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Abdulmajeed Alrashidi.docx by Abdulmajeed Alrashidi Submission date: 09-Feb-2019 12:23AM (UT C-0500) Submission ID: 1075367520 File name: Abdulmajeed_Alrashidi.docx Word count: 1894 Character count: 12090 Abdulmajeed Alrashidi.docx ORIGINALITY REPORT 32 % SIMILARIT Y INDEX 1% 3% 32% INT ERNET SOURCES PUBLICAT IONS ST UDENT PAPERS PRIMARY SOURCES 1 2 3 30% Submitted to Widener University St udent Paper Submitted to Oklahoma State University St udent Paper Submitted to University of Technology, Sydney St udent Paper Exclude quotes Of f Exclude bibliography Of f Exclude matches Of f 1% 1% WIDENER UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CE 304 Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual Revised 2018 John F. Davis, Ph.D., PE Kevin Wang, Ph.D. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 2 LABORATORY POLICIES ............................................................................... 5 REPORTS AND PROJECTS REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 6 LAB 1 - DEVELOPMENT OF A CALIBRATION CURVE FOR A TRACER ............. 9 LAB 2 - OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS AND FLOW MEASUREMENT USING WEIRS........................................................................................... 13 LAB 3 - ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FLOW COMPLETE MIX REACTOR (CFCMR) ................................... 18 LAB 4 - ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A PLUG FLOW REACTOR ...................................................................................... 27 LAB 5 - EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENTATION ............................ 43 LAB 6 - ADSORPTION KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERMS ............... 58 LAB 7 - COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION OF COLLOIDAL SOLIDS ........ 69 LAB 8 - MEASUREMENT OF WASTEWATER BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) AND TREATMENT EFFICIENCY ............................ 77 APPENDIX ................................................................................................. 83 1 INTRODUCTION CE 304 is an introductory lab course in water resources and environmental engineering. The course provides hands-on experiments to allow students to observe and quantify fundamental processes that occur in engineered environmental systems and natural aquatic environments. Lectures are provided before each major lab to prepare students with basic theory and address any questions regarding the experiments. Students will be guided to apply the experimental results to design treatment processes. Students will take this course as an introduction to lecture-based theory and design courses with the philosophy that the learning process can be enhanced by first providing an opportunity to observe and measure fundamental environmental processes. Prior to this course, students should have taken basic chemistry, physics, and calculus preferably through differential equations. Students taking Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Hydrology, Water and Wastewater Treatment should benefit from taking CE 304. CE 304 is a Writing Enriched (WE) course and is scheduled as the third WE course in the civil engineering curriculum (Engineering Techniques –ENGR 111 and Materials and Structures Lab – CE 206 are scheduled prior to CE 304). As such, the writing for this course is expected to show improvement in writing skills from the previous courses and continued progress toward professional level report writing. A. COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. To introduce students to fundamental environmental processes. 2. To familiarize the student with basic measurement and experimental techniques for open-channel water flow and water and wastewater treatment processes. 3. To guide students in applying experimental results for the design of water and wastewater treatment processes. 4. To familiarize the student with basic statistics for analysis of experimental data; 5. To develop the student's written and oral communication skills; 6. To expose the student to the interpersonal relationships involved in group work. 2 B. CLASS ORGANIZATION 1. Lab teams will be organized for each experiment. All experimental work will be performed by the team as a group. Each student is required to submit an individual lab report for each experiment. 2. Each team will perform 8 prepared experiments and an independent project. 3. Detailed instructions for the prepared experiments are included in this manual. Since most of the technical material in the experiments will not have been covered in lecture courses at this point in the curriculum, lectures are scheduled prior to each experiment to provide the necessary background and answer any questions. Students are expected to be familiar with the objectives, scope, and content of the lab prior to the lecture and experiment. References are provided and should be read prior to the lecture and experiment. Deviations from the lab manual will be discussed by the instructor prior to the lab. 4. Safety policies are posted in each laboratory and in this manual (see Laboratory Policies). Students are expected to comply with these policies at all times. Failure to comply with these policies will result in reductions of lab grades and possibly dismissal from the lab. C. LABORATORY ORGANIZATION 1. A schedule of lab experiments will be provided to each group for the semester. Each student is expected to read and be familiar with the objectives, background, and procedures of each laboratory prior to conducting the experiment. 2. All students are required to be present for, and participate in, the experimental work done in the laboratory. All excused absences require a written request in advance and/or proper corroboration such as a physician's note. Unexcused absences cannot be made up and will result in the student receiving a zero for that exercise. 3. All members of the group are expected to participate and contribute to the success of each lab experiment. Tasks that could be coordinated within each group include: set up of lab equipment, perform preliminary calculations and quality assurance checks, obtain measurements, and record data. It is the responsibility of the entire team to ensure that the best results are obtained. 4. One set of data should be recorded per group. The data should be compiled into a spreadsheet and examined for completeness and accuracy. Once validated, the data file should be posted via email to all group members and the instructor. The data files should be printed and attached to the lab reports as an appendix. 