Overfishing Atlantic Cod Research Paper


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I will need to finish the origin and production part of the research paper, and the topic of the research paper is overfishing COD. i will post a sample research paper in other topic so that you could understand what to write, and for the origin and production part I need at least 3 or 4 academic source from book or report. and I will post the part done by my other group members.

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1 Palm Oil Production Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the fruit of oil palm trees (Verheye, 2010). The oil palm fruit produces two different oils; palm oil which is derived from the flesh of the fruit and palm kernel oil which is produced from its seed (Basiron, 2007). Palm oil is produced primarily for food while palm kernel oil can be found in soaps, detergents and other household products (Basiron, 2007). Industrial palm oil production involves two key processes: cultivation and refining. The cultivation process involves farmers growing, maintaining and harvesting palm plantations, while the refining process occurs in mills where oil is extracted from the palm fruit (Verheye, 2010). Cultivation and refining often occur at a central estate to expedite the production process (Verheye, 2010). Inside of an oil palm fruit; oil is extracted from the fleshy orange fruit while the white seed (also referred to as a nut or kernel) is crushed to produce palm kernel oil (GreenPalm, 2016). Although palm oil is produced throughout regions of Central America, South America, West Africa and Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Malaysia are by far the largest producers with Indonesia supplying over half of global palm oil (Block, 2009). Contents History Origins Production Current Challenges Deforestation Peatland Destruction Wildlife Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) SocialChallenges 3 Opportunities Cultivation Opportunities 3.1.1 Increasing Yields 3.1.2 Planting on Degraded Land 3.1.3 Plantation Management Refining Opportunities 3.2.1 POME Treatment 3.2.2 Palm Oil as Biodiesel 4 Strategies Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil Palm Oil Innovation Group Malaysian Palm Oil Council Other 2 History Origins Elaeis guineensis, more commonly known as oil palm, originated from West Africa and has been used as a food crop for more than 5,000 years (Corley & Tinker, 2003). There is significant evidence that oil palm has existed since ancient Egypt as there have been casks of oil palm found in Egyptian tombs (Corley & Tinker, 2003). Palm oil’s original primary use was as a local food source, but in the 16th and 17th centuries it developed into a trade network within the West African slave trade (Corley & Elaeis guineensis in a mature Malaysian palm oil plantation Tinker, 2003). In the 18th century, alternative uses of oil (MPOB, 2011). palm were discovered including candle making and lubricant for machines with the leading exporter still being West Africa (GreenPalm, 2016). In the 19th century, the oil palm industry began to flourish as plantations were set up in Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and investment was put into Cameroon resulting in the development of the Tenera species of palm oil (GreenPalm, 2016). Production In the late 19th century, technological improvements in oil refining improved the usage of unhydrogenated palm oil in food, which expanded the industry farther into the Western Hemisphere (GreenPalm, 2016). In the late 1900’s, Malaysia emerged as the world’s largest palm oil producer, and by 1990 worldwide production reached close to 11 million metric tonnes (GreenPalm, 2016). By 2003, palm oil production equaled that of the soybean for the first time in history after soybean’s tenure as the number one oil crop for many years (WWF, 2016). Today, palm oil has become the most widely consumed vegetable oil on the planet and can be found in over half of all packaged foods in the supermarket (WWF, 2016). In 2013 alone the world consumed 55 million metric tons of palm oil – nearly four times the amount used 20 years earlier (WWF, 2016). This rapid increase in palm oil production has significantly heightened environmental concerns: “the exponential growth of palm oil plantations is to a large degree an unintended consequence of economics, and food and energy policies elsewhere in the world” (Kodas, 2014). Increased palm oil production is to be expected based on demand, but the industry’s large-scale production methods have had significant impacts on our planet. Growth of global palm oil production over 50 year period (WWF, 2016). PALM OIL PRODUCTION 3 Current Challenges One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the palm oil industry is its damaged reputation. When examining palm oil production through the triple bottom line framework, the industry is strong from a profit perspective but struggles to satisfy some people and planet obligations. While the industry has created jobs, removed barriers to education and funded conservation efforts in some regions, there are longstanding issues around sustainability and environmental impacts. Deforestation Oil palm crop expansion is particularly harmful for lowland rainforests and peat-swamp forests, both of which are some of the most carbon-dense and biologically rich ecosystems on the planet (Laurance et al., 2010). Indonesia and