Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Burns, P., & Schapper, J. (2008). The ethical case for affirmative action. Journal of
Business Ethics, 83(3), 369-379
In this article on the ethical implications of adopting and implementing affirmative
action, the scholars examined the weaknesses in the arguments against the policies. Also, the
examination of the elements of the criticisms of affirmative action revealed that aside from the
strength of its ethical and philosophical underlying assumptions, the policy is critical to
eradicating systemic discrimination and disadvantages in society. It is these premises and
findings on the significance of affirmative action to end racism in the United States that informed
its inclusion in the list of references for the justice paper on the topic. Finally, its emphasis on the
philosophical and ethical justification of this solution against racial discrimination at the
individual and institutional levels also informed its inclusion in the sources.
Carbado, D. W., & Rock, P. (2016). What exposes African Americans to police violence.
Harv. CR-CLL Rev., 51, 159.
The need to examine the exposure of African-Americans to police violence in their
communities informed the conduct of the study that is d esigned to broaden the analytical frame
of all the issues responsible for extra-judicial killings of black people. Also, the need to increase
the understanding of the people on the connection between race and the use of excessive force by
the police influenced the methodologies that were used for the conduct of the quantitative
analysis. According to the scholars, their findings showed that some police officers are willing to
use excessive force to express their racial superiority regardless of the consequences provide
evidence to support the results in the literature. Therefore, this publication would not just
strengthen the argument on the role of racism on the perpetration of injustice in the country but
illustrate some of the dimensions of the problem that can be solved through affirmative actions.
Gilliam, W. S., Maupin, A. N., Reyes, C. R., Accavitti, M., & Shic, F. (2016). Do early
educators’ implicit biases regarding sex and race relate to behavior expectations
and recommendations of preschool expulsions and suspensions. Research Study
Brief. Yale University, Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, CT.
In this article, Gilliam and colleagues the implicit biases of preschool educators by
examining the disparities in preschool expulsion among black boys and their white counterparts.
According to scholars, the findings of their study showed that preschool teachers expect black
boys to display challenging behaviors more than white boys. Also, they noted that the level of
implicit biases varies according to the race of the preschool teacher. Consequently, the findings
and recommendations form this scientific study by the author would provide the evidence to
support the perspectives that are provided by other scholars in their respective articles, as well as
enhance the quality of the content of this article. .
Murakawa, N., & Beckett, K. (2010). The penology of racial innocence: The erasure of
racism in the study and practice of punishment. Law & Society Review, 44(3‐4), 695730
In this article, Murakawa and Beckett (2010) discussed the framework that is used for
assessing the role of race in the development and implementation of penal policies by criminal
justice institutions. The scholar further added that the need to ensure a balanced perspective of
the role of racism in some of the practices in the criminal justice system of the United States
informed the development of the conceptual tools and methods. Also, the examination of all the
issues showed that criminal justice and racial discrimination are operated in both systemic and
serpentine manners. Therefore, the inclusion of this article in the list of sources for the justice
paper would provide the evidence that can be used to support the perspectives of other scholars
on how on racism is used to promote injustices in America.
Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Meyer, M. J., & Shanks, T. (2018). Justice and Fairness, In A
Framework for Thinking Ethically, Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa
Clara University. Retrieved from http://www. scu.
The authors of this article discussed the concepts of justice and fairness in the context of
their role in the promotion of moral and ethical philosophies in any society. As the excerpt from
a book by the scholars, the article contains information on the principles of justice and how they
can be applied to the attainment of the goals of just and fair societies. Also, the article provided
details on the various elements of justice and how they can be applied to the maintenance of
social order and harmony. Consequently, the report is included in the list of sources because of
the conceptual framework that can be created from its description of the various aspects of
justice and how certain practices and institutions contribute to its absence in societies.
Racism in American Society
Introduction: Racial tensions in the United States today are very high despite the perceived
level of progress that the nation has made during the election of its first black president in 2008.
Unfortunately, the rate of decline in the people acceptance of racial diversity is unsurprising
because racial ideologies have been deep-rooted in the cultural history, political culture, and
social identities of the country. These premises are the reason why it is imperative to examine
not just the origins of race in the United States but do so in the context of how the soc...