3 D. GRADING The grading policy of the instructor is summarized as following: 1. Lab reports: 80%. Refer the grading template in the appendix. 2. Course participation/attendance/assignments: 8% 3. Independent Group Project, Presentation and Evaluation: 12% Student should submit the assignment (pre-lab questions) before the lecture each time. Student should submit the lab reports online before the due time. Hardcopy or submission via email will NOT be accepted and graded. Late submission without official excuses will be subjected to penalty of the report grade (10% off per day late). 4 LABORATORY POLICIES Most laboratory regulations are in effect for one of two reasons: to protect the student or to protect the equipment. The following rules must be observed by all students utilizing the laboratory: 1. Any accident which results in damage to person or property (yours or Widener's), no matter how minor, must be reported to the instructor as soon as possible. First aid materials are available from the instructor and/or lab technicians. 2. Eye protection shall be worn when handling chemicals or equipment that could cause an eye injury. Proper footwear is required (no sandals or opentype shoes). 3. Eating and drinking are not permitted at any time in the laboratories, including computer labs. 4. Horseplay, which is dangerous in a laboratory environment, will not be tolerated and will result in dismissal and a failing grade. 5. Most of the laboratory experiments are designed to be completed during scheduled laboratory periods. If for some reason a group does not complete a lab in class it will be necessary to make up the lab outside of class time. Makeup time must be approved in advance by the lab instructor. Outside of class periods, students may not work alone in a laboratory but rather, for safety reasons, must work in a minimum group of two. When students have finished their work, they must secure the room (close windows, disconnect power, switch off lights, cleanup work area, return equipment to storage, lock doors, etc.). 6. All equipment should be handled carefully, with due attention paid to possible hazards. Students should be sure of procedures before beginning work. Consult the equipment manual or the instructor if there is a question about proper operation. 7. The laboratories must be left in a clean and tidy state, with equipment put away and messes thoroughly cleaned up. Failure to do so will result in the lowering of your grade. 5 REPORTS AND PROJECTS REQUIREMENTS A. REPORTS WRITING 1. Lab reports should be written from the perspective of a practicing engineer to the extent possible. The reports should be written for a general technical audience (such as another engineering student or faculty). Assume that the assignments are projects that you are assigned to work on by your project manager or client. Therefore, phrases such as: “the students were given the test specimens ….,” should be avoided. In addition, the stated objectives of the lab should be technical objectives, not “educational objectives.” For instance, a practicing engineer is not likely to tell his client that he did the work to learn how to use the equipment. 2. All reports should be prepared using a Word processor (Microsoft Word) and submitted online. Students will be responsible for maintaining copies of all reports in the event that a file is lost or revisions are necessary. All text should be double spaced. Margins (at least one-inch) should be provided on all sides of the page. Pages should be consecutively numbered beginning with page 1 following the title page. 3. All Tables and Figures must be presented in similar format to the ASCE journals. They should be properly numbered (Figure 1, Table 1), titled, and labeled (including units), and they should appear as soon as possible after they are referred to in the text. 4. For figures (graphs, sketches, pictures, or other illustrations), the figure number and title appear at the bottom of the figure. Table numbers and titles appear at the top of each table. Original data records and sample calculations DO NOT belong in the body of the report, but should be included in titled appendices. The results should be presented in tabular or graphical format, and should include all pertinent data and information to allow the reader to independently check the work. 5. All equations must be sequentially numbered ( ie. Eq. 1 or Equation 1.), and all variables in the equation must be identified the first time they appear in the report. 6. Avoid the use of personal pronouns such as “we” or “I”. Although these pronouns are acceptable and may be preferred in other writing styles, they are not widely accepted by technical journals in engineering. Engineering journals prefer an objective viewpoint; the work being described should be reproducible by anybody following the procedures described in the study. The use of “we” and “I” is subjective and may imply that only the authors could do the work. 6 7. Avoid the use of colloquialisms, jargon, and meaningless or unnecessary phrases (ie. - "the results were as expected", or "this was a good experiment”). All parts of the lab report should directly support the objectives of the lab. 8. Use proper spelling and grammar - points will be deducted from lab reports if grammar and spelling errors persist. Help from the University Writing Center should be considered, or may be required, if writing problems are not corrected. References will be made available for help with technical writing. 9. Sections and Content of the Lab Reports: Students should take pride in their lab reports since they represent the work that was put into the lab. A "short report form" will be used for the lab reports for these experiments, and will include the following sections: a. Title Page b. Table of Contents c. Abstract: a brief one to two-paragraph summaries of the objectives, work conducted during the experiment, and significant results or findings. Sometimes a background statement may be provided at the beginning of the abstract. d. Introduction: Background statement on the relevance of the lab from an engineering perspective; objectives of the lab; overview, or scope, of the work. e. Procedures and Methods: This section consists of two subsections: (1) the experimental procedures performed to acquire the data, and (2) the methods applied to analyze the data to produce the results and achieve the objectives. i. Many students fail to recognize that the equations and statistical methods applied to obtain the results are as important as the raw data. The reader expects to see these methods discussed in this section in order to understand how