Malaysia, the world’s two largest oil palm producing countries, contain 11% of the remaining global tropical forests (Koh & Wilcove, 2008). Oil palm expansion continues to encroach on these rich forested areas, many of which are home to rare or endemic species (Koh & Wilcove, 2008). With the highest relative rate of humid tropics deforestation, Southeast Asia is at risk of Forest clearing for palm oil plantation in Sumatran, losing up to three- quarters of its original forest cover by the Indonesia (Compost). turn of the century (Koh & Wilcove, 2008). The resulting habitat destruction would likely be accompanied by significant loss of regional species populations (13-42%), at least half of which would result in global extinction (Koh & Wilcove, 2008). To minimize the environmental impacts of forest conversion, plantations can be supported on previously degraded land, avoiding tropical deforestation and reducing carbon emissions (Reijnders & Huijbregts, 2008). Peatland Destruction Peatland, or peat-swamp, is classified by its waterlogged conditions resulting in a lack of oxygen which prevents the efficient decomposition of organic matter by bacteria and fungi (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). These characteristics have previously left the land untouched by agricultural producers, but have been found to support palm oil plantations as long as the land is deeply drained (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). Representing global land coverage of approximately 4 million km², peatland stores significant amounts of carbon thought to be equal to 70 times the annual amount of carbon emitted from fossil fuel burning (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). As such, these areas act as carbon sinks and play a crucial role in balancing the total amount of carbon in our atmosphere (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). Wildlife Habitat destruction, particularly forest conversion to accommodate palm oil expansion throughout Southeast Asia, has put many endemic species at risk (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). Native species including Asian elephants and Sumatran rhinos and tigers are facing global extinction due to tropical forest loss in Sumatran and Borneo, both major producers of palm oil (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). The animal most commonly associated with vulnerability at the hands of the palm oil PALM OIL PRODUCTION 4 industry however, is the orangutan. Both Sumatran and Bornean orangutans face extinction as the tropical forests they rely on for food and shelter are destroyed to erect new oil palm plantations (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). If they survive habitat destruction, orangutans are forced to migrate to suboptimal locations or attempt survival in the palm oil plantation (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). Those who stay are often killed for meat when found trying to feed off of young oil palm crops (Tan, Lee, Mohamed, & Bhatia, 2009). Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Bornean orangutans (Webster). The primary environmental concern associated with the palm oil refining process is palm oil mill effluent (POME), a thick, brownish liquid generated by palm oil mills during the oil extraction process (Chin, Poh, Tey, Chan, & Chin, 2013). Although palm oil production has fairly minor environmental impacts compared to other industrial sectors, producing 1 tonne of palm oil uses an estimated 5-7.5 tonnes of water, 50% of which ends up as POME (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). Palm oil mill wastewater is highly acidic with high occurrences of solids, oil and grease present from the refining process, which pose environmental risks if discharged without treatment (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). While POME discharge is classified as non-toxic due to the lack of chemicals present during the oil extraction process, it has River water polluted with palm oil mill effluent been found to deplete oxygen if discharged untreated resulting in in northern Borneo (Sabah Environmental Protection Association, 2012). significant aquatic pollution near palm oil mills (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). Malaysia has been using ‘pond systems’ to treat POME since the early 1980’s due to their low cost and ease of use (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). This process involves storing large quantities of POME in a pond for 45-60 days to allow waste to stabilize (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). While this method sounds more environmentally friendly than discharging directly into rivers, ponding systems are the main source of environmental pollution from palm mills due to surface and ground water pollution, and the high amounts of greenhouse gas methane emitted from the ponds (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). An estimated 33kg of methane is emitted for every tonne of crude palm oil produced (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). Social Challenges While the economic benefits of palm oil production are plentiful, workers are still vulnerable to exploitation (Sheil et al., 2009). Some Malaysian plantations employ almost entirely Indonesian workers who don’t benefit from the same rights and protection as natives, thus subjecting them to long hours, poor pay and physically demanding work (Sheil et