O RGANIZAT IONAL
B EHAV IOR
E X P ERI E NCE | GR OW | CONTR IB UT E
SC H E R M ERHORN
O SB O R N
H UN T
UH L-BI E N
This page is intentionally left blank
WileyPLUS is a research-based online environment
for effective teaching and learning.
WileyPLUS builds students’ confidence because it takes the guesswork
out of studying by providing students with a clear roadmap:
what to do
how to do it
if they did it right
It offers interactive resources along with a complete digital textbook that help
students learn more. With WileyPLUS, students take more initiative so you’ll have
greater impact on their achievement in the classroom and beyond.
For more information, visit www.wileyplus.com
ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL
SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED!
2-Minute Tutorials and all
of the resources you and your
students need to get started
Student support from an
experienced student user
Collaborate with your colleagues,
find a mentor, attend virtual and live
events, and view resources
assignments and presentations
created by subject matter experts
Technical Support 24/7
FAQs, online chat,
and phone support
Your WileyPLUS Account Manager,
providing personal training
John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. | Richard N. Osborn | Mary Uhl-Bien | James G. Hunt
Wayne State University
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
University of Nebraska
Texas Tech University
VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER
ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF MARKETING
SENIOR CONTENT MANAGER
SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR
SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR
PHOTO DEPARTMENT MANAGER
PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES
Elena Santa Maria and Thomas Caruso
©ULTRA.F/Getty Images, Inc.
This book was typeset in 10/12 ITC Garamond at Aptara®, Inc. and printed and bound by Quad Graphics/Versailles.
The cover was printed by Quad Graphics/Versailles.
This book is printed on acid free paper. ∞
Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than
200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our company is built on
a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work. In
2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic,
and ethical challenges we face in our business. Among the issues we are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement, ethical conduct within our business and among our vendors, and community and charitable
support. For more information, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/go/citizenship.
Copyright ©2012, 2010, 2008, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act,
without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate percopy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website www.copyright.com.
Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111
River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, (201)748-6011, fax (201)748-6008, website http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their
courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party.
Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of
charge return shipping label are available at www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel. If you have chosen to adopt this textbook for use in your course, please accept this book as your complimentary desk copy. Outside of the United States,
please contact your local representative.
ISBN 13 978-0-470-87820-0
Printed in the United States of America.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
about the authors
Dr. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. is the Charles G. O’Bleness Professor Emeritus of
Management in the College of Business at Ohio University where he teaches
undergraduate and MBA courses in management, organizational behavior, and
Asian business. He earned a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Northwestern
University, after receiving an M.B.A. (with distinction) in management and international business from New York University, and a B.S. in business administration
from the State University of New York at Buffalo.
Dedicated to instructional excellence and serving the needs of practicing
managers, Dr. Schermerhorn focuses on bridging the gap between the theory and
practice of management in both the classroom and in his textbooks. He has won
awards for teaching excellence at Tulane University, The University of Vermont,
and Ohio University, where he was named a University Professor, the university’s
leading campus-wide award for undergraduate teaching. He also received the
excellence in leadership award for his service as Chair of the Management Education and Development Division of the Academy of Management.
Dr. Schermerhorn’s international experience adds a unique global dimension
to his teaching and textbooks. He holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Pécs in Hungary, awarded for his international scholarly contributions to
management research and education. He has also served as a Visiting Professor
of Management at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, as on-site Coordinator of
the Ohio University MBA and Executive MBA programs in Malaysia, and as Kohei
Miura visiting professor at the Chubu University of Japan. Presently he is Adjunct
Professor at the National University of Ireland at Galway, a member of the graduate faculty at Bangkok University in Thailand, and Permanent Lecturer in the PhD
program at the University of Pécs in Hungary.
An enthusiastic scholar, Dr. Schermerhorn is a member of the Academy of
Management, where he served as chairperson of the Management Education and
Development Division. Educators and students alike know him as author of Management 11e (Wiley, 2011) and Exploring Management 3e (2012), and senior
co-author of Organizational Behavior 12/e (Wiley, 2012). His many books are
available in Chinese, Dutch, French, Indonesian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish language editions. Dr. Schermerhorn’s published articles are found in the
Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review Academy of
Management Executive, Organizational Dynamics, Journal of Management Education, and the Journal of Management Development.
Dr. Schermerhorn is a popular guest speaker at colleges and universities. His recent student and faculty workshop topics include innovations in
business education, teaching the millennial generation, global perspectives
in management education, and textbook writing and scholarly manuscript
Dr. John R.
vi About the Authors
Dr. James G.