the objectives of the work were achieved. After reading these details in the Procedures and Methods Section, the reader will know what to look for and expect in the Results and Discussion Section. Students may wish to use subheadings, such as Experimental Procedures and Data Analyses, to help write and organize this section. ii. Provide a general description of the work conducted during the experiment with particular attention to any deviations from the lab manual. Do not provide a step by step set of instructions that are found in the lab manual! Theories, formulas, and equations 7 that are applied to the data, or otherwise examined during the experiment, should be presented and discussed in this section (Data Analyses). Equations should be numbered and all symbols or parameters in the equation should be identified as you would find in a technical journal article. f. Results and Discussion: Tables and graphs should be used to present your data, calculations, and results. Discussion must be provided to describe and explain the data and significance of the information in the tables and graphs. Comparison of results with theory or accepted formulas should be discussed. Sources of error should be discussed with respect to your findings and the significance of these errors with respect to the objectives of the lab g. Conclusions: Summarize objectives, significant results, and discuss conclusions and recommendations. h. References: Provide a bibliographic list of references used in the lab report. i. Appendix: Include the original data sheets from lab, calculations (or at least one complete set of well documented sample calculations), application problems, and any other related information which supports the lab report, but does not fit in the main report. All information and data needed to develop the results of the lab or project should be presented either in the main report or the appendix. 10. Check List (in appendix): Students should use the check list to proofread the report and revise the formats, contents of the report if necessary. The check list should be placed in the last page of the report. B. INDEPENDENT PROJECTS Each group will be required to present their independent project. During the last week of the course, each team will make a 15-20 minute oral presentation. Organization of the presentation can follow the general section outline used for the lab reports. Practice speaking on your feet without reading what you wish to say. Note cards are certainly acceptable and often a good idea, but the speech should not be read word for word from them. Graphical and technical aids should be prepared well in advance, making sure that you are familiar with the operation of the particular overhead projector, slide projector, etc., that you will be using. Keep your presentation on-time, respecting your partners' time allotments. Be prepared to answer questions from the audience once everyone in your group has finished speaking. Gear your talk to the level of the audience. 8 Lab 1 - Development of a Calibration Curve for a Tracer Pre-lab Questions: 1. What is the purpose of using blank sample in the test? 2. What is calibration curve? A. Lab Objectives 1. Develop a statistically significant calibration curve for both a spectrophotometer and a colorimeter to measure concentrations of a tracer dye for use in contaminant transport studies. 2. Apply the calibration curve to determine the concentration of tracer dye in unknown sample. B. Student Learning Objectives 1. Learn how to operate a spectrophotometer and colorimeter for reading absorbance of prepared standard solutions of known concentrations. 2. Learn how to use Excel for regression analyses to determine a statistically significant relationship to predict concentration as a function of absorbance. C. References Hach DR900 Colorimeter User’s Manual Hach DR4000-UV Spectrophotometer User’s Manual D. Background Nonreactive (conservative) dyes are often used in environmental studies to examine how a fluid (air or water) is transported through an engineered reactor or a natural environmental system such as a lake or stream. Parameters such as residence times and flow velocities are often determined from these studies. The dyes should be nontoxic and easy to detect and measure. Usually a spectrophotometer is required to measure the absorbance of the dye solution at an optimum wavelength specific to the dye being used. If a calibration curve is developed for the spectrophotometer from standard solutions of known dye concentrations, the absorbance measurements can be translated into dye 9 concentrations (mass/volume). Ideally, a linear equation can be developed to calculate the concentration as a function of absorbance. For this lab, both a spectrophotometer and a colorimeter may be used to develop calibration curves for each instrument. The spectrophotometer can be used the find optimum wavelength for measuring the dye absorbance, and then a calibration curve will be developed for the spectrophotometer at the optimum wavelength. Since colorimeters are usually limited to one or two specific wavelengths, a separate calibration curve will be developed using the wavelength closest to the optimum determined from the spectrophotometer. E. Equipment Hach DR4000-UV Spectrophotometer, Hach DR900 Colorimeter, Red Food Coloring, Volumetric flasks and pipettes F. Procedure 1. Standard Solutions a. Prepare a 1000 mg/L standard dye solution by adding 1 mL of dye to 1 L of water. Prepare standard dye solutions of 500 mg/L, 250 mg/L and 100 mg/L by serially diluting the 1000 mg/L using volumetric flasks. For example, transfer 250 mL of the 1000mg/L solution (using a 250 mL volumetric flask) into a 500 mL volumetric flask. Add water to bring the new solution up to 500 mL which will result in a 500 mg/L standard solution. Invert the new flask to thoroughly mix the contents. b. Repeat the above procedure starting with the 500 mg/L solution to produce a 250 mg/L standard, and then use the 250 mg/L standard to produce a 100 mg/L standard. 2. Dye solutions measurement with the Spectrophometer a. Turn on the Hach DR 4000-UV spectrophotometer. After the spectrophotometer has booted-up, in a single wavelength mode, setup the wavelength = 500 nm. Place a blank sample (test tube with tap water) in the cell and press the zero button to zero the instrument. b. Next, sequentially fill a test tube with each of the standard solutions (triplicates) and measure and record the absorbance and concentration. c. Plot the concentration (X) versus absorbance (Y) to check that ...
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CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