al., 2009). Moreover, there are a wide range of health and safety concerns afflicting workers that need to be acknowledged and rectified (Sheil et al., 2009). Forest conversion to establish plantations also negatively impacts forest-dependent communities by depleting wood and food sources, thus reducing regional good and service offerings (Sheil et al., 2009). This natural resource destruction is often accompanied by a loss of traditional customs and culture, PALM OIL PRODUCTION 5 regional wildlife and basic human rights (Sheil et al., 2009). The unsustainable expansion of Southeast Asia’s palm oil sector is robbing indigenous communities of basic resources such as land and water, making it difficult for locals to sustain an adequate livelihood or afford necessities such as education and food (Sheil et al., 2009). Opportunities While there are still strategies that can be employed to improve the refining process, there are more negative effects associated with the cultivation process requiring improvements. As global demand for palm oil continues to rise, key opportunities for the production industry include sustainable growth and improved public image. Cultivation Opportunities The cultivation side of palm oil production has long been associated with deforestation and habitat loss. There are several opportunities the industry can look to pursue to reduce regional environmental impacts and foster a more sustainable image. Increasing Yields Experiments have long been carried out in an attempt to achieve higher yields of oil from hybrid strains of oil palm (Basiron, 2007). This breeding and selection work has resulted in improvements in oil yields, starting with the Dura palm variety in the 1960s, which had a low oil extraction ratio of only 12-16% (Basiron, 2007). This was replaced by the Tenera variety, a combination of Dura and Pisifera specimens, with a highly improved oil extraction ratio of over 25% (Basiron, 2007). More recently, a team of scientists was able to identify a single gene responsible for regulating oil palm yields – referred to as the Shell gene – enabling producers to increase yields by up to one A comparison of the three known oil palm forms, showing the third, allowing for more efficient land usage (Cold Spring optimum Tenera variety (Cold Spring Harbor Labrotory, 2013). Harbor Labrotory, 2013). These continuous breeding improvements have resulted in enhanced palm oil yields, helping to improve cultivation while reducing forest conversion (Basiron, 2007). Planting on Degraded Land An important opportunity to explore is how oil palm bearing trees are being grown. Cargill, a privately held corporation operating primarily in the energy, agriculture and livestock industries, has funded research showing that global palm oil production can be doubled over the next 20 years without cutting down a single tree (Clay, 2010). The rationale behind this method is that plantations can be established in Borneo on land that’s already been degraded, thus avoiding further deforestation and achieving the highest net present value for palm oil (Clay, 2010). This move to more sustainable palm oil plantations by a company as large as Cargill would cause a shift across the entire industry as they currently control PALM OIL PRODUCTION 6 20-25% of the global market and share 50% of the Chinese market with one other company (Clay, 2010). Plantation Management While palm oil growth and production is associated with negative impacts to its surroundings, the industry could see positive change towards sustainability through improved cultivation and plantation management practices. Since the oil palm originated as a forest species prior to domestication, most plantations could qualify as ‘planted forest’ if other native flora and fauna were allowed to naturally flourish (Basiron, 2007). This strategy not only helps maintain biodiversity, but research shows that filling in the wide spaces left between oil palm trees with smaller native species prompts quicker growth and higher rates of carbon sequestration (Germer & Sauerborn, 2008). Other strategies worth noting include minimizing soil erosion by planting leguminous cover crops and recycling zero to low yield fruit bunches as fertilizer to maintain plantation soil fertility (Comte, Colin, Whalen, Grunberger, & Caliman, 2012). Site preparation can also be modified to increase carbon sequestration via plantation soil (Reijnders & Huijbregts, 2008). Shifting from high intensity fires to low intensity fires as a site preparation method is thought to reduce carbon stock losses in soil, as is switching from a tilling to no tilling soil management process (Reijnders & Huijbregts, 2008). Refining Opportunities POME Treatment To reduce its environmental impact, the palm oil industry should look at alternative sources for discharging and treating POME. Rupani et al. explain that “due to the non-toxic nature and fertilizing properties, POME can be used as fertilizer or animal feed substitute in terms of providing sufficient mineral requirements”. This can be attributed to the substantial amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium found in POME (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). This strategy not only offers responsible disposal of POME, but generates an additional source of income. However, most mills still choose to discharge POME into rivers or use ponding systems due to the low time and cost burdens associated with these