The late Dr. James G. ( Jerry) Hunt was the Paul Whitfield Horn Professor of
Management, Professor of Health Organization Management, Former Director,
Institute for Leadership Research, and former department Chair of Management, Texas Tech University. He received his Ph.D. and master’s degrees from
the University of Illinois after completing a B.S. (with honors) at Michigan
Technological University. Dr. Hunt co-authored an organization theory text
and Core Concepts of Organizational Behavior (Wiley, 2004) and authored or
co-authored three leadership monographs. He founded the Leadership Symposia Series and co-edited the eight volumes based on the series. He was the
former editor of the Journal of Management and The Leadership Quarterly.
He presented or published some 200 articles, papers, and book chapters, and
among his better-known books are Leadership: A New Synthesis, published
by Sage, and Out-of-the-Box Leadership, published by JAI. The former was
a finalist for the Academy of Management’s 1993 Terry Distinguished Book
Award. Dr. Hunt received the Distinguished Service Award from the Academy
of Management, the Sustained Outstanding Service Award from the Southern
Management Association, and the Barnie E. Rushing, Jr. Distinguished Researcher Award from Texas Tech University for his long-term contributions to
management research and scholarship. He also lived and taught in England,
Finland, and Thailand, and taught in China.
Dr. Richard N.
Dr. Richard N. Osborn is a Wayne State University Distinguished Professor, Professor of Management Emeritus, and former Board of Governors Faculty Fellow.
He has received teaching awards at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
and Wayne State University, and he has also taught at Arizona State University,
Monash University (Australia), Tulane University, University of Munich, and the
University of Washington. He received a DBA from Kent State University after
earning an MBA at Washington State University and a B.S. from Indiana University. With over 200 presentations and publications, he is a charter member
of the Academy of Management Journals Hall of Fame. Dr. Osborn is a leading authority on international alliances in technology-intensive industries and
is co-author of an organization theory text as well as Basic Organizational
Behavior ( John Wiley & Sons, 1995, 1998). He has served as editor of international strategy for the Journal of World Business and Special Issue Editor for
The Academy of Management Journal. He serves or has served as a member
of the editorial boards for The Academy of Management Journal, The Academy
of Management Review, Journal of High Technology Management, The Journal
of Management, Leadership Quarterly, and Technology Studies, among others.
He is very active in the Academy of Management, having served as divisional
program chair and president, as well as the Academy representative for the International Federation of Scholarly Associations of Management. Dr. Osborn’s
research has been sponsored by the Department of Defense, Ford Motor Company, National Science Foundation, Nissan, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, among others. In addition to teaching, Dr. Osborn spent a number of
years in private industry, including a position as a senior research scientist with
the Battelle Memorial Institute in Seattle, where he worked on improving the
safety of commercial nuclear power.
About the Authors vii
Dr. Mary Uhl-Bien is the Howard Hawks Chair in Business Ethics and Leadership
at the University of Nebraska. She earned her Ph.D. and M.B.A. in organizational
behavior at the University of Cincinnati after completing an undergraduate degree
in International Business and Spanish. She teaches organizational behavior, leadership, and ethics courses at the undergraduate and graduate (MBA and doctoral)
levels, and has been heavily involved in executive education, teaching to business
executives and physicians in the United States, China, Europe, and Saudi Arabia
and to the senior executive service of the U.S. government for The Brookings
Institute in Washington, D.C. She has been a visiting professor/scholar at Pablo
de Olavide University in Seville, Spain, the Universidade Nova de Lisboa/Catolica
Portuguesa in Lisbon, Portugal, and University Lund in Sweden.
Dr. Uhl-Bien’s research interests are in leadership, followership, and ethics. In
addition to her conceptual work on complexity and relational leadership, some of
the empirical projects she is currently involved in include investigations of “Leadership and Adaptability in the Healthcare Industry” (a $300,000 grant from Booz
Allen Hamilton), “Adaptive Leadership and Innovation: A Focus on Idea Generation and Flow” (at a major financial institution in the U.S.), and “Social Constructions of Followership and Leading Up.” She has published in such journals as The
Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology, The Leadership Quarterly, the Journal of Management, and Human Relations. She won the
Best Paper Award in The Leadership Quarterly in 2001 for her co-authored article
on Complex Leadership. She has been on the editorial boards of The Academy
of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, The Leadership
Quarterly, Leadership, and The International Journal of Complexity in Leadership
and Management, and is senior editor of the Leadership Horizons series (Information Age Publishers). Dr. Uhl-Bien has consulted with Disney, the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, British Petroleum, and the General Accounting Office, and
served as the executive consultant for State Farm Insurance Co. from 1998–2004.
