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CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

CLASS
LAB 5: EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENTATION
FORMAL REPORT

By Student’s Name
CE 304: Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Widener University
16 September 2019

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Abstract:
This document contains a comprehensive laboratory report prepared to analyze the sedimentation
of particles under settings typical to clean water and wastewater treatment applications. In the
context of the above, settling column experiments are conducted with the aim of observing and
characterizing the settling of flocculent and discrete particles. Additionally, the theoretical
settling velocities are compared with those that are measured experimentally. To achieve the
purpose of this laboratory exercise, several tasks are conducted. These activities include
specimen preparation, data collection, calculations, data analysis, summary, and discussions. The
conclusions provided herein are centered on how the lab fulfilled the intended objectives.

Keywords: Discrete Particles, Flocculent Particles, Sedimentation, Settling Velocities, Terminal
Settling Velocities

2

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Abstract: .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 4
Equipment and Materials Used ....................................................................................................... 4
Laboratory Procedure:..................................................................................................................... 5
Experimental Analysis .................................................................................................................... 6
Calculations..................................................................................................................................... 7
Analysis and Discussion: ................................................................................................................ 8
Conclusions:.................................................................................................................................. 10
References:.................................................................................................................................... 10

List of Figures
Figure 1: A Plot of %R vs. Settling Time ...................................................................................... 8

List of Tables
Table 1: Experimental data ............................................................................................................. 6

3

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Introduction
Sedimentation is defined as the process by which suspended particles are left to settle by gravity.
This is made possible by regulating the velocity of the fluid to be treated to a point below which
the suspended particles can no longer remain in suspension. This lab is aimed at observing and
characterizing the settling of flocculent particles under settings similar to those of clean water
and wastewater treatment applications. To achieve the objective of the lab, several tasks were
conducted using the settling column as outlined in the procedure section. The conclusions
outlined here are centered on the objectives of the lab.
Equipment and Materials Used
The equipment and materials used in this lab experiment were:

Settling Columns

Stopwatch

Beakers

Micrometer

Analytical Balance

Thermometer

Turbidimeter (calibrated) and Sample Cells

4 Plastic Centrifuge Tubes with Caps

Alum, Kaolin and Soda Ash

Sludge

10L Container

4

CE 304: Lab 5

16 September 2019

Laboratory Procedure:

Before the start of the experiment, a 8 L flocculent suspension was prepared from alum
and kaolin floc using sodium carbonate based on the reaction below:
Al2 (SO 4 )3 – 18H2 O + 3Na2 CO3 + 3H2 O => 2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3Na2 SO 4 + 3CO 2 + 18H 2 O

2 L of tap water was added in a 2 L jar test beaker and placed under a paddle stirrer set at
200 rpm for mixing. The weight was determined and 1.20 grams of kaolin added and the
clay allowed to mix and hydrate for 15 minutes.

After the clay had mixed, it was weighed and 2.8 grams of soda ash added to the beaker
and stirring continued

After 1 minute of mixing, the mixture was weighed and 5.1 g of alum added to the
beaker. The mixture was allowed to mix for 1 minute at a rate of 200 rpm before the
speed was reduced to about 60 rpm for approximately 10 minutes so as to encourage the
format...

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