CLASS
LAB 5: EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENTATION
FORMAL REPORT

By Student’s Name
CE 304: Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Widener University
16 September 2019

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Abstract:
This document contains a comprehensive laboratory report prepared to analyze the sedimentation
of particles under settings typical to clean water and wastewater treatment applications. In the
context of the above, settling column experiments are conducted with the aim of observing and
characterizing the settling of flocculent and discrete particles. Additionally, the theoretical
settling velocities are compared with those that are measured experimentally. To achieve the
purpose of this laboratory exercise, several tasks are conducted. These activities include
specimen preparation, data collection, calculations, data analysis, summary, and discussions. The
conclusions provided herein are centered on how the lab fulfilled the intended objectives.

Keywords: Discrete Particles, Flocculent Particles, Sedimentation, Settling Velocities, Terminal
Settling Velocities

2

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Table of Contents
Abstract: .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 4
Equipment and Materials Used ....................................................................................................... 4
Laboratory Procedure:..................................................................................................................... 5
Experimental Analysis .................................................................................................................... 6
Calculations..................................................................................................................................... 7
Analysis and Discussion: ................................................................................................................ 8
Conclusions:.................................................................................................................................. 10
References:.................................................................................................................................... 10

List of Figures
Figure 1: A Plot of %R vs. Settling Time ...................................................................................... 8
Figure 2: A Plot of %RTOTAL vs. Surface Loading ........................................................................ 9

List of Tables
Table 1: Experimental data ............................................................................................................. 6

3

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Introduction
Sedimentation is defined as the process by which suspended particles are left to settle by gravity.
This is made possible by regulating the velocity of the fluid to be treated to a point below which
the suspended particles can no longer remain in suspension. This lab is aimed at observing and
characterizing the settling of flocculent particles under settings similar to those of clean water
and wastewater treatment applications. To achieve the objective of the lab, several tasks were
conducted using the settling column as outlined in the procedure section. The conclusions
outlined here are centered on the objectives of the lab.
Equipment and Materials Used
The equipment and materials used in this lab experiment were:


Settling Columns



Stopwatch



Beakers



Acetate Beads of Different Sizes



Micrometer



Analytical Balance



Thermometer



Turbidimeter (calibrated) and Sample Cells



4 Plastic Centrifuge Tubes with Caps



Alum, Kaolin and Soda Ash



Sludge



10L Container

4

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Laboratory Procedure:


Before the start of the experiment, a 8 L flocculent suspension was prepared from alum
and kaolin floc using sodium carbonate based on the reaction below:
Al2 (SO 4 )3 – 18H2 O + 3Na2 CO3 + 3H2 O => 2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3Na2 SO 4 + 3CO 2 + 18H 2 O



2 L of tap water was added in a 2 L jar test beaker and placed under a paddle stirrer set at
200 rpm for mixing. The weight was determined and 1.20 grams of kaolin added and the
clay allowed to mix and hydrate for 15 minutes.



After the clay had mixed, it was weighed and 2.8 grams of soda ash added to the beaker
and stirring continued



After 1 minute of mixing, the mixture was weighed and 5.1 g of alum added to the
beaker. The mixture was allowed to mix for 1 minute at a rate of 200 rpm before the
speed was reduced to about 60 rpm for approximately 10 minutes so as to encourage the
format...

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