Taoism and nature

timer Asked: Mar 29th, 2019
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Question Description

-Explain the difference between Taoism and Confucianism with regard to their different views of nature and human society. Next, explain how Taoism has a concept of nature and our place in it that is very different from the view we usually have in the western world today.

-500 word, answer in essay format with a clear intro, body, and conclusion.

-I attached some useful links


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Philosophy & Religion in China Chinese Folk Religion Confucianism Taoism Chinese Folk Religion Belief in spirits  Reverence for ancestors  Priests perform blessing rituals:  – purifying space – Exorcising evil spirits (“hungry ghosts”) Astrology  Divination  Chinese Religious Concepts   Chi – life force, life energy (“ultimate”) Yin-Yang – harmony of opposites – Yin = passive state of energy – Yang = active state of energy Tao [ – the “way” of the cosmos, of nature Tian – Heaven as an impersonal order that governs the cosmos and should govern human affiars Confucianism A political and social philosophy seeking social harmony on all levels: Within the self …the family …the community ...the state …the nation …the world …the cosmos Learning from the past to improve the future Confucianism - Origins Kung-Fu-tzu (Confucius) “Master Kung”  551 - 479 BCE  Education  Good Government  Good Relations Meng-Tzu (Mencius) (4th century) continues to develop teachings of Confucius Goal of Confucianism To develop one’s Jen: Human Heartedness - the innate goodness of humanity Thus becoming a Chun Tzu: the “Great Man” or “Gentle Man” Jen is developed through intentional living by Confucian virtues… Confucian Virtues    Jen – Human Heartedness Li (rites, ritual) – the inherent “pattern” in things – For Confucius, Li is especially significant in a social context – propriety or etiquette, the “pattern” of humane behavior Rectification of names – a person or thing should be true to its name Recipricity (shu) – the Golden Rule: – “Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you” The Five Relationships Filial Piety (Hsiao) - respect for the five constant relationships: – – – – –  Parent and child Husband & wife Older & younger sibling Older & younger friend Ruler & subject Human-heartedness is developed only within the context of human relationships Confucianism as a Religion     Deification of Confucius - statues Confucian Temples – honoring Confucius Veneration of the ancestors Rituals within… – – – – the household the village the state the nation Confucianism - Texts   The “Five Classics” (of the past): – – – – – I-Ching The Book of History (Shu Ching) The Book of Poems (Shih Ching) The Spring and Autumn Annals (Ch’un Ch’iu) The Book of Rituals (Li Chi) – – – – Analects (Lun Yu) Doctrine of the Mean The Great Learning The Book of Mencius (Meng-Tzu) The “Four Books” (Confucian) Taoism Origins and Texts   Legendary founder: Lao Tzu (6th century BCE) Primary text: Tao Te Ching (the “Book of the Way and the Power”) – 81 short “chapters” containing the basic philosophy of living in harmony and balance Taoism as a Way of Living      Seeking Health and Longevity: through diet, meditation, exercise, and a stress-free life Alchemy: seeking the chemical “elixir of life”to achieve immortality Meditation: “Inner Alchemy Meditation” – seeking spiritual rather than chemical transformation Natural/holistic healing: herbal medicine, acupressure, acupuncture, exercise… T’ai-Chi-Ch’uan (“grand ultimate boxing”) – A slow, graceful martial art stressing movement in balance Religious Taoism Deification of Lao Tzu  The Jade Emperor and the eight “Immortals”  Taoist temples with images of Lao Tzu    and other “immortals” Taoist Priests combine Taoist meditation with purification rites of folk religion exorcism practices Taoist sects develop beginning in 1st century, additional teachers and texts Philosophical Taoism  The Tao (“path” or “way”)  Te (“power” or “virtue”) – One’s natural ability brought to peak potential through following the way More Taoist Concepts  Wei-wu-wei (“active non-action”) – Passive non-resistance to the natural forces of life – Natural way to get things done with least effort and greatest success – “Go with the flow,” yield to the natural way of things – Applied in all walks of life Yin and Yang ...
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