She has been a Visiting Scholar in Spain, Portugal, and Sweden. Dr. Uhl-Bien has
trained Russian businesspeople for the American Russian Center at the University
of Alaska Anchorage from 1993–1996, worked on a USAID grant at the Magadan
Pedagogical Institute in Magadan, Russia from 1995–1996, and participated in a
Fulbright-Hays grant to Mexico during the summer of 2003.
Dr. Mary Uhl-Bien
Global warming, economic uncertainty, poverty, discrimination, unemployment,
illiteracy . . . these are among the many issues and problems we face as citizens
today. But how often do we stop and recognize our responsibilities for problem
solving and positive action in this social context? What we do today will have a
lasting impact on future generations. And whether we are talking about families,
communities, nations, or the organizations in which we work and volunteer, the
core question remains: How can we join together to best serve society?
Look again at the cover. Think about people working together and collaborating in organizations around the world. Think about how organizations and their
members grow, and how individuals can expand the positive impact of society’s
institutions as their ideas and talents come together in supportive and nurturing
work settings. And, think about the delicate balances between work and family,
between individuals and teams, and between organizations and society that must
be mastered in the quest for future prosperity.
Yes, our students do have a lot to consider in the complex and ever-shifting
world of today. But, we believe they are up to the challenge. And, we believe
that courses in organizational behavior have strong roles to play in building their
capabilities to make good judgments and move organizational performance forward in positive and responsible ways.
That message is a fitting place to begin Organizational Behavior, 12th Edition. Everyone wants to have a useful and satisfying job and career; everyone
wants all the organizations of society—small and large businesses, hospitals,
schools, governments, nonprofits, and more—to perform well; everyone seeks a
healthy and sustainable environment. In this context the lessons of our discipline
are strong and applicable. Armed with an understanding of organizational behavior, great things are possible as people work, pursue careers, and contribute to
society through positive personal and organizational accomplishments.
Organizational behavior is a discipline rich with insights for career and life
skills. As educators, our job is to bring to the classroom and to students the great
power of knowledge, understanding, and inquiry that characterizes our discipline
and its commitment to understanding human behavior in organizations. What our
students do with their talents will not only shape how organizations all contribute to society, but also fundamentally alter lives around the globe. We must do
our parts as educators to help them gain the understanding and confidence to
become leaders of tomorrow’s organizations.
JOHN R. SCHERMERHORN, JR.
RICHARD N. OSBORN
Wayne State University
University of Nebraska
about this book
Organizational Behavior, 12th Edition, brings to its readers the solid and complete content core of prior editions, an enriched and exciting “OB Skills Workbook,” and many revisions, updates, and enhancements that reflect today’s dynamic times.
All chapters are written so that they can be used in any sequence that best
fits the instructor’s course design. Each has also been updated to reflect new
research findings and current applications and issues. For this edition, major
changes were made to strengthen the research component, expand and refocus
the chapters dealing with individual behavior and performance, and more fully
treat the emerging directions in leadership research and thinking. A module on
Research Methods in OB has been placed online to offer easy ways to further
enrich the course experience.
To help students anticipate, understand, and confront the ethical challenges of
work and careers today, we have continued our special feature in each chapter—
Ethics in OB. This feature presents a situation or issue from an actual case or
news report and asks a question of the student reader that requires personal
reflection on the ethics and ethics implications. Examples include “Workers
Concerned about Ethical Workplace, Personality Testing, Social Loafing May
Be Closer than You Think, Privacy in an Age of Social Networking, and Cheat
Now . . . Cheat Later.”
To focus students on their roles in demonstrating leadership in organizations,
we revised the leadership feature to “Finding the Leader in You.” This feature
helps students think about how they can develop their own leadership skills and
capabilities to enhance organizational performance. Examples include Patricia
Karter of Dancing Deer Baking, Jim Senegal of Costco, Karen Bryant of the Seattle
Storm, and Jeff Bezos of Amazon.
To better communicate the timely research foundations of OB, we have
continued the popular Research Insights found in each chapter. Each highlights an article from a respected journal such as the Academy of Management Journal and the Journal of Applied Psychology. Sample topics include
x About This Book
interactional justice, racial bias, social loafing, demographic faultlines, and
To help students apply the insights of OB to real situations and problems,
each chapter includes Visual Sidebars that highlight key action points to remember—such as “Things Are Changing as the Facebook Generation Goes
to Work”; Margin Essays that provide brief and timely examples—such as
“Employee Morale Varies Around the World,” and OB and Popular Culture
that links movies and television to management insights—such as Moral Management and John Q.
As always, our primary goal is to create a textbook that appeals to the student
reader while still offering solid content. Through market research surveys and
focus groups with students and professors, we continue to learn what features
worked best from previous editions, what can be improved, and what can be
added to accomplish this goal both effectively and ...
Purchase answer to see full