methods (Rupani, Singh, Ibrahim, & Esa, 2010). Palm Oil as Biodiesel With a 50% increase in global energy consumption expected by 2030, demand for biofuel is predicted to increase as the need for cheaper, cleaner energy sources rises (Sheil et al., 2009). Palm oil has become highly prospective as biodiesel due to its high production yields and the low amounts of sunlight, water, fertilizer and pesticide required for the plantation through harvest (Mekhilef, Siga, & Saidur, 2011). The palm fruit’s fleshy inner wall, called mesocarp, is processed to obtain palm oil, which can then be further refined into crude palm oil and processed as biodiesel (Mekhilef, Siga, & Saidur, 2011). Palm oil currently has the best energy balance among commercial products used to make biofuel, delivering approximately nine times the amount of energy required for production (Cold Spring Harbor Labrotory, 2013). While this doesn’t fix existing sustainability issues in the palm oil industry, biodiesel provides a renewable, alternative energy source that is both non-toxic and biodegradable (Mekhilef, Siga, & Saidur, 2011). PALM OIL PRODUCTION 7 Strategies In addition to the strategies identified above in conjunction with opportunities, there are a number of strategies actively being employed by the industry to promote sustainable palm oil: Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil Today, palm oil producers are expected to employ sustainable agricultural practices while abiding by the principles and criteria of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), a global initiative working to make palm oil sustainable (Basiron, 2007). At present, 17% of global palm oil (equivalent to almost 12 million tonnes) is certified by the RSPO (RSPO, 2016). Palm Oil Innovation Group Launched in November of 2013, the Palm Oil Innovation Group (POIG) was developed by a number of international NGOs (including WWF and Greenpeace) in partnership with palm oil producers noted for their socio-environmental leadership (WWF, 2016). This group was formed following review of the RSPO’s principles which some feel are lacking in the areas of deforestation, biodiversity and carbon related issue management (WWF, 2016). The POIG hopes to work closely with the RSPO to improve best practices and ensure they are implemented across the industry (WWF, 2016). Malaysian Palm Oil Council The Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) aims to expand the Malaysian market through acceptance of palm oil through sustainability initiatives and education of the associated techno-economic advantages (MPOC, 2012). Previous initiatives include a $5.5 million USD fund in support of biodiversity conservation directly related to the impacts of global palm oil production (Basiron, 2007). Other Aside from those mentioned above there are countless local, governmental and NGO based initiatives in support of sustainable industry transformation and transparency. PALM OIL PRODUCTION 8 References Basiron, Y. (2007). Palm oil production through sustainable plantations. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 289-295. Block, B. (2009, April). Global Palm Oil Demand Fueling Deforestation. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from Worldwatch Institute: http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6059 Chin, M. J., Poh, P. E., Tey, B. T., Chan, E. S., & Chin, K. L. (2013, October). Biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Opportunities and challenges from Malaysia's perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, 717-726. Cold Spring Harbor Labrotory. (2013, July 24). Full genome map of oil palm indicates way to raise yields and protect rainforest: Single gene identified whose regulation controls oil palm yield. Retrieved December 3, 2016, from ScienceDaily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130724134258.htm Compost, A. (n.d.). Environmental & social impacts of palm oil production. Retrieved December 3, 2016, from WWF: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/footprint/agriculture/palm_oil/environmental_impacts/ Comte, I., Colin, F., Whalen, J. K., Grunberger, O., & Caliman, J.-P. (2012). Agricultural Practices in Oil Palm Plantations and Their Impact on Hydrological Changes, Nutrient Fluxes and Water Quality in Indonesia: A Review. In D. Sparks (Ed.), Advanced in Agronomy (Vol. 116, pp. 71124). Burlington: Elsevier Inc. Corley, R., & Tinker, P. (2003). The Oil Palm. Ames, Iowa, USA: B ...
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Final Answer



Overfishing Atlantic Cod




The Atlantic cod is scientifically identified as Gadus morhua. The fish is known to
inhabit the colder and deeper sea location in the North Atlantic. Cod is a popular source of food
characterized by a mild flavor as well as a dense white flesh. The origin of the Atlantic cod can
be traced back to the last ice age. The expansion of capelin and herring after the retreat of sea ice
created an abundant source food that enabled the Atlantic cod to move into the North Atlantic
(Kindsvater & Palkovacs, 2017). Historical evidence shows that the massive populations of the
Atlantic cod a largely bottom-feeding species became a target for fisheries in the fifteenth
century. The Portuguese began fishing cod in the North Atlantic since the fifteenth century. The
Basques were also on th...

Professor_Rey (16009)
Carnegie Mellon University

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