reduced fat actually means more sugar added to products. According to the study done by Sugarstacks (2014) reduced fat does not necessarily mean less sugar than regular fat foods since low fat foods usually have more added sugars to account for the lack of fat. On this study, the original version of Oreos cookies had less sugar than the reduced fat version. Another article from WebMD (2016) mentions that fat free can be tasteless, which is why food companies add flour, sugar, salt, and thickeners, which results in added calories. As fat is being removed from food products, additives like cornstarch, refined carbohydrates and sugar are added to make up for flavor and mouthfeel (Zaladonis, 2015). No sugar added, almond-based and soy-based ice creams were the least preferred perhaps because tasters perceived an unexpected after taste (almond-like or soy-like) or because the ice cream was not as sweet as expected. In conclusion, reduced fat and reduced sugars do not necessarily mean healthier since much of these foods are heavily refined. Questions: 1. Compare the flavors of the dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts. The dairy based ice cream was preferred over the non-dairy one. The dairy ice cream had a smoother more satisfying mouth feel and taste than the ice cream made with non-dairy milk. The non-dairy ice creams, which were made of soy and almond milk, did not have as much of a rich taste as the dairy-based ones and the soy and almond flavors were there. Also the texture of nondairy ice creams had a light watery feel that was not as satisfying on the taste buds as the ice creams made of milk. 2. What role does fat content play in dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts? Discuss effect on flavor, texture/mouth-feel, weight, and consistency Taste and flavor of food affects people’s preference in what they desire to eat. Fat content in frozen desserts gives a savory mouth feel that satisfies the taste sensors (Brown, 2017). The thick mouth-feel given by fat brings out a smoother creamier flavor as it evenly spreads out on the tongue (Brown, 2017). This explains why the vanilla premium ice cream had the highest rating on the hedonic scale since it had the highest amount of fat. References: Brown, A. C. (2019). Understanding food: principles and preparation. Boston: Cengage Learning. Sugarstacks. (2014). How much sugar in reduced fat foods? Retrieved from http://www.sugarstacks.com/lowfat.htm WebMD. (2016). Low-fat diet: Why fat-free isn't trouble-free. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/low-fat-diet#1 Zaladonis, C. (2015). Why you shouldn't buy reduced fat foods. Retrieved from https://spoonuniversity.com/lifestyle/why-you-shouldnt-buy-reduced-fat-foods ...
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Tutor Answer

evelynexquisitewriter
School: University of Virginia

Attached.

1

Lab Report: Crystal

Student name:
Institutional affiliation:

2

Lab Report: Crystal
The attached document addresses the question “LAB EXPERIMENT 5. Crystals” by answering
the following:








Introduction
Objectives
Materials
Methods
Results
Discussion
Questions

Attached.

1

Lab Report: Crystal

Student name:
Institutional affiliation:

2

Lab Report: Crystal
The attached document addresses the question “LAB EXPERIMENT 5. Crystals” by answering
the following:








Introduction
Objectives
Materials
Methods
Results
Discussion
Questions


1

Running Head: Crystal

Lab Report: Crystal

Student name:
Institutional affiliation:

2

Crystal
INTRODUCTION
The number of particles in any given solution is directly proportional to the solution’s
boiling point while the lowering of its freezing point id also directly proportional to the particle
number. Moreover, salt and sugar solubility have varied particle number when dissolve in water.
Sugar cookery’s product depends on agitation, temperature, interfering agents, water and sugar.
The size of sugar crystalized is highly dependent on the agitation and interfering agents. In
addition, the temperature of sugar-water mixture is directly